本文是历史专业的代写Essay范例，题目是“To What Extent Were the West of Britain and Ireland ‘Celtic’ in the Early Middle Ages?（在中世纪早期，英国西部和爱尔兰在多大程度上是“凯尔特”?）”，凯尔特人是来自欧洲的一群人，他们有着相似的信仰、文化和语言(History.com Editors 2017)。凯尔特文化影响了至今仍在使用的地名、艺术和语言(Dougherty 2015, 244)。这篇文章将讨论证据表明，爱尔兰和英国都是凯尔特人在中世纪早期。
The Celts were a group of people who originated from Europe and shared similar beliefs, culture and language (History.com Editors 2017). The Celtic culture influenced place names, art and languages that are still spoken today (Dougherty 2015, 244). This essay will discuss the evidence that shows that both Ireland and Britain were Celtic in the early Middle Ages.
Buchanan suggested that the Irish and Scottish originated from the Celts, as he recognised the similarity of a group of languages, which he termed Gallic (Collis 1997). Furthermore, Buchannan suggested that there were Celts in Britain and Ireland and was the first to do so (Collis 1997). In regard to Ireland, the development of cultural nationalism during the 19th and early 20th centuries meant that questions about their ancient origins were of extreme importance (Nash 2006).
布坎南认为爱尔兰语和苏格兰语起源于凯尔特人，因为他认识到一组语言的相似性，他称之为高卢语(Collis 1997)。此外，buchanan提出在英国和爱尔兰有凯尔特人，他是第一个这样做的人(Collis 1997)。对于爱尔兰来说，19世纪和20世纪早期文化民族主义的发展意味着关于其古代起源的问题是极其重要的(Nash 2006)。
Who were the Celts?凯尔特人是谁?
According to the most widely accepted definition of Celt, people are classified as Celt if they speak Celtic and this links ancient peoples with their descendants (Haywood 2004, 5). Ancient Britons and Irish were included as Celtic speaking people in ancient times (Haywood 2004, 5). Additionally, ancient Celtic speakers are thought of being in a network of societies that spoke related languages and were sharing elements of the same culture (Dietler 1994). Simply put, the Celts are viewed as a group of people that lived in Europe between the 8th century and the Roman Conquest, who shared a common language, material culture and societal structures (Mattingly 2007, 51; Bondiolo 2013). Ancient Britons never saw themselves as Celtic but as separate people and in a similar way the Ancient Irish did not have an identity for themselves until the Early Middle Ages (Haywood 2004, 6). It is important to note that the Celts already had an established culture, characterised by ironworking and distinctive art, by the time the Greeks first learned about their existence (Haywood 2004, 7). Additionally, it is in the work of Greek geographer Hecataeus of Miletus that the term Celt first appears during the late 6th century BC and they became the first unfamiliar people on the border of the Mediterranean world (Dietler 1994).
根据凯尔特人最被广泛接受的定义，人们被归类为凯尔特人，如果他们说凯尔特语，这将古代民族与其后代联系在一起(Haywood 2004, 5)。古代不列颠人和爱尔兰人被包括在古代说凯尔特语的人(Haywood 2004, 5)。古凯尔特语使用者被认为是一个社会网络，讲相关的语言，共享相同的文化元素(Dietler 1994)。简单地说，凯尔特人被视为一群生活在8世纪和罗马征服之间的欧洲人，他们共享共同的语言、物质文化和社会结构(马丁利2007,51;Bondiolo 2013)。古代英国人从来没有见过自己是凯尔特人,但作为独立的人,同样古老的爱尔兰没有身份为自己,直到中世纪早期(2004年海伍德,6)。重要的是要注意,凯尔特人已经既定的文化,特点是铁加工和独特的艺术,当希腊人首先了解他们的存在(海伍德2004 7)。此外,它是工作的希腊地理学家Hecataeus米利都,凯尔特人这个词第一次出现在公元前6世纪晚期和他们成为第一个不熟悉的人在地中海世界的边界(达艾韬1994)。
Celts in Britain and Ireland不列颠和爱尔兰的凯尔特人
Most of what is known about Celtic life in Britain is known from Roman sources or accounts passed down through later writings (Dougherty 2015, 198). It is important to note that the Celts had controlled Britain and Ireland for a long period of time before the Romans came, with the Celts’ control lasting nearly 700 years until what is now England became the province of Britannia (Moffat 2015). Furthermore, by the time the Romans arrived, the majority of Britain was Celtic and had well-established tribes controlling large areas (Dougherty 2015, 203). There was no Celtic invasion of Britain, rather there was a flood of migrating people that caused ‘Celtisation’ by inter-marriage and ideas spreading (Dougherty 2015, 203). The influences that British Celts made can be seen by their metalwork, settlements and changes in technology, the most important being the discovery of smelting iron into tools and weapons (Webster 1995, 623). Further evidence of the Celts’ presence in Britain can be seen by looking at imports. The distribution of amphorae shows that the most important imports to Gallic Celts were olive oil and wine (Webster 1995, 624).
