现代汉语浮现词缀的构式形态学探讨——以“-狗”和“微-”为例

发布时间:2022-04-22 23:18:21 论文编辑:vicky

本文是一篇EI/SCI论文代写,基于作者提到的这些局限性,研究者在未来的研究中可以将更多的注意力集中在以下几个维度:建立网络新词的动态循环语料库。研究人员可以收集网民的言论,并将其放入动态微博语料库中,这将为在线词汇的研究提供极大的便利。更重要的是,学者们可以进行更多的跨语言语言语言类型学研究,因为“狗”和“威”结构中的许多网络新词或多或少都与“狗”如“幸运狗”和“微”如“微计算机”、“微波”、“微软”等有关。汉语和英语中新兴词缀的异同值得我们进一步研究,对其他语言也有必要和值得进一步研究。


CHAPTER ONE   GENERAL INTRODUCTION


1.1   Research background

An  army  of  newly-developing  word  clusters,  such  as  ―-gou3‖,  ―-nan2‖,  ―bei4-‖  and ―luo3-‖, has sprung up in the latest two decades with the popularity of computers and network.  The  author  finds  that  there  are  many  similarities  among  these  lexical morphemes.  They  develop  from  either  one  constituent  of  complex  words  or  free lexemes,  appearing  in  a  fixed  position  with  a  certain  meaning  in  a  large  number  of complex  words  and  their  meanings  underdo  a  shift,  deserving  researchers‘ attention. As  more  and  more  words  of  the  same  type  are  created  and  used,  their  form  and meaning  gradually  emerges.  Therefore,  this  thesis  adopts  ―emerging  affixes‖  (Shao 2015:5) to define these lexical morphemes. For example, in the following sentences: 

(a)  博三毕业狗一只,科研狗到底如何才能不再是单身狗? (b)  大龄程序狗闲的蛋疼的感情问题。 (c)  微监督,微传播,微互动,微时代已经到临。 (d)  微信公众平台的微网站怎么制作?

The research targets in this thesis are new cyber words such as ―bi4ye4gou3‖ in (a) and ―wei1jian1du1‖ in (c). There are some differences among these words albeit with many similarities. The quasi-affix ―gou3‖ in the ―-gou3‖ construction evolves from a free lexeme, which can  be used independently like a free word and it is also able to appear  as  a  constituent  at  the  end  of  many  derivational  words.  In  former  literature, ―gou3‖  is  called  ―quasi-affix‖.  Though  the  meaning  of  ―gou3‖  in  the  ―-gou3‖ construction has bleached, it still has some connection with its original word by way of  metaphor  or  metonymy.  However,  the  secreted  constituent  ―wei1‖  in  ―wei1-‖ construction  stems  from  an  indivisible  part  of  compounds,  which  means  it  is  bound and  cannot  be  used  freely.  In  new  cyber  words  ―wei1-‖,  ―wei1‖  is  a  meaningless syllable,  whose  connection  with  the  original  meaning  is  lost.  However,  the  author finds  that  ―wei1‖  in  ―wei1-‖  acts  as  a  morpheme  connected  with  ―Weibo‖.  People regard  it  as  prefix  mistakenly  for  they  separate  it  from  ―Weibo‖  and  entitle  it  the meaning  connected  with  ―Weibo‖.  In  this  thesis,  ―wei1‖  is  coined  ‗secreted  affix‘ (Jespersen 1922:384-388; Shao 2015:26; Wang 2005:31). 


1.2   Research significance

From  the  above  statement,  the  author  will  focus  on  ―-gou3‖  and  ―wei1-‖,  the  two representatives of emerging affixes in Modern Chinese to have the exploration of their internal  word-formation  in  a  new  theoretical  framework-  Booij‘s  Construction Morphology. This paper tries to present a new way to tackle the debated issues on the blurry  boundary  between  derivations  and  compounds  in  Chinese  and  then  analyzes their  cognitive  mechanisms  under  Construction  Grammar.  The  significance  of  this study can be listed out as follows: 

Firstly,  the  author  hopes  it  will  contribute  to  a  better  understanding  of  a ―mistreated‖ category of word formation in Modern Chinese and the description as well as the prediction of new emerging affixes in the future. This paper observes the internal  word  formation  of  two  kinds  of  emerging  affixes  and  summarizes  their features  by  comparing  two  emerging  affixes,  ―-gou3‖,  a  typical  quasi-suffix,  and ―wei1-‖, a typical secreted prefix, with their original words. 

