历史Essay代写范例:Influence of Ideology on Chinese Civilization

发布时间:2022-05-05 09:15:37 论文编辑:zeqian1013

本文是历史专业的Essay范例,题目是“Influence of Ideology on Chinese Civilization(意识形态对中华文明的影响)”,纵观中华文明,人民、朝代、观念、思想不断涌现。随着教学事业的不断发展,这些思想融入到政府和社会的各个方面。然而,意识形态之间的不平衡产生了。与此同时,一些意识形态的影响比其他意识形态更深刻,由这些意识形态所创造的这种现象在中华文明中扮演着非常重要的角色。虽然中国历史上有很多朝代,但儒家思想、法家思想、佛教思想等都对中国人民产生了巨大的影响。这些影响不仅影响了历史上的人们,也影响了整个国家。这些意识形态的影响;儒家、法家、佛教对中华文明做出了巨大的贡献。

Throughout the Chinese civilization, people, dynasties, concept and ideas keep emerging from the history. As the development of teaching keep forwarding, these ideologies incorporated in different government and aspect of society. However, imbalances between ideologies were created. At the same time, some ideologies have deeper impact than the other, such phenomenon that was created by these ideologies play a very important role in the Chinese civilization. Although, there is various dynasties throughout the Chinese history, a considerate amount of ideologies such Confucianism, legalism, and Buddhism played a huge impact on the people of china during various dynasties. These impacts not only do impact the people in history, but as well as the country as a whole. The influences of these ideologies; Confucianism, legalism, Buddhism were a very big contribution to the Chinese civilization.

历史essay范例

The founder of Confucianism is Confucius. It has been thousand years since he started Confucianism, however, the path of Confucianism are not very stable. First, the idea of Confucianism was created in according to the environmental need of spring and autumn period, which were the accumulation of civilization and the advancement of practical lifestyle. The need of people had resulted in emerging three main characters in Confucianism teaching; they were Confucius, Mencius and Xunzi. However, since Confucius was the founder of Confucianism, his teaching of Confucianism established the foundation for the Mencius and Xunzi to follow which later turn into their own vision of teaching, and that was how the teaching of Confucianism comprised. The four ideas from Confucianism in analects are; the gentleman, Humanity, filial piety, and on governing. These ideas are very significant in the time because society was ruled by a group of people who rule the land and thus people who are inferior to the rulers must follow the rulers. As a result, social inequality was created amount different class of people. However, Confucianism open a way to balance the inequality for a perfect society in which everyone; rulers, nobles, parents and children, men and women would all accept. For example, in the selection from the analects, Confucius said, “the gentleman looks to himself; the petty looks other people.”

儒家思想的创始人是孔子。孔子开始儒学已有几千年的历史,但儒学的道路却并不十分稳定。首先,儒家思想是根据春秋时期的环境需要而产生的,这是文明的积淀和现实生活方式的进步。人的需要导致儒学教学出现了三个主要特征;他们是孔子、孟子和荀子。但孔子是儒学的奠基人,他的儒学教学为孟子和荀子的学习奠定了基础,孟子和荀子后来又形成了自己的教学观,这就是儒学教学的构成方式。《论语》中的四大思想是:君子、仁、孝、政。这些思想在当时是非常重要的,因为社会是由一群统治土地的人统治的,因此不如统治者的人必须服从统治者。因此,社会不平等造成了不同阶级的人。然而,儒家思想打开了一种平衡不平等的途径,以建立一个人人平等的完美社会;统治者,贵族,父母和孩子,男人和女人都会接受。例如,在《论语》中,孔子说:“君子自视;小气的人会看别人。”

This example suggests the fact that gentleman looks to him, while this sentence sounds very selfish from a point of view of a modern person. Indeed, the meaning could change dramatically in the point of view as a man who lives in the spring and autumn period. A man who looks into himself at that time meant not to compare oneself with other, but see into the capacity of what he can do, this idea of not comparing is a great way to transform people to ponder the fact that; one’s destiny was not defined by giving birth into which class of family, but rather by what one can do to contribute to the society.

