本文是地理学Essay范例，题目是“Food in the United Kingdom（英国的食物）”，联合王国由英格兰、苏格兰、威尔士和北爱尔兰组成。英国的每个部分都有不同的文化、象征和流行的食物。他们有一些不同类别的食物(苏格兰菜，威尔士菜和英格兰菜，北爱尔兰菜，英裔印度菜)。这个国家受英国文化的影响，代议制民主来自西方文化。英国人通常使用英语。一些自然资源是由这个国家生产的，例如煤、白垩、二氧化硅、岩盐、银、金和铁矿石。
United Kingdom is a composition of England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. Each part of UK has different culture, symbolism and the popular food items. they have some different categories of food (Scottish, Welsh and English cuisine, Northern Ireland cuisine, Anglo Indian cuisine ). This country is influenced by British culture and representive democracy comes from western culture. People of United Kingdom usually use English language. Some of natural resources is produced by this country e.g. coal, chalk, silica, rock salt, silver, gold, and iron ore.
UK use 70% of country’s land area and less than 60percent of food eats by the people of this country which they have produce. mostly UK produce some of hybrid dishes like Anglo Indian Chicken Tikka Massala. Mostly people like to eat garlic in their food.
Flag of UK
The flag has three colour white, red and blue. See blue in sign. A symmetric red cross and the field with the union flag in he canton. The current design of the union jack dates from the union of ireland and great britain 1801.
The government of UK try to reduce the waste sent to landfill, wildlife reserves and marine biodiversity and reducing pollution and keep water and air clean.
United Kingdom is indulge in many international agreements air pollution – volatile organic compounds.
Environment impact on food production环境对粮食生产的影响
Environment put 30 to 40percent effect on drinks, food and tobacco without 59percent of the eutrophication. Dairy products like milk, cheese are the most affected products and some of the less numbers of products which are effected by environment alcoholic drinkd, sweets and some of soft drinks. It also put impact on meats which is almost contributes 4 to 15percent
Environment impact on breads and potatoes
Mostly breads and the product which are related to this are affected by environment changes which they contribute 3.3percent of the total impact. For this they need wheat, which is an organic production and it is eutrophication more than conventional production.
The some of differene between organic and conventional ways of making breads is a use of wheat production
Potatoes are the most important part of food. Almost 2 million tones of potatoes used by UK throughout the year and it put less affect on potato, on potato an potato products like chips and snacks are consider significant contribute in it.
At last but not least environment put range of effect on food and product types include fresh and processing products. Environment put impact on current trends and in future as well. Furthermore, it put effects on agriculture and water resources.
Climate of this country has been very controversies and with different polices to make mitigate effects.
Climate changes and impact on food choices
Changes in climate direct put effect on food choices but they have only limited option for food and drinks which are affected by temperature and weather. Commonly People like to have food in summer is salads and in drinks they
love to drink some soft drinks and some time alcohol. climate changes also lead to chemical. Storage and food transport also effect on food safety.
Greenhouse Gas (GHS) IS also effect on food production in UK.
Impacts of climate on food supply and agriculture
Climate data for England
Agriculture and fisheries are much depend on climate changes. When carbon dioxide and temperature can increase crops in some places. Frequently
changes in climate and severity of droughts and floods are make challenges for farmers and also affrct the food safety.
It affects on pollination, increases the disease risk, lodging of crops
It also delayed farming like reducing the cost and quality.
Increase food wastage because of custmer’s choice.
Loss of fruits and leaves. closure of UK ports, impacts on farm buildings and it interrupts on UK supply chain and increase the repair bills
Snow /hail / hail
It leads to livestock causing condition loss, abortion death, crop damage, frost damage. yield loss and lost yield.
Heat / drought
Increase stress, heat stress, reduction in forage requiring supplymentry feeding
Weather impacts on food production
Increasing the number of imports and exports in food and agriculture raw material. Price is the most considerable feature affected by weather conditions. Food consumer in UK nad EU are most experience food shortage.
However, they are likely experience short to medium term increase food price.
As I earlier mention that 70 percent of land in UK used for agriculture. This country produse a reduced amount of food it eats.
Apart from this, recently they moves towards organic farming to get much profit. there is hiking awareness that farmers have most important role for the British countryside and wildlife.
The great number of people in UK belongs to Christianity followed by Muslim religion. There is different types of dietary habits are derived from religious laws. Dietary difference links to different religion is considering when planning a balance diet.
