英国Accounting Essay作业代写格式:International Public Sector Accounting and Finance

发布时间:2022-05-09 09:10:27 论文编辑:zeqian1013

英国Accounting Essay作业代写格式,题目是“International Public Sector Accounting and Finance(国际公共部门会计和金融)”,英格兰、威尔士、苏格兰和北爱尔兰等历史悠久的国家组成了联合王国。现代议会民主和工业革命都属于英国。(BBC新闻,2018)在世界上,当考虑主权国家时,英国排在第78位。在拥挤国家的情况下,英国是第22个最拥挤的国家,2017年有6600万人口。伦敦是英国的首都和最大城市,是全球城市和金融中心,城市人口为1030万。(2018)

International Public Sector Accounting and Finance国际公共部门会计和金融

The historic nations such as England, Wales and Scotland, and Northern Ireland comprise the state of United Kingdom. Both present-day parliamentary democracy and Industrial Revolution are belonging to the United Kingdom (BBC News, 2018). In the world, while consider sovereign state the United Kingdom ranks as 78th-biggest sovereign state. In the case of crowded nation, the United Kingdom ranks as the 22nd-most crowded nation where 66.0 million occupants in 2017. London is the capital and biggest city of the United Kingdom and it is global city as well as financial centre that has urban population of 10.3 million (nationsonline.org, 2018).

 

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With developing era, and an increase in competition every country aims their best to earn more money and make sure their economy doesn’t suffer loss. For an economy to perform well, they need to make sure they have a low debt and that’s what United Kingdom has decided to. Also, Brexit is taking place in the United Kingdom in year 2019 which will affect the economy of the United Kingdom. According to the BBC News (2019), Last year 1.5% growth was forecast by the economists accurately. Meanwhile in year 2019 economists said forecasting for this year is impossible because of the vulnerability made by the Brexit.  

随着时代的发展,竞争的加剧,每个国家的目标都是赚更多的钱,确保他们的经济不遭受损失。一个经济体要想表现良好,就必须确保债务水平较低,英国已经决定这么做。此外,英国将在2019年脱欧,这将影响英国的经济。据英国广播公司(2019)报道,经济学家对去年经济增长1.5%的预测是准确的。与此同时,在2019年,经济学家表示,由于英国脱欧造成的脆弱性,对今年的预测是不可能的。

For Government to create revenue and solve inter-temporal and sustainable deficit, United Kingdom Government have come up with two policies, which are as below:

为了政府创造收入,解决跨期和可持续的赤字问题,英国政府提出了两项政策,具体如下:

In a dynamic economy limitation on the stock of wealth over specific periods and the restrictions on income and spending flow are referred as intertemporal budget constraints. Intertemporal budget refers that every financial agent including the government borrowing are recognised in particular period of time and generally position of the government adds to zero (Arestis & Sawyer, 2006).

在动态经济中,对特定时期财富存量的限制以及对收入和支出流动的限制被称为跨期预算限制。跨期预算是指包括政府借款在内的每一个金融中介在特定的时间段内被确认,政府的头寸一般为零(Arestis & Sawyer, 2006)。

United Kingdom policy of cutting child tax profit has been one of the controversial policies as the government has decided to cut of the benefits in order to save money. In future families of more than two children who will apply for tax credit will not receive the credit for their third or more children. On the other hand, children with special needs will be offered additional support. Statistics say, 59% of the 73,500 families who lost financial help for a third child were in work. 9% of United Kingdom claimant family units with at least three or more children were affected. This policy is being labelled as two-child policy. The Government is additionally lessening dimension which tax credits are pulled back from families who procure cash through work. 500,000 family units will get off duty credits and 300,000 off Universal Credit (Butler, 2018). Cutting on child tax will help to cover the value of current and future taxes by being sufficient to cover the government current and future spending along with the first stage of government debt. With now less money being spend on child tax, government can use it in order to invest it in the economy. Moreover, with big families knowing not all of the kids will get child support parents will start working which will in return generate more income for the government to cover their deficit.  This will help government overcome their inter-temporal budget constrains as with the help of the cut in benefits government can now use that money to cover their debts, On the other hand, some might argue that cutting child tax might put burden on families as now they have to work extra hours in order to provide for their families. Campaigners said the number of families influenced by the policy would increase United Kingdom poverty levels, putting an expected 200,000 children into hardship (Butler, 2018). But in the end what needs to be considered is that cutting the chid tax will help the government to overcome their deficits. For example, during the 1990s, Canada government cut their spending by 20% even with cutting down there spending Canadian economy kept on developing. Canadian economy profited from lower financing costs to help spending, this same can be the case for United Kingdom (Pelinescu, 2000).

