留学生Business Essay代写范文-管理行为的原则和实践。本文是一篇留学生商务管理Essay格式范文，主要内容是讲述专制的管理者在不与其他员工协商的情况下做出决策，而不是像独裁者一样传达命令，因为他们喜欢控制局面。这种管理风格指导工作按时完成，因为决策过程中涉及的人员较少。这种风格的问题在于，员工最终会失去工作的动力。家长式领导是一种非常独裁的领导风格，决策是为了工人的最大利益。这种风格被称为咨询管理。下面就一起来看一下这篇Business Essay范文。
An autocratic manager makes decisions without the consultation of others workers, rather serving as a dictator type in communicating orders because they like to be in control of situations.
This style of management guides to work getting done on time because there are less people implicate in the decision making process. The problem with this style is that the staffs are going to eventually lost motivation to work.
Paternalistic is a leadership style which is quite dictatorial, decisions are taken in the best interests of the workers. This style is known as consultative management.
This process can take a bit longer as there are more voices to be heard. The other side of this style of management and leadership is that workers may feel that you do not value their opinion or are too rigid if after all of the feedback is received you go off and make the decision in your own without incorporating of their feedback.
Democratic leadership implicates running a business on the basis on the majority of decisions.
A democratic manager is willing to share work with the staff by relegate it to get the job done. Staffs love this type of management style in business because they feel involved and part of the process. In democratic style the job performance is probably to be better than in an autocratic setting. This style has close links with McGregor’s theory X and Y.
All this styles have advantages and disadvantages such as:
Autocratic styles advantages: quick decision making, effective when employing many low skilled workers; disadvantages: no two-way communication
Paternalistic styles advantages: more two-way communication so motivating, workers feel their social needs are being met; disadvantages: slow down decision making, still quite a dictatorial style.
Democratic style advantages: useful when complex decisions are required that needs specialist skills; disadvantages: mistakes or errors can be made if workers are not skilled enough.
According to Chemers M.(1997) in his book ‘An integrative theory of leadership’, ‘Leadership has been described as a process of social influence in which one person can enlist the aid and support of others in the accomplishment of a common emerged.’
Leadership is composing a group of people to achieve common goals.
Leadership is important because help to maximise efficiently an organisation and also help the organisation to achieve the goals.
Leadership characteristics are: 领导特征包括：
Proactive vs. reactive (a leader is always thinking three steps ahead).主动与被动（领导者总是提前三步思考）
Flexible/Adaptable (a good leader will adapt to new surrounding and situations, doing his/her best to adjust).灵活/适应性强（一个好的领导者会适应新的环境和情况，尽他/她的最大努力进行调整）。
A good communicator 良好的沟通者
Respectful (treating others with respect will ultimately earn respect).尊重他人（尊重他人最终会赢得尊重）
Quiet confidence 安静的自信
Enthusiastic (when a leader is motivated and excited about the cause people will be more inclined to follow).热情（当领导者对事业充满动力和兴奋时，人们会更倾向于跟随）
Open-minded (a leader work to consider all options when making decisions).思想开放（领导者在决策时考虑所有选项）
Resourceful (a leader must to create access to information).足智多谋（领导者必须创造获取信息的途径）
Rewarding (an exceptional leader will recognize the efforts of others and reinforce those actions).奖励（杰出的领导者会认可他人的努力，并加强这些行动）
Well educated (knowledge is power).受过良好教育（知识就是力量）
Open to change (a leader will take into account all points of view and will be willing to change a policy, program, cultural tradition).对改变持开放态度（领导者将考虑所有观点，并愿意改变政策、计划、文化传统）。
Interested in feedback (view feedback as a gift to improve)
Evaluative (evaluation of events and programs is essential for n organisations to improve or progress).评估性（活动和计划的评估对于n个组织的改进或进步至关重要）
A strong team 强大的团队
Theory X and Y was write by Douglas McGregor’s 道格拉斯·麦格雷戈的X和Y理论
Theory X leaders believe that: X领导者理论认为：
People should be controlled and directed and punished, if necessary, to put them in a real effort at work 如果有必要，人们应该受到控制、指导和惩罚，使他们真正投入工作
the workers want to avoid responsibility and has little ambition 工人们想逃避责任，也没有什么野心
most of the workers dislike work 大多数员工不喜欢工作
Theory Y leaders believe that: Y领导者理论认为：
working is as natural as play or rest for the average workers 对于普通工人来说，工作就像玩耍或休息一样自然
workers seek responsibility 员工寻求责任
most of employees have creativity and imagination which may be helpful for organisations to achieve their goals 大多数员工都有创造力和想象力，这可能有助于组织实现其目标
The Hertzberg hygiene factors are: supervision, company policy, relationship with supervisor, relationship with peers, and relationship with subordinates, personal life working conditions, status, and security.
Evaluate communication processes in selected businesses 评估选定企业的沟通流程
Communication is the activity of transfer information through the exchange of thoughts, messages, or information, as by speech, visuals, signals, writing, or behaviour.
Communication is transmitting of information from one person to another. The importance of effective communication is immense in the world of business and in personal life. The communication process begins with the sender and ends with the receiver. The perfect guide toward achieving effective communication is the process of communication
Most of us spend about 75 per cent of our hours awake communicating our knowledge, thoughts, and ideas to others people.
Verbal communication refers to the use of sounds and language to relay a message. Effective verbal communication is dependent on number of factors and cannot be fully isolated from other important interpersonal skills such as non-verbal communication, listening skills and clarification.
Non-verbal communication includes facial expression, eye contact, tone of voice, body posture and motions, positioning within groups. It may also include the way we wear our clothes or the silence we keep.