In earlier Christian people used to avoid meats and dietary in during the small period of the year but today it’s often they eats fish on Friday, they also like to have bread and wine or Holly communion regularly celebration. the meaning of this is related to the body and blood of Jesus Christ depends on the denomination.
Muslim fasters in month of Ramadan, they causly avoid pork and alcoholic.
In muslim food is catagries as a halal and haram but mostly they prefer to have halal whereas, the list of haram they include pork alcohol and any product that may contains clearify animals fats such as gelatines.
Most if the area of England is covered by hills and plains. in a north side there is a chain of mountains. The pennines diving east and west. The biggest natural harbour is in UK called Poole in a south centeral of UK.
Agriculture in UK
Mostly crops grown in rural side of UK. They grows crops and livestock. They take help from experience farmers, subsides, fertile soil and new technology.
Less income and high land prices put bad impact on food production and import and export of the country.
Flood risk is becoming major threat in UK, alongside stresses on water UK also
Faced problems related water supply. And less river flows in summer. flood reduce the food availability and agriculture income from crop sale. In floods they have emergency food aid at a distance from saving lives in urgent situation. The food while in natural disaster they have prepared canned food.
Food import by UK
from a large number of food groups with the greatest number of share are the fish and shellfish, fruits and nuts, sweeteners, and wine. they import some of the stifling products are bananas, mangoes, coffee, cocoa, olive oil, tropical oil, tea, and spices are the hundered percent marital productions.
It takes the food supply to the forward by the hiking numbers of population that can be fed. In this matter, they include calorific values, product yields and generate the population size they England can support.
On the other hand, they support 1.2billion people through the mono production of tomatoes. In previous time people of United Kingdom used to depend on beef an poultry. On the face of it a lot of people prefer to have crops, and the amount of land is increase because of vegetarian people.
Average of per person in UK consume four time food during the day. England farm land requirements are more than the total forest biocapacity but thisis some how lower than the cropland. UK could not achieve self sufficiency by putting more land on food production. They used to focusing on three main components food supply are fishing grounds, cropland and pasture land.
Domestic food supply and International food trade国内食品供应和国际食品贸易
Food manufacturing and conjugal food supply trends fails to depicts vulnerabilities having strong financial positions. In past UK is a chief food importer. The most important countries which exports to the UK are also potentially problem to the UK. this country receive food supplies from all over the world. The future of the UK’s largest food supplier is further major population growth, resourse pressure countries for suppliers food.
A country is rely on three factors availability of arable property, population pressure and within reach water. consumption of food making underminded by increasing population growth.
While maintaining the intigrety of our ecosystem by ad equate food supply
It is considering that foodstuff supply turn back at least two and half millennia. Connection between population and carrying capacity firstly considering by Plato.
In every country food is make to feed everybody however this food and the way to produce it, it do not reach to those whoever need this. In recent decades there has been I mpressive growth in food manufacturing.
Ethnic methods of cooking
British food is considering as ” unfussy dishes made with the quality of local ingredients” which is matched with simple sauces like ketchup and common flavour. They used to producing hybrid dishes. Breeding of animals provide a large variety of food stuff for ingredients. The meat and savoury herb stewing method become common in all over the country.
English cuisine traditionally consider as a international full breakfast, fish and chips and Christmas dinner. British food have many regional food like as Scottish, Wales and some others and they have some regional dishes for example Yorkshire pudding, Cumberland sausage and Welsh cake. Concern about the quality and nutritional value of food production lead to create a soil association in 1946. But the development of breedin in plants create a different types of fruits and vegetables. But with the disease of rootstocks still used all over the world for the fruits like as Apples.
Since 16th century Christmas dinner table become more popular in England. turkey become more famous on Christmas dinner table, Christmas pudding served for the dessert.
They have a fusion of some other types of food from other countries take an instance Chicken Tikka Massala. England and Scotland are those places which we have find the best kippers – arbonath smokies. this country encourages the drinking og wine and they also give the word for common food like mutton (mouton) and beef (boeuf).
Social and cultural influence
Social influence put great impact on eating -:
Eating behaviour is directly influenced by social context. there is many reasons behind this but one of them is confirming the behaviour of others and then try to adopt it and it also shared cultural expections and environmental cues. But this will depend on some of other things like how they pay attention and how we are like to acceptance.