On the other hand, petty looks for other means the need to compare themselves with those who are inferior to them, as a way to pleased themselves by point out others’ weakness. In addition, the five things that transform a man into humanity are through the practice of these five significant things, such as reverence, generosity, truthfulness, diligence, and kindness. While this seems to be the necessity for human being, it was also the way to transform people in relationship of everyday life. This is a very important aspect in regarding to the periods. Mencius also added to Confucius where he states that the rulers should also love his people as a way to driven the society forward. As he had said “Everyone has a heart that is sensitive to the suffering of others. The greatest kings of the past had sort of sensitive heart and thus adopted compassionate politics.” It was a suggestion for all rulers to conduct politic in the heart of people. Although, the idea of Confucianism was a great teaching in Chinese civilization; it was burned at the beginning of Qin dynasty by a system called “burning books and burying Confucian scholars alive” which was the reason why this idea of Confucianism struggle in the next few dynasties.

另一方面,小心眼的寻找他人意味着需要将自己与不如自己的人进行比较,作为一种通过指出别人的弱点来取悦自己的方式。此外,将人转变为人性的五件事,都是通过践行这五件重要的事情,如敬畏、慷慨、诚实、勤奋和善良。虽然这似乎是人类的需要,但它也是改变人们日常生活关系的方式。这是关于时期的一个非常重要的方面。孟子还在孔子的基础上补充说,统治者也应该爱他的人民,这是推动社会前进的一种方式。正如他所说:“每个人都有一颗对别人的痛苦敏感的心。”过去最伟大的国王都有一颗敏感的心,因此采取慈悲政治。”这是一个建议所有统治者在人民心中进行政治。虽然,儒家思想是一个伟大的教学在中国文明;它在秦朝初期被一种叫做“焚书活埋儒生”的制度所烧毁,这也是这种儒学思想在后来的几个朝代中挣扎的原因。

Legalism is another ideology which the Chinese have used to define the need for the people. By the third century, many small states were conquered by large one which result the need to create better system to oversee the whole land. Rulers cannot depend on their moral qualities as a way to guide the country but by the law that was established by his officials. Legalism emphasize on using law to govern the people. Legalism is the opposition of Confucianism because it goes against the basic principle of Confucianism which Confucianism was based on human principles. Legalism is an idea that focuses on the need of landlord which set them a thought of being equal with Aristocracy. It also create a sense of self-motivation to enhance people to reward themselves to do what is according to the law and at the same time, this system created a way to put villain in the line of fear, so they would not conduct criminals. This does not only put villain to fear, but those who has high power or authority because law is what set everyone, even ruler, lord, pleasant to behave themselves.

法家主义是中国人用来定义人民需要的另一种意识形态。到了第三世纪,许多小国被大国征服,这就需要建立更好的制度来监管整个国家。统治者不能依靠自己的道德品质来指导国家,只能依靠他的官员建立的法律。法家主义强调以法治民。法家思想是儒家思想的对立面,因为它违背了儒家思想以人理为基础的基本原则。法家主义是一种关注地主需要的思想,它使地主具有与贵族平等的思想。它还创造了一种自我激励的感觉,以提高人们奖励自己,做什么是根据法律,与此同时,这个系统创造了一种方式,把恶棍放在恐惧的线,所以他们不会做犯罪。这不但叫恶人害怕,也叫那些有权有势的人害怕。因为律法是叫每个人,甚至是君王,主,都能悦纳自己的行为。

历史essay怎么写

In addition Legalism believes that it is in the nature of human to be selfish, there is bad and there is good, and the way to regulate them is through the system of law. As Gong sun Yang states: “you have expressed the conventional wisdom. Ordinary people feel secure with old habits and scholars are mired in why they have heard.” What Gong sun points out is the idea that people feel secure for keep doing the same way to secure their own comfort, but indeed, Gong sun means that the old habit is what stuck the civilization to driven forward. The law that was created by legalist was also the way to balance disagreement between different dynasties as showed in the following example. “The founders of the three dynasties became kings using different rituals; the five hegemons established their supremacy using different law. Therefore, the wise person creates law while the ignorant are controlled by them.”