关于凯尔特人在英国的生活，我们所知道的大部分都是来自罗马的资料或通过后来的著作流传下来的记述(Dougherty 2015, 198)。值得注意的是，在罗马人到来之前，凯尔特人已经控制了英国和爱尔兰很长一段时间，凯尔特人的控制持续了近700年，直到现在的英格兰成为不列颠尼亚(Moffat 2015)。此外，当罗马人到来的时候，英国的大部分地区是凯尔特人，并且有良好的部落控制了大片地区(Dougherty 2015, 203)。没有凯尔特人入侵英国，而是有大量移民，通过异族婚姻和思想传播导致“Celtisation”(Dougherty 2015, 203)。英国凯尔特人的影响可以从他们的金属制品、定居和技术变化中看出，最重要的是发现了将铁冶炼成工具和武器(韦伯斯特1995,623)。凯尔特人在英国存在的进一步证据可以从进口商品中看到。双耳罐的分布表明，高卢凯尔特人最重要的进口是橄榄油和葡萄酒(韦伯斯特1995,624)。
Ireland was completely Celtic both in its language and establishments by the middle of the first millennium AD (Raftery 1995, 637). Furthermore, change in art and technology, which seemed to be influenced by the Le Tene culture, was indicative of outsiders arriving in Ireland (Raftery 1995, 637). It is around the 3rd century that the La Tene culture is recognisable in Ireland (Raftery 1995, 640). Christianity became fully established in Ireland by the 6th century, and there are a number of sites that have been identified as tribal centres (Redknap 1995, 738; Raftery 1995, 646). Navan is one of those sites, which has been suggested to be a temple, as there were no signs of domestic activity there (Raftery 1995, 646). Another example is Dun Ailinne, which was the centre of Celtic Leinster, further supporting the idea that Ireland was Celtic, and has presented archaeological indications of ritual activities (Raftery 1995, 647, 648). The Irish Celts were thought to be warlike people who fought with one another frequently and also interacted with other Celts that lived in the rest of the British Isles (Dougherty 2015, 234, 235). Additionally, Drumanagh was a stronghold in Ireland that had trading links with the Roman world, although the Irish elites did not want to adopt the Roman lifestyle as the British Celtic elites had done (Haywood 2004, 128).
在公元第一个千年的中期，爱尔兰的语言和机构都完全是凯尔特的(拉夫迪1995,637)。此外，似乎受到Le Tene文化影响的艺术和技术的变化表明有外来者来到爱尔兰(raaftery 1995, 637)。大约在3世纪，La Tene文化在爱尔兰是可识别的(Raftery 1995, 640)。基督教在6世纪时在爱尔兰得到了完全的确立，有一些地方被确定为部落中心(Redknap 1995, 738;阿布1995年,646年)。Navan是其中一个遗址，它被认为是一座寺庙，因为那里没有任何家庭活动的迹象(Raftery 1995, 646)。另一个例子是Dun Ailinne，它是凯尔特伦斯特的中心，进一步支持了爱尔兰是凯尔特人的观点，并提出了仪式活动的考古迹象(Raftery 1995, 647, 648)。爱尔兰凯尔特人被认为是好战的人，他们经常互相争斗，也与其他生活在不列颠群岛的凯尔特人互动(Dougherty 2015, 234,235)。此外，Drumanagh是爱尔兰的一个要塞，与罗马世界有贸易联系，尽管爱尔兰精英不希望像英国凯尔特精英那样采用罗马的生活方式(Haywood 2004, 128)。
Studying ancient languages can also provide evidence for the presence of Celts in Britain and Ireland. The native languages of Britain were linked with a group now known as Celtic and can be divided into two groups (Mattingly 2007, 52). The two groups are P-Celtic and Q-Celtic; P-Celtic is the larger of the two and is known as Brittonic Celtic and was attested in much of Britain (Mattingly 2007, 52). Q-Celtic underlies modern Irish but was rare on the Continent, which may suggest that there was an earlier phase of language dispersal (Mattingly 2007, 52).
研究古代语言也可以为凯尔特人在英国和爱尔兰的存在提供证据。英国的本土语言与现在被称为凯尔特语的一个群体联系在一起，可以分为两个群体(马丁利2007,52)。这两个群体是p -凯尔特和q -凯尔特;p -凯尔特是两者中较大的一个，被称为brittonceltic，并在英国的大部分地区得到证实(马丁利2007,52)。q -凯尔特语是现代爱尔兰语的基础，但在欧洲大陆上很少见，这可能表明有一个早期的语言传播阶段(马丁利，2007,52)。
Due to the fact that Ireland was never part of the Roman Empire meant that it did not directly inherit its Christian learning (O’Neill 2006). It was most likely that British missionaries brought Christianity to Ireland in the 5th century, and this British influence is evident in Old Irish words borrowed from the British language (O’Neill 2006). In the case of England, Celtic-Christians aided the spread of the new faith throughout the country and most of Britain was Christian by the end of the 7th century (Dougherty 2015, 234). This in itself forms part of the Celtic legacy that helped form modern British culture (Dougherty 2015, 234).
由于爱尔兰从来都不是罗马帝国的一部分，这意味着它没有直接继承其基督教学习(O 'Neill 2006)。很有可能是英国传教士在5世纪将基督教带到了爱尔兰，这种英国的影响在从英国语言中借用的古爱尔兰词汇中显而易见(O 'Neill 2006)。在英格兰，凯尔特基督徒帮助新信仰在全国的传播，到7世纪末，大部分英国人都是基督徒(Dougherty 2015, 234)。这本身就形成了凯尔特文化遗产的一部分，帮助形成了现代英国文化(Dougherty 2015, 234)。
As the essay has shown, it is evident that the Celts were in Britain and Ireland in the early Middle Ages and that Celtic influences were strong. It could be said that Celtic culture directed the development of society and religion and has influenced how modern-day Ireland and Britain are today (Dougherty 2015, 244).
正如这篇文章所显示的，很明显，在中世纪早期，凯尔特人在英国和爱尔兰，凯尔特人的影响是强大的。可以说，凯尔特文化指导了社会和宗教的发展，并影响了今天的爱尔兰和英国(Dougherty 2015, 244)。