Secondly,  by  adopting  the  theoretical  framework-Construction  Morphology  on Modern  Chinese,  the  author  hopes  that  this  study  can  enrich  its  analysis  of  Chinese facts, and  contribute to  offering  a new way to interpret the internal structure of new cyber words in Chinese. 

Thirdly,  this  study  conduces  to  the  studies  on  the  application  of  Construction Grammar  on  lexical  morphemes  in  Modern  Chinese.  Being  affected  by  Structural Linguistics,  linguists  at  home  consequently  do  not  attach  enough  importance  to  the morphological  study  of  Chinese  (An  and  Cheng  2017).  The  thesis  will  enrich  the application of Construction Grammar in Chinese vocabularies.

Fourthly, the author hopes that this thesis can provide some enlightenment of the updating  of  entries  about  new  cyber  words  in  the  dictionaries  and  conduce  to  the spread of Chinese cyber language, especially those neologies in Chinese. 


CHAPTER TWO   LITERATURE REVIE


2.1   Previous studies on quasi-affix and secreted affix

2.1.1   Research on quasi-affix

Affixes  are  made  up  of  prefix,  postfix  and  infix based  on  their  positions  with  roots. Recently, a controversial issue is whether those lexical morphemes conveying specific meanings in a fixed position of a large quantity of complex words should be treated as derivational  affixes  or  compound  constituents.  Lü  (1979)  regards  them  as quasi-affixes. Booij (2005:114) defines quasi-affixes as ‗morphemes which look like part of compounds and do occur as lexemes, but have a specific and more constricted meaning when used as a part of compound.‘ 

2.1.1.1   Research  on  quasi-affix  from  the  approach  to  morpheme-based morphology

Morpheme-based  morphology  includes  Traditional  Morphology  and  Distributed Morphology. In this approach, morphological analysis is conceived of as the ‗syntax of morphemes‘ (Booij 2010a:1). A derivational process often involves an affix, mostly a  prefix  or  a  suffix  and  it  is  universally  accepted  that  derivation  is  a  morphological process  when  a  new  word  is  created  based  on  the  existing  one.  However, compounding  is  broadly  understood  as  ‗the  combination  of  two  or  more  lexical morphemes,  which  is  by  far  the  most  common  word  formation  device  in  modern language‘ (Arcodia 2018:219). 

Research about quasi-affix based on morpheme as its formation unit in Chinese mainly focuses on the following aspects: names of the terminology, their criteria and characteristics  and  a  small  fraction  of  studies  on  formation  mechanisms  such  as metaphor, metonymy and prototype theory. 


2.2   Previous linguistic studies on “-gou3” and “wei1-”

Based  on  what  the  author  researches  in  the  Chinese  National  Knowledge Infrastructure  (CNKI  for  short),  the  author  finds  out  there  are  very  few  linguistic studies  on  them,  and  then  the  author  will  conduct  a  review  of  previous  linguistic studies  on  ―-gou3‖  and  ―wei1-‖  from  three  approaches:  pragmatic,  social  linguistic approach and cognitive linguistic approach.

2.2.1   Previous linguistic studies on “-gou3”

New cyber words ―gou3-‖ have become an open word cluster. Wan (2016) claims that their meanings are not only different from those ―gou3-‖ referring to animals but also the ―-gou3‖ solidified from literal allusions, such as ―zou3gou3‖ and ―luo4shui3gou3‖. She  holds  the  idea  that  new  cyber  words  ―-gou3‖ are more likely to stand for those people in a state or with some hobby. However, compared with the quasi-affixes ―zi0‖, ―yuan2‖  and  ―tou2‖,  she  thinks  that  ―gou3‖  remains  part  of  features  of  dogs  and possesses a hint of emotional color. Wan only summarizes a kind of semantic meaning of ―-gou3‖ construction possibly due to the limited data. 

She  also  discusses  the  formation  process  of  quasi-affix  ―-gou3‖  and  states  its reasons  for  popularity  from  two  aspects:  the  conventionalization  of  its  structure  and humor communicative effects. She further points out there are three periods about the changes  of  emotional  colors  about  ―-gou3‖:  negative-neutral-positive  and  discusses reasons from the generalization of ―gou3‖, the change of its roles in people‘s daily life and  the  influence  of  foreign  cultures.  She  thinks  that  people  use  ―gou3‖ to refer to themselves in order to achieve a humor and polite communicative effect.

