指导和咨询服务以及学生的科目选择:坦桑尼亚莫罗戈罗市社区中学的个案研究

发布时间:2022-01-16 09:56:29 论文编辑:vicky

本文是一篇教育论文,笔者认为本研究中的学生未能理解GCSs,因为根据上述原因,GCSs服务缺乏可信度。关于本研究中应用的SCT,该理论有助于指出,在培养学生的认知能力(结果预期、态度等)方面,GCSs实施的学校环境不符合标准,以获得与渴望的教育目标平行的学科选择知识和技能(行为复制)。此外,通过提供GCS,学生和教师辅导员之间缺乏社会学习互动是显而易见的,因为学生抱怨他们在寻求咨询时犹豫不决,原因包括教师辅导员的反应不令人信服、缺乏适当的咨询时间、,咨询师的承诺不足。因此,教师辅导员作为学生榜样的角色并不是很重要。根据抽样学校中注意到的实践GCS的现状,它建议或暗示这些学校的学生通过考虑来自家长、同伴学生、学科教师的其他帮助来选择学科,


CHAPTER ONE  INTRODUCTION


1.1 Establishment and Development of GCSs in Tanzanian Schools 

In  Tanzania,  a  guidance  and  counselling  curriculum  was  established  in  the 1960s. It was conducted in National Vocational Training Centres (NVTCs) as a special career subject dealing with career development (UNECA, 1986). The target was to instil a close relationship amongst industries and employers to uphold the opportunities of employment to students after finishing the school period. Through career selection and development, National Vocational Training Centres prepared booklets, brochures, magazines every year to disseminate information relating to various careers so that many  students  would  be  enrolled. Guidance  and  counselling  deliberately  supported students to build a good relationship with teachers and students to understand their roles during the training and at the labour market. 

Nevertheless,  the  outbreak  of  Human  Immuno  Virus/Acquired  Immuno Deficiency  Syndrome  (HIV/AIDS)  in  Tanzania  between  1983/84  compelled  the introduction of GCSs in secondary schools as an intervention service (World Health Organization,  2005).  The  mission  was  to  provide  quality  and  equitable  access  to counselling services on HIV/AIDS  and life skills education. The main goal was to reduce the spread of HIV/AIDS among students in schools through the provision of relevant and improved availability and accessibility of psychosocial support services to all learners so that they can learn comfortably and effectively (MoEVT, 2011, p.35). Since  then,  remarkable  education  circulars  on  practices  of  GCSs  in  Tanzanian secondary schools became evident. For example, circular number 3 of (MoEC, 1993, 2000) and circular number 11 of (MoEC, 2002) detailed the development and practices of GCSs in Tanzania. Following the reformation of the education and training policy of 1995, another circular was released in 2007. Likewise, guidelines on Guidance and Counselling Services issued by (MoEVT, 2011) and (MoEST, 2020) reinforced the continued quality provision of GCSs in schools. 

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1.2 The Need of GCSs Regarding Students’ Subject Choice in Secondary Schools

Guidance  and  Counselling  Services  (GCSs)  in  schools  are  imperative  for modelling students in fulfilling their aspired educational goals. For fruitful education outcomes, schools must have propitious guides for the implementation of the education curriculum which includes the incorporation of intervention strategies like GCSs to ameliorate students learning. According to Social Cognitive Theory (Bandura, 1986) that learning environments essentially should define suitably/support the purposes of education to be attained. So, services like guidance and counselling are vital to students in acquiring knowledge and skills that enable them to engage in self-directed learning, getting information on subject choices, daring to withstand schooling challenges, and finally excel in academics (DES, 2006, p. 18).  