Taste -: how it influence the taste, texture, flavour, smell and appearance. For example, sweet food have strong sensory appeal means food may be consumed with full of pleasure rather than the source of energy.
There is some other example which UK’s people consider such as flavoured can be get from breast milk as a flavours from a maternal diets pass through breast milk.
It is also put impact on both under ad over nutrition. take an example the people of any india started livig in England tey use to have hybrid meal in which they use different spices this thing impress the English people and they make their national dish is chicken tikka massala.
Cultural influence put affect on diet and also the way of making food. it is showing there tradition, beliefs and other aspects. forexample south asian females visit Scotland and they show increase fat intake and it is related with an increased body mass, index and incident of heart disease and type 2 diabetes.
National dish of UK-:
UK confirming the number one dish of the country which has been listed like roast beef and Yorkshire pudding followed by fish and chips. after a long term argue it become possible that chicken tikka massala included the England’s national dish.
Where does the chicken tikka massala come from ?
Mostly people say it come from India, other say Birmingham and strongly some people claim that it comes from Glasgow.
Recpie of chicken tikka sause
Ingredient ginger, garlic, chilli, tomato paste, garam massala, chile de arbol, honey to taste, cayenne, paprika Â½ cup of water, tomato.
Method of cooking烹饪的方法
Stir the ginger, chile, and garlic and cook it for one minute. Add tomato paste, paprika, and garam massala and then cook for one minute. Add tomato and honey according to your taste, chile de arbol or cayenne and half cup of water then cook it. occasionally, until slightly thick. seasoned it with salt and pepper according to your taste.
Apart from this Sunday roast which include vegetables, potato, roast beef and mini Yorkshire pudding.
Dessert of UK
Bread and butter pudding
Firstly It comes in England in13th century it is also known as ”por man’s pudding ” as it is very famous in low class people. for this a lady she put the bread in baking tray and poured the sultanas on it then she combine some eggs, sugar, butter and warm milk which she put on it.
method of cooking
First of all Preheat oven to 190 C / Gas mark 5. Lightly grease a baking dish. And then Butter one side of every piece of bread, then cut slices into triangles. Place half of the bread buttered side up covering the base of the baking dish. Sprinkle sultanas and sugar onto bread, then place the remaining bread on top buttered side up. In a saucepan over medium heat, warm milk until nearly boiling. Remove from heat and combine with eggs, stirring vigorously. Pour the mixture over the bread and allow to soak for ten minutes. Grate nutmeg over the top. Bake in the middle of the oven for 45 minutes until set and lightly browned.
From 1915, wastage of food is noticeable crises in the country. for controlling this problem has been discussed in newspaper articles, television programme, and news reporters so that they can create awareness in the public issue. then the government of England create a ”wastage &resources action programme ”(WRAP ) in 2000.
A major portion of food waste is come from domestic household, which is in 2007, mostly large number of wastage from Bread slices, apples, and potatoes are correspondingly. A majority of food is avoidable but the other divided approximately equally by food which are manifest (example. . tea bags )or cooking type (like. . potato skins ).
Difference between knives from past and present
British cuisine in past过去的英国美食
British food is always considered as multicultural, a potpourri of electric style. this is because of in past they prejudiced from Romans and in medieval times in French and then sugar comes in England before that they use only honey and fruit juices for sweets.
The Scottish food in middle times they have use the cookery books that leave the record in dishes that use in almost every spice in the larder.
British cuisine today
Before a few year british cuisine start look forward for a new direction. Nouvelle Cuisine, chefs began to look a little closer to home.
Even though some of traditional dishes likewise roast beef and Yorkshire pudding, steak and kidney pie, bread and butter pudding, custard tart, treacle tart, spotted dick or fish and chips. Rice and pasta consider as a less consumed food.
Today there is more prominence, fresh ingredients in a famous restaurant and in the market of UK. they offer food item related to all over the world.
Varieties of food in UK英国各种各样的食物
Anglo Indian cuisine
Some of Indian dishes consider as a traditional dishes from british cuisine like as roast beef because the addition of Indian style spices such as clove, chilli red or green.
Some of the meats are also cooked in the form of curry take an instance fish and meats with Indian vegetables they also use coconut, cream, milk, and yogurt and almonds.
Rice dishes and roasts, or curries, and breads they all have individual flavour.