Porter’s division of non-verbal communication: 波特的非语言沟通部门：
Physical (this is the personal type of communication);物理（这是个人通信类型）
Aesthetic (this is the type of communication that takes place through creative expressions);美学（这是通过创造性表达进行的交流类型）
Signs (this is the mechanical type of communication);标志（这是机械式通信
Symbolic (type of communication that makes use of religious, status);象征性（利用宗教、地位的交流类型）
Static features of non-verbal communication 非言语交际的静态特征
Orientation (side to side, face to face) 方向（侧对侧、面对面）
Posture (standing, seating, legs crossed) 姿势（站立、坐姿、双腿交叉）
Physical contact (touching, holding and shaking hands) 身体接触（触摸、握住和握手）
Dynamic features of non-verbal communication:非言语交际的动态特征：
Facial expressions (smile, raised eyebrow) 面部表情（微笑、扬起眉毛）
Gestures (hand movement) 手势（手的移动）
Looking (eye contact) 看（目光接触）
Communication styles: rational, emotive and intuitive 沟通方式：理性、情感和直觉
Rational communication focuses on objective information data, encourages listening carefully to the ideas and focuses on facts and information, this communication is less comfortable with feeling discussions, in this types of communication prefers to take turns when talking, and there is less variation in tone or gestures.
Emotive communication focuses on feelings and tends to be more people oriented and passionate, wide variation in tone and gesture, this type of communication can be interrupt while others are speaking, the same there are feelings in voice and regardless of volume, the decisions are announced in terms of how they will affect people.
Intuitive communication is focuses on knowing that comes from experience, decisions are announced without justification, increased experience can lead to more rapid decision making.
Communication styles change, depending on the situation and our goals and each of the communication style is used at some point in our lives.
We can define top-down communication such as a method of issuing commands or orders within a business using a hierarchical structure.
Top-down communication affords a company’s managerial structure to control the information and protect that each employment level has necessary information to get done the tasks. The disadvantage of this communication is the risk of orders getting lost in translation; this can cause trouble in a company’s project development.
We can define bottom up communication such as trebuie sa caut informatie
Formal communication is used in professional setting, in this types of communication slang is not use, pronounce of words is correctly.
In informal communication we can use slang, can be used short version of words, this type of communication is used with friends and family.
Analyse organisational culture and change in selected businesses 分析选定企业的组织文化和变革
Organisational culture mains the personality of the organisation, the way the things are done .Organisational culture refers to the fundamental values, beliefs and codes of practice that make a business. Culture according to Schein is ‘A pattern of shared basic assumptions that a group learns as it solves problems’.
Culture organisation have an important role, the organisation that have strong cultures are capable of increasing revenue, profitability and shareholder value. The same organisation with strong culture finds it easy to change and adapt to market demands.
Organisational culture is a focus on culture and process with specific encouragement of collaboration between leaders and members. It is a focus on the human and social side of the origination.
Culture has three levels: 文化有三个层次：
The artefacts (behaviour of group members) 人工制品（群体成员的行为）
Espoused values (how deal with issues and problems) 支持的价值观（如何处理问题和问题）
Basic underlying assumptions 基本假设
Types of organisational culture are: power culture, role culture, task culture and person culture. 组织文化的类型有：权力文化、角色文化、任务文化和个人文化。
Power culture depends on central force and a beam of influence from the central figure throughout the organisation, small entrepreneurial organisations.
Role culture bureaucracy and works by logic and rationality, role is more important than individual, position is the main source of power. 角色文化官僚主义和工作的逻辑和合理性，角色比个人更重要，地位是权力的主要来源。
Task culture job and project oriented organisation 任务文化、工作和项目导向组织
Personal culture, the individual is in the central focus, when a group of people decide that it is in their own interests to band together.
‘For organisations that manage change effectively, change itself becomes the driving force that leads to future success and growth’ (Hamlin, Keep and Mullins and Christy,2011).
Change is an inevitable and constant feature, an organisation can perform effectively only through interactions with the broader external environmental of which it is part.
Factors that influence change in culture are such as: 影响文化变化的因素包括：
Economic conditions 经济状况
Government interventions 政府干预
Political interests 政治利益
Development in technology 技术发展
Other forces of change could be: 其他变革力量可能包括：
Demand for high quality goods 对高质量商品的需求
Workforce changing nature 劳动力性质的变化
The main pressure of change is from external forces. Planned change represents an international attempt to improve of the organisation.
The objectives of change are: 变革的目标是：
Improving the ability of the organisation 提高组织的能力
Organisational structure is a framework of order and command through which the activities of the organisation can be planned, directed and controlled. The structure defines tasks and responsibilities. Structure is important to any kind of organisation.
The objectives of structure are: the economic and efficient performance, monitoring the activities, flexibility in order to respond to future demands.
There are three types of organisational structure: 组织结构有三种类型：
Tall hierarchical( large organisation tend to have this type of structure, a tall structure have many different levels of employees all reporting at the top to team leaders and then up to operational management, also have a wide chain of command with narrow set of control.
Disadvantage of this type of organisational structure can often lead to slower communication channels and decision-making.
Flat hierarchical (is an organisational structure that has fewer layers of management and wider spans of control, this types of structure of organisation gives workers more responsibility for decision-making, and the also we have more motivated workforce. Advantage of this structure is that the business to change rapidly to respond to the market.)
Matrix (is the combination of the flat structure with tall structure for the business in order to meet its goals. Matrix structure often is used for specific project).
Change management is the set of tools, skills and the processes for managing the people leading to achieve the goals of organisation.