Chapter One Introduction
1.1 Research Background
Language consists of three critical factors, namely, grammar, pronunciation, and vocabulary,as one of the three basic elements of language, vocabulary plays a crucial role in Englishlearning for Chinese students. Because of the significance of vocabulary, more and moreresearchers at home and abroad study the Vocabulary Learning Strategies, Wilkins D.A. (1972)holds that without grammar, people would be unable to express many things, but withoutvocabulary, people would be unable to express anything. Thus, vocabulary is the cornerstone oflanguage learning. Words are as significant to language as foundations are to structures.Therefore, words play an important role in the course of learning a language. How to mastermemory vocabulary more efficiently is something we need to explore deeply. Wen Qiufang(1996) shows that the success of learners’ learning depends on the success or failure of learningstrategies. It evident that good learning strategies help students to achieve better learning results,the efficient Vocabulary Memory Strategy to help students do better in vocabulary memory,subsequently, the empirical research on the application of Vocabulary Memory Strategy byscholars at home and abroad is also on the rise. Ellis and Beaton (1993:46-47) propose thatmemory skills are very efficient learning tools, and some memory strategies should be usedconsciously during the learning process. Therefore, it is an important way to train students’self-learning competence by exploring and summarizing the positive and efficient EnglishVocabulary Memory Strategy, it enhances students’ English education quality. Wen Qianli (2018)proposes that various memory strategies had a significant effect on memory performance. Thestudy on Vocabulary Memory Strategy in junior high school is very important.
1.2 Research Purpose
Through internship, study, and investigation, the author discovers that there are someproblems in English vocabulary learning of junior high school students. For instance, a singleteaching method is adopted, students have no interest in learning English and many of them haveless enthusiasm for vocabulary learning, and even memorize English words by rote. EffectiveVocabulary Memory Strategies are a basic way to decrease the load of students’ vocabularymemory. It has laid a solid foundation for arousing students’ interest in vocabulary learning, itcan enhance their English performance and the efficiency of their vocabulary learning.
At present, vocabulary learning is the basis of various English skills in the teaching of juniorhigh school English, and it is an element in English teaching. Vocabulary is the base of thegrowth and forms of listening, speaking, reading, and writing skills. As a result, it plays asignificant role in English learning. No matter how well a person learns grammar and howgorgeous his pronunciation is, he cannot communicate with others in this language if he does notmaster enough words to comprehend others’ opinions or express his feelings. If the structure isthe skeleton of language, vocabulary is the most critical organ and flesh blood. Therefore,vocabulary teaching is particularly important.
Chapter Two Literature Review
According to the definition of words in the Xinhua Dictionary, words are the smallestmeaningful units in a language that can be used freely. Vocabulary are the sum of words used in alanguage, it is the building materials that constructs the language, sometimes it refers to the sumof words used in a person or a work.
22.214.171.124 Description of the Goal of Vocabulary in Junior High School
According to the requirements in English Curriculum Standard for Compulsory Education(2011), the overall goal of English curriculum in compulsory education is to enable students toform a preliminary comprehensive language application ability through English learning,promote mental development and improve comprehensive humanistic literacy. EnglishCurriculum Standard for Compulsory Education puts forward the specific content standardsfrom five aspects, such as language skills, language knowledge, emotional attitude, learningstrategy and cultural consciousness. The specific requirements for vocabulary in the second andfifth levels of are as follows: Firstly, students should know that words are made up of letters.Secondly, students should learn vocabulary according to the sound, meaning, and shape of aword. Thirdly, students should learn about the topic of 600 to 700 words and 50 idioms, and canuse about 400 words to express the corresponding topics specified in the second level.
The requirements of fifth levels of language knowledge for vocabulary are as follow: Firstly,students should learn English vocabulary in the form of words, phrases, idioms, and fixedcombinations. Secondly, students should understand the basic meaning of words and theirmeaning in a particular context. Thirdly, students should use words to describe things, behaviors,characteristics and explain concepts, and can use 1500 to 1600 words and 200 to 300 idioms orfixed combinations.