Too, SCT delineates that the learning context comprising of teachers and school counsellors  actively  plays  as  role  models  to  affect  students’  study  behaviour  more appropriately.  The  learning  that  incorporates  Guidance  and  Counselling  such  as orientation  services,  information  services,  placement  services,  counselling  services, assessment services, follow-up services, and remedial services should be an integral part of student’s educational pathways to develop academic competence and acquisition of study skills which helps in subject/course choice, management of study time, and avoidance of examination anxiety (Cooley, 2010; Coy, 2004). On the whole, cordial guidance  and  counselling  harmonize  students’  expectations  and  attitudes  which ultimately help in setting realistic educational goals such as appropriately choice of subjects’ that link to students’ career aspirations. To accomplish this, a depiction is given that “Education systems need to prepare young people to be effective in applying what they know to ever-changing situations, expose them to relevant role models, and provide guidance that helps them discover their passions, where and how they can find or  create  a  job”   (Program  for  International  Student  Assessment-PISA,  2018). Therefore, for students to achieve their supreme educational goals, provision of GCSs should be done with effect students joins the school. 

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CHAPTER TWO  LITERATURE REVIEW


2.1 The Current Situation of GCSs in Tanzanian Secondary Schools

Through the review of government documents on the practices of Guidance and Counselling Services, it is shown that provision of Guidance and Counselling Services in primary, secondary schools, and in teacher education training are all emphasized in the  Education  and  Training  Policy  (ETP)  to  provide  the  first-rate  services.  It  is stipulated that “the government will strengthen the provision of GCSs at all levels of education and training which meets students’ needs” (ETP, 2014, p. 34). This indicates the aspiration of the government to assist students in achieving their education goals. 

However, the National Curriculum Framework for Basic and Teacher Education, and the National Strategy for Care and Support Services unveils that, guidance and counselling curriculum in primary schools secondary schools is to be integrated into existing education curriculum and subjects’ syllabi (MoEVT, 2011, p. 10; TIE, 2019, pp.  25-26).  This  point  out  that  there  is  no  independent  guidance  and  counselling curriculum in schools. 

As  a  result,  topics  related  to  guidance  and  counselling  are  merged  into  the subject syllabi like Biology and Civics in secondary schools (MoEVT, 2011), and these topics are taught to students as cross-cutting lessons (Human Rights Watch, 2017, p. 81). Due to this indistinctive guidance  and counselling curriculum, the Ministry of Education  Science  and  Technology  (MoEST,  2020)  issued  a  guide  for  guidance, counselling, and child protection for schools and teachers colleges in Tanzania which directs  to  establish  and  manage  effectively  the  practices  of  GCSs  as  persuasive interventions  to  students  schooling  by  demanding  schools  to  allocate  timetable  for GCSs, ensuring facilities/resources and training to counsellors are available and giving them maximum cooperation in implementing the Guidance and Counselling Services (MoEST, 2020). In general, the current practices of Guidance and Counselling Services in  Tanzanian  schools  as  documented  by  (MoE ST,  2020)  are  executed  by  teacher counsellors who are appointed by heads of schools. These teacher counsellors in most schools lack training for the provision of an outstanding GCSs. Hence, they apply the knowledge and skills learned during teachers’ training in colleges/universities.

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2.2.0 The Major GCSs and their Significances on Student Academic Learning

Different scholars on the study of Guidance and Counselling Services in schools have established that these services have reputable implications for students learning outcomes. For example, Kemetse et al. (2018, pp. 198-199) in Ghana enumerated these services  as  orientation,  information,  appraisal,  consultation,  and  follow-up  services whereas Lunenburg (2010) in the United States of America emphasized the requisite Guidance  and  Counselling  Services  to  be  practiced in  schools  include information, placement,  assessment,  follow-up,  and  counselling  services.  Moreover,  (Eremie  & Jackson, 2019, p. 14; Orewere et al., 2020) in Nigeria, Solomon (2017, pp. 18-19) in Ethiopia, and (Anyi, 2017, pp. 12-13) in Cameroon have documented that the Guidance and Counselling Services that has practical significance on student academic learning include  orientation,  information,  placement,  appraisal,  counselling,  follow-up, evaluation, and referral services. Collectively, the aforementioned GCSs are imperative for cultivating students’ schooling. Their notable significances are presented hereunder; 

Firstly, the practices of GCSs provide knowledge and skills that help students comprehend their academic capabilities, foresee their future studies, and hence career pathways. Through the help of school counsellors, students are stimulated to improve their educational goals hence pursuing their studies more effectually (Lunenburg, 2010; MoEST, 2020, p. 26; Nkechi et al., 2016). 