Northern irish cuisine
This type of food include similarly to the rest of the island of Ireland.
Scottish food, the traditional food of Scotland is haggis, neeps and tatties, this food is commonly shares with English cuisine but recipes of its own. Scotland is known for a large quantity of beef, oats, potatoes, as well as sea food. further more, foodstuffs, and large number of whiskies.
Welsh cuisine, welsh cawl is the famous food in welsh. This is impressed by other british cuisine. Nevertheless borh beef and dairy cattle are raised widely. Wales is very popular because of its sheep and, lamb is used for welsh cooking.
Methods of cooking
They have used various cookery methods from a long time like as ;
Deep fry, roasting, slow cooker, BBQ, baking, poaching, Microwave, grilling, braising, stewing, stir fry and so on.
Popular combinations of food
Roast beed – Yorkshire pudding + horse raddish
Lamb – mint sauce
Pork – apple sauce
Chicken bread sauce
Breeds in Englnad
Gloucestershire old spots
This is an English breed of pig. the Gloucestershire old spot known for its docility, intelligence and prolificity. there maternal skills helps to raise big litters of piglet on pasture.
Welsh mountain sheep威尔士山的羊
The male sheep have horns, whereas, females are hornless they do not have wool o their legs or face and they have long tails. these are mostly colour differences, but some of them are different breeds.
It is cultural southern, middle class drink, it approximately consumed gin and tonic. Northern Ireland the popularity of irish whisky is a symbol of uniform of the whole Ireland as in the Republic of the Ireland.
Soft drinks of the UK
It is very famous soft drink in Scotland. it outsells coke, pepsi, or it outsellsâ everything. in taste, it is a type of acidic, metallic and tangy, and bit of unnatural, if this drinks comes in a steel vat. it status as a hangover cure is legendary and entirely acceptable.
This drink is made from fruits so the taste of this is natural. from starting vimto originally health cordial because this is made from the juice of grapes, raspberries and blackcurrunts, it also provide the flavour of some herb. this drink is also available as a fizzy pop.
Tizzer is made by Barr, who also created Irn bru. it’s a type cherry- ish but some other extra adding of juices. this drink have a ability of making children belch.
This is made by glucose, it is comes in glass bottles wrapped in cellophane, as the content was specially for medicinal. this drink was sold in the market because to keep up the sugar level of and energy level up.
This soft sip is comparable of penicillin. it is available as a fizzy now and it place in the nation’s kitchens.
Other drinks in UK Drinks in united kingdom
Whisky is a type of distilled alcoholic drinks. Scotch whisky was hidden altars, in coffins. People of England they use to have whisky at night when they smoke from the stills. Because of this use the drink become moonshine.
Scotland ‘s famous for whisky production. they have 83 percent export in 2012 which is make a payment over 4.25 billion to the UK’s economy.
Whisky is two types -:
Grain whisky is made from any type of grain
Malted whisky is made from primarily from malted barely
Classic drinks -:
Britisher like to have tea near about 165 million cups of tea consumed by the people of UK’s. they also known as a tea drinkers.
Juiced water -: it is hunderad percent pure drink with no sugar there is nothing is artificial in this – it is just juice, british spring water and dash of natural drinks.
Flavoured water -: it is a sugar free fruits drink. it has different flavour like orange ans mandarin, blackberry, lemon and lime, apple and raspberry.
Science in cooking
We considering that the ne of the most pleasure of our life, cooking is include science in these days like chemistry, biology, and physics and how they change the flavour of ingredients. it helps to recreating a new dishes. it helps to understand that the pinch of salt or sugar is included in the recipe or there should be different order of mixing the ingredients for a batter.
The scientific study of cooking a lot longer previous time than some would like : food chemistry have a long and rich history of processed food from supermarket. It becomes fashion in some chefs claiming claiming to be partly scicentis and food chemist in their kitchen.
Food science use to investigate the physical and chemical transformation of ingredients in cooking. molecular food is consider as a modern way of cooking as well as it gets a number of merits from technical innovation in food industry. with this chefs prefer other different term like as culinary physics, experimental cuisine, multi sensory cooking and modernist cuisine.
Different food science branches have done different study on different aspect of food such as, food safety, microbiology and preservation. most of the time they concerned with industrial food production and with the disciplines. The molecular gastronomy, all these based on exploring the food science behind the traditional cooking methods.