2.2 Researches at Home and Abroad
2.2.1 Researches Abroad
126.96.36.199 Researches on Classification of Vocabulary Memory Strategies Abroad
At abroad, people have become more and more aware of the necessity and significance ofthe Vocabulary Memory Strategies and began to make relevant research from the perspective oflearners since the 1960s. Many researches on the Vocabulary Memory Strategies have emergedabroad. People began to pay more concern to vocabulary since the late 1970s. Oxford (1990) isthe first person to propose the Vocabulary Memory Strategies. He points out that the VocabularyMemory Strategies are included the indirect strategies and direct strategies. He believes that theuse of sounds and images, the use of association methods, and the planned review are all in thescope of Vocabulary Memory Strategies.
Schmitt (1997) classifies Vocabulary Memory Strategies into graphic method, associativemeaning method, contact empirical method, associative synonym method, associative antonymsmethod, semantic graphic method, keyword method, the core method, group method, utilizemethod, the story method, phonics method, reading aloud method, to imagine word form method,spelling, deformation, the first letter of streaking method, gestalt method, affixation, speechmethod, interpretation method, word family method, the phrase method, action method andsemantic network method. Lawson and Hogben (1998) divides Vocabulary Memory Strategiesinto repeat memorization including repeated reading, writing words, self-test, wordcharacteristics analysis including spelling words, classification, using of affixes. Simple analysisincluding the sentence translation, using context to connect with the words in similar form andsound, complex analysis including multiple use context, the expression of different ways, theusage of mnemonics.
Chapter Three Research Design....................................18
3.1 Research Questions...............................................18
3.2 Research Subjects..............................................19
Chapter Four Results and Discussion.......................................... 23
4.1 The Overall Level of Vocabulary Survey of Junior High School Students........................23
4.2 The Frequency of Each Vocabulary Memory Strategy.........................24
Chapter Five Conclusion................................47
5.1 Major Findings......................................47
Chapter Four Results and Discussion
4.1 The Overall Level of Vocabulary Survey of Junior High School Students
Vocabulary survey papers were distributed to 126 research subjects and 117 valid copieswere collected. English Curriculum Standard for Compulsory Education (2011) state thatstudents should learn and master the basic knowledge of English language during thecompulsory education stage, including vocabulary, speech, grammar, and language forms toexpress common topics. Vocabulary is one of the three elements of English language, it is thebasis of English learning, English teachers should pay enough attention to vocabulary teaching.
Chapter Five Conclusion
5.1 Major Findings
Vocabulary Memory Strategies plays an indispensable part in junior high school students’vocabulary learning. On the basis of the analysis of questionnaire data and interview results, it isfound that the current use of Vocabulary Memory Strategies of junior high school students atBeihai X Middle School is not so satisfactory. Major findings of the thesis can be summarized upas follows:
Firstly, in terms of vocabulary, the vocabulary of eighth grade students at Beihai X MiddleSchool is at a medium level, which means that teachers should strengthen the accumulation ofwords to expand vocabulary in the process of English teaching, students can be expandedvocabulary in the course of English teaching, it not only let students remember a variety ofsynonyms to expand vocabulary, but also let students remember and classify vocabulary.
Secondly, the investigation results show that, in the course of using the Vocabulary MemoryStrategies, the frequencies of the use of all strategies are as follows: Repetition Memory Strategy(4.57), Pronunciation Memory Strategy (4.25), Associative Memory Strategy (3.99), Word-listMemory Strategy (3.72), Keyword Memory Strategy (3.67), Context Memory Strategy (3.23),Meta Memory Strategy (3.09), Morphological Analysis Strategy (2.73), Activation MemoryStrategy (2.69), and Chunking Memory Strategy (2.16). Repetition Memory Strategy is the mostrepeatedly used memory strategy, and the Chunking Memory Strategy is the least repeatedlyused. It is found that all the Vocabulary Memory Strategies investigated in this paper have notbeen widely and repeatedly used by junior high school students from Beihai X Middle School.Therefore, in order to increase students’ vocabulary, teachers should provide students withguidance for the use of memory strategies. Thus, they can help students develop efficient andscientific memory strategies that are suitable for their learning so as to enhance their vocabularycompetence and other linguistic competences. It is a very deficient part of the current educationsystem.