Secondly, the Guidance and Counselling Services practiced in schools helps students to make pivotal academic decisions on various academic issues they encounter. For  instance,  to  do  subject  choices,  information  on  subject  interrelations  and  their applications  in  various  careers  should  be  appropriately  addressed  through  career Guidance  and  Counselling  Services  thereby  enabling  students  to  understand  their education pathways (MoEST, 2020, p. 25; Orewere et al., 2020). 

教育论文怎么写

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CHAPTER THREE RESEARCH METHODOLOGY .................................. 27

3.0 Overview ....................................... 27

3.1 Research Approach ........................................... 27

3.2  Research Design ................................................ 27

CHAPTER FOUR FINDINGS ........................................ 39

4.0 Overview ............................................. 39

4.1.0  Practices  of  Guidance  and  Counselling  Services  in  Community  Secondary Schools ..... 39

4.1.1 Orientation Service ...................................... 40

4.1.2 Information Service ............................................ 42

CHAPTER FIVE DISCUSSION, CONCLUSION, LIMITATIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS .. 63 5.0 Overview ..................... 63

5.1  Practices  of  Guidance  and  Counselling  Services  in  Community  Secondary Schools ..... 63

5.2 Social-Contextual Impact of Practiced GCSs on Students’ Subject Choice ...... 72


CHAPTER FOUR  FINDINGS


4.0 Overview

This  chapter  comprised  the  findings  of  the  study  based  on  the  research objectives and  methodology. The objectives of the study required to ascertain how GCSs  are  practiced  in  CSS,  and  to  comprehend  the  impact  of  practiced  GCSs  on students’ subject choice. The first research objective has one category; the practices of Guidance and Counselling Services in Community Secondary School. This category consists  of  seven  sub-categories  which  are  orientation,  placement,  counselling, information,  assessment,  follow-up,  and  remedial  services  as  interrogated  in  the interview guide. Also, the second research objective has one category; the impact of practiced GCSs on students’ subject choice. This category is divided into two categories which are; the social-contextual and cognitive impact of practiced GCSs on students’ subject choice. The social-contextual impact of practiced GCSs on students’ subject choice yielded one theme whereas the cognitive impact of practiced GCSs on students’ subject choice emerged into two themes; the effective and ineffective cognitive impact of  practiced  GCSs  on  students’  subject  choice.  These  themes  have  sub-themes  as indicated in figure 3. The chapter ends up by underlining the main findings of the study.  

教育论文参考

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CHAPTER FIVE  DISCUSSION, CONCLUSION, LIMITATIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS


5.0 Overview

The current chapter embraced discussion of the findings presented in chapter four  based  on  the  research  objectives  which  deemed  to  ascertain  how  GCSs  are practiced in Community Secondary Schools and to comprehend the impact of practiced GCSs on students’ subject choice. The themes emerged in this study included; practices of Guidance and Counselling Services. This is comprised of seven categories which are orientation, placement, counselling, information, assessment, follow-up, and remedial services. Another theme is; the impact of practiced GCSs on students’ subject choice. This is categorized into two themes which are; the social-contextual impact of practiced GCSs  on  students’  subject  choice  and  the  cognitive  impact  of  practiced  GCSs  on students’ subject choice. The social-contextual impact of practiced GCSs on students’ subject choice has only one sub-theme whereas the cognitive impact of practiced GCSs on  students’  subject  choice  is  further  categorized  into  the  effective  and  ineffective cognitive impact of practiced GCSs on students’ subject choice. The discussion has also encompassed the reasons for the ineffective impact of practiced GCSs on students’ subject choice. All over the discussion, literature review, Social Cognitive Theory, and the  conceptual  framework  have  been  considered.  To  end  with,  the  conclusion, limitations, and recommendations of the study findings are spotlighted. 

reference(omitted)

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