此外,法家主义认为,人的本性是自私的,有善有恶,规范的途径是通过法律体系。公孙阳说:“你说的是传统的智慧。普通人因旧习惯而感到安心,而学者们则陷入了为什么会听到这些话的困境。”公孙指出的是人们感到安全的想法,因为保持同样的方式来确保自己的舒适,但实际上,公孙的意思是,旧的习惯是阻碍文明前进的原因。法家所创造的律法也是平衡不同朝代之间分歧的方式,如下例所示。“三个朝代的创始人通过不同的仪式成为国王;五国通过不同的法律确立了各自的霸权。因此,智者创造了法律,而无知者被法律所控制。”

This suggests the fact that it was a working system which had leaded three dynasties that happened in the same time to use legalism as a way to oversee land as a whole. It also suggests that the wise people make laws for people to follow. Legalism also emphasize on high authority and universal. When talking about authority, it puts a restriction on people, officials and even the lord of the country. The idea of Legalism from traditional thoughts that discussed in Confucianism shows that Legalism treats law as an important movement for civilization to make progress. Legalism strongly advocated authoritative and binding law, mainly emphasizing on the people, government officials, and even the ruler should abide the law and act according to law. Those who go against the law shall be punished by the law.

Buddhism is another important ideology which impacted Chinese civilization profoundly. Buddhism was introduced into China from India in the late Han and was later wide spread through Tang and Song dynasties. Buddhism was a great contribution to the society of China whereas now there are still a lot of temples located in different part of China. It also bought a lot of great literacy to china because people have to translate the language of India to Chinese which gave scholar an expansion of new abstract words to replace the meaning of the original language. Buddhism gives insight to the people about the universe. The main teaching of Buddhism is that life is evitable unsatisfactory but yet bring hope for the people that it is possible to escape the cycle of rebirth by moral conduct. However, Chinese people practice what was being told by the basic description of Buddhism which was later translated in to Chinese languages. The origin of Buddhism was from India, so people in that time transform the concept of Buddhism and mix up with some philosophy of the Chinese.

佛教是另一种深刻影响中国文明的重要思想。佛教在汉末从印度传入中国,后来在唐宋时期广泛传播。佛教对中国社会做出了巨大的贡献,然而现在仍然有很多寺庙坐落在中国的不同地区。它还为中国带来了大量的文化素养,因为人们不得不把印度语言翻译成汉语,这给了学者们一个新的抽象词汇的扩展,以取代原来语言的意思。佛教使人们了解宇宙。佛教的主要教义是,人生难免不尽人意,但却能给人们带来希望,通过道德行为可以摆脱轮回。然而,中国人实践的是佛教的基本描述,后来被翻译成汉语。佛教起源于印度,所以当时的人们对佛教的观念进行了转变,并与中国人的一些哲学思想相融合。

The inevitably imbalance between these three ideologies is that these ideologies create a boundary line between what Chinese can come up with and what other people in other country can come up with . It also created disagreement between these three ideologies which later serve a basis. However, depending on different period in history and the need of the people, these ideologies are enviably separate from how much people are willing to adapt one or the other. Within these three ideologies, some survived through various dynasties but the one that impacts Chinese ideologies the deepest was perhaps the Buddhism because Buddhism is a mixture of human philosophy that were from different perspectives. Human are undoubted the most complicated living creature in the universe. They create law, philosophy, principles; all for the sake of human being. However, religion is the primary reason for why many people in history treated Buddhism as a way to escape suffering.

这三种意识形态之间不可避免的不平衡是,这些意识形态在中国人能想到的和其他国家的人能想到的之间创造了一条边界。它也造成了这三种后来成为基础的意识形态之间的分歧。然而,根据不同的历史时期和人民的需要,这些意识形态与人们愿意适应其中一种或另一种的程度有着令人羡慕的区别。在这三种思想中,有些历经了不同的朝代,但对中国思想影响最深的可能是佛教,因为佛教是人类哲学的混合体,从不同的角度来看。人类无疑是宇宙中最复杂的生物。他们创造法律,哲学,原则;一切都是为了人类。然而,宗教是历史上许多人将佛教视为逃避苦难的一种方式的主要原因。

In conclusion, these ideologies were the reason that make today’s Chinese civilization forward, there is no right or wrong ideology for which dynasty should fit in, but through the impact of Confucianism, legalism and Buddhism, people learn what is the best way to unite the country, through the unity of one country, it helps society to step closer to a better world.

总之,这些意识形态的原因,使今天的中国文明,没有正确或错误的意识形态的王朝应该适应,但是通过儒学的影响,法家和佛教,人们学习的最好方法是什么团结起来,通过一个国家的统一,它帮助社会更接近一个更美好的世界。

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