EI/SCI论文代写参考


CHAPTER THREE   THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK ............................... 17

3.1   Morphology and Construction Grammar ..................... 17

3.2   Construction Morphology ...................................... 20

3.3   Properties of Construction Morphology .......................... 21

CHAPTER FOUR   RESEARCH METHODOLOGY .................. 25

4.1   Data source ............................... 25

4.2   Data collection .................................. 27

4.3   Summary ........................................ 28 

CHAPTER FIVE   A CONSTRUCTION MORPHOLOGY STUDY OF ―-GOU3‖ AND ―WEI1-‖ ..30

5.1   A Construction Morphology analysis of ―-gou3‖ word cluster ..................... 30

5.1.1   Classifications of ―-gou3‖ word cluster ....................... 30

5.1.2   The meanings of ―-gou3‖ .................................. 32 


CHAPTER FIVE   A CONSTRUCTION MORPHOLOGY STUDY OF “-GOU3” AND “WEI1-”


5.1   A Construction Morphology analysis of “-gou3” word cluster

5.1.1   Classifications of “-gou3” word cluster

In  order  to  keep  a  good  grip  on  the  syllabic  structure  and  word  class  of  new  cyber words  ―gou3‖, the author provides a preliminary statistical analysis of ―-gou3‖ word family after collecting the data from previous studies and Sougou.com.

This  study  observes that in ―-gou3‖ construction, most of them are ―disyllable plus  gou3‖,  accounting  for  over  83%,  such  as  ―da4si4gou3‖,  ―cheng2xu4gou3‖, ―ke1yan2gou3‖ and so on, which are in accord with the feature of disyllabification in Chinese. They  are tri-syllabic words for the whole ―disyllable plus gou3‖, indicating that  new  cyber  words  in  Modern  Chinese,  to  some  extent,  are  inclined  to  become tri-syllabification.  Of  course,  a  very  small  amount  of  them  are  ―monosyllable  plus gou3‖,  such  as  ―chang3gou3‖,  ―yan2gou3‖  and  ―tri-syllable  plus  gou3‖,  such  as ―yuan3guang1deng1gou3‖. The following table 5-1 is The Syllable Structure of ―-gou3‖ and for the detailed data, see Appendix C. 

EI/SCI论文代写怎么写

From the data collected, the variable in  ―-gou3‖ word family is mainly Chinese characters, and the variable can also be made up of the mix of English and Chinese or number  and  English,  which  indicates  that  cyber  words  are  all-embracing.  Next,  the other  classification  of  ―-gou3‖  is  done  based  on  the  word  class  of  the  variable  in ―-gou3‖ word family as table 5-2 shows. The recorded word list of ―-gou3‖ will be seen in Appendix D.


CHAPTER SIX   CONCLUSIONS


6.1   An overview of major findings

The  author  collects  164  ―-gou3‖ and 197 ―wei1-‖  from  the  instances  of  the  previous literature  and  Sougou.com  by  making  use  of  Python  Reptile  and  Jieba  (Chinese  for ―to stutter‖) Chinese text segmentation. This study carries out a statistical analysis of the  data  collected  and  then  describes  construction  schemas  of  the  two  typical emerging  affixes-―-gou3‖  and  ―wei1-‖  in  Modern  Chinese  from  a  new perspective-Construction Morphology. 

As far as the first question is concerned, by  observing lots of new  cyber  words and reading many literatures about word-formation in Chinese, the author summarizes that emerging affixes in Modern Chinese covers two parts: quasi-affixes and secreted affixes  and  gives  a  relatively  clear  definition  about  their  distinctive  features. Quasi-affixes in Modern Chinese evolve from free words, which are able to be used independently. Moreover, their meaning is bleached by way of metaphor or metonymy. On the contrary, secreted affixes develop from loan-words of foreign language, either through phonetic adaptations or through direct translation of their meaning, and they are  bound  to  the  complex  words.  In  new  cyber  words  ―wei1-‖,  ―wei1‖  is  closely related with Weibo or Internet whose meaning has little obvious connections with the typical meanings in the dictionary. This new kind of meaning is entitled to most new cyber words of ―wei1-‖ as ―wei1-‖ word family is analogized. 

reference(omitted)

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