英国削减儿童税收利润的政策一直是备受争议的政策之一,因为政府已经决定削减福利,以节省资金。未来有两个以上子女的家庭,如果申请税收抵免,第三个或更多子女将得不到税收抵免。另一方面,有特殊需要的儿童将得到额外的支持。统计数据显示,在因第三个孩子失去经济援助的73,500个家庭中,有59%的人还在工作。至少有三个或三个以上子女的联合王国索赔家庭的9%受到影响。这项政策被称为二胎政策。政府还将减少通过工作获得现金的家庭的税收抵免额。50万个家庭单位将获得工作学分,30万个家庭单位将获得通用学分(巴特勒,2018年)。削减儿童税将有助于弥补当前和未来的税收价值,因为这将足以支付政府当前和未来的支出,以及政府的第一阶段债务。现在花在儿童税上的钱少了,政府可以用它来投资经济。此外,大家庭知道不是所有的孩子都会得到抚养费,父母会开始工作,这将为政府带来更多的收入,以弥补他们的赤字。这将帮助政府克服跨期预算约束与政府削减福利的帮助现在可以使用这笔钱来支付他们的债务,另一方面,有些人可能会认为,削减儿童税收可能会使家庭负担现在他们不得不加班为了供养他们的家庭。活动人士表示,受该政策影响的家庭数量将增加英国的贫困水平,预计将使20万儿童陷入困境(巴特勒,2018年)。但最终需要考虑的是,削减儿童税将有助于政府克服他们的赤字。例如,在20世纪90年代,加拿大政府削减了20%的支出,即使削减了支出,加拿大经济仍在发展。加拿大经济受益于较低的融资成本来帮助支出,这同样可以适用于英国(Pelinescu, 2000)。

Another policy which United Kingdom has implemented is increasing council tax. Residents confront swelling busting council tax which is rising to an average of £100. Council have been given the ability to force a 5.99% hike, taking the expense for a normal B and D property to around £1,686. local Government Secretary Sajid Javid facilitated a 1.99% top on increments, enabling councils in England to slap bill payers with yearly ascents of 2.99%. What’s more, authorities which give social care can force a statute of up to 3% – leaving an absolute conceivable rise of 5.99%. After increase of 5.1 percent in council tax was reported toward the start of the tax year in April this made up the biggest increment in council tax for English family households for a staggering 14 years. With an increase in council tax up to 6% this will lead to government earning more money (Bloom, 2018). As now they can earn more money through housing and council tax.

英国实施的另一项政策是增加市政税。居民们面临着不断膨胀的市政税,目前市政税的平均水平已升至100英镑。议会被赋予强制上调5.99%的权力,使普通B和D级房产的花费达到1686英镑左右。当地政府秘书萨伊德·贾维德促成了1.99%的上限,使英国议会能够每年向纳税人支付2.99%的上限。更重要的是,提供社会保障的当局可以强制规定高达3%的法律,这意味着绝对上升了5.99%。据报道,在4月份的税收年度开始时,市政税增加了5.1%,这构成了英国家庭14年来最大的市政税增量。随着市政税增加到6%,这将导致政府赚取更多的钱(布鲁姆,2018年)。因为现在他们可以通过房屋税和市政税赚到更多的钱。

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Government may also setup their sustainable deficit where sustainable deficit refers to as the ability of the Government to continue its present spending. Revenue from housing and council tax also helpful to pay debt, tax or other current policies compared to selling their own assets and this can save economy from going into the deficit.

政府也可以设置其可持续赤字,可持续赤字指的是政府继续其现有支出的能力。与出售自己的资产相比,来自住房和市政税的收入也有助于支付债务、税收或其他现行政策,这可以避免经济陷入赤字。

Some might argue that imposing an increase in tax might not be the best solution as with an uncertainty already going in United Kingdom with Brexit and the economy suffering loss people might find it hard to pay the tax, and for those who can’t pay government has to pay those tax. However as said before because of the rescission United Kingdom is going through in order to solve their sustainable deficit they need to increase housing or council tax, so they can generate income to help run the economy if the Brexit deal goes through. For a country to grow economically they need to make sure they keep their deficit as low as possible.

有些人可能会认为,征收税收的增加可能不是最好的解决方案与一个不确定性已经在英国Brexit经济遭受损失的人可能很难支付税,对于那些不能支付政府支付这些税。然而,正如之前所说的,由于英国为了解决其可持续的赤字,他们需要增加住房或市政税,这样如果脱欧协议通过,他们就可以产生收入来帮助运行经济。一个国家要想实现经济增长,就必须确保将赤字保持在尽可能低的水平。

The UK’s exit from the EU marks a huge change in the nation’s economic association with the coalition. The UK will move far from close integration and co-task   with its closest neighbours. The fate of United Kingdom is still unknown with Brexit deal still being negotiated. With United Kingdom facing sustainable deficit and inter-temporal budget constrains the policies which some might find harsh but are suitable to overcome these constrains. Limiting child benefits to only 2 children and increasing council tax will help government to save money in order if their currency depreciate if European Union leaves United Kingdom. If Brexit takes place, living cost will increase as now they will have to pay tax for the food coming to United Kingdom until or unless the government can come up with a solution which can be best suitable for both United Kingdom and European Union.

英国退出欧盟标志着英国与联合政府经济关系的巨大变化。英国将远离与最近邻的紧密融合和共同任务。英国的命运仍然未知,脱欧协议仍在谈判中。由于联合王国面临可持续赤字和跨期预算的限制,一些人可能会觉得严厉但适合克服这些限制的政策。如果欧盟离开英国,货币贬值,那么将儿童福利限制在2个孩子,增加理事会税将帮助政府节省资金。如果英国脱欧,生活成本将会增加,因为现在他们必须为进入英国的食品纳税,直到或除非政府能想出一个最适合英国和欧盟的解决方案。

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