留学生论文Business paper代写参考-苹果的市场结构。本文是一篇由本站代写服务提供的留学生论文代写参考。主要内容是讲述苹果是一家领先的跨国公司，每天都在推出大量的科技产品。这家总部位于美国的公司已经在世界各地推出了自己的产品。最近，苹果公司宣布开发“超级平板电脑”。本篇留学生论文根据市场调查表明，客户对这项新技术的要求很高。在过去的七年里，苹果凭借其富有想象力和新颖的商业方式取得了巨大成功。留学生论文指出通过不断创新，苹果开发出了一系列富有想象力的设计和风格的卓越产品。在现代技术创新中，苹果公司在信息技术世界的扩张中迈出了合理的步伐。这种扩张也迫使其为数不多的竞争对手在竞争激烈的市场上蓬勃发展并生存下来。下面就一起来看一下这篇留学生论文Business paper代写参考的具体内容。
Apple (Iphone) is one of the multinational leading company introducing tremendous technology gadgets day by day. All over the world, this US based company has introduced its products. Recently, Apple has a pronouncement of development of “super tablet” computer. Market researches show that customers’ demands are high for this new technology item. Over the past seven years, Apple has seen great success due to its imaginative and fresh way to do the business. Through continuous innovation, Apple has developed a series of exceptional products with imaginative design and style. In modern technology innovations, Apple Inc. has made reasonable steps in the expansion of information technology world. This expansion also forced its few competitors to boom and survive in the market with due competition
In my points of view, Apple Inc. can be considered stand in difference market structures such as oligopoly and monopolistic competition. Apple Inc. maintains oligopoly market structure in the competition of smart phone brands announcements,but Apple Inc. is known as monopolistic competition in the branded computers. Monopolistic competition in which many sellers are producing highly differentiated products. Monopolistic competition is also known as monopsonistic competition. Monopsonistic competition describes the demand-side seems to be parallel and peer to the monopolistic competition on the supply side.
Some economist states that monopolistic competition is more realistic than perfect competition because products produced by the competitors are heterogeneous (non – homogenous). Imperfect competition does not operate under strict and stringent procedures of perfect competition. In this market scenario of imperfect competition, the entity enjoys the comfort of increasing the price in order to earn maximum profits. Apple Inc. sells the un–identical technology in the market. This enables them to survive in the market effectively and efficiently.
Compare to oligopoly, monopolistic competition has more competitors, thus the apple’s “super tablet” computer is considered as a monopolistic competition. Many other branded computer companies like Samsung, HTC and Dell are strong competitors that share a mobile and tablet computers market internationally. The sales revenue generated by such competitive companies is close enough to Apple inc. that keeps themselves stay competitive. As the name ensure, competitive industry of imperfect nature
Monopolistic competitive market represents the following attributes:垄断竞争市场具有以下特征
There are many producers and many consumers in this approach. Thus, low concentration ratio. For example, the percentage of total sales of industry made by few significant sellers in the industry market.这种方法有许多生产者和许多消费者。因此，浓度比低。例如，行业市场中少数重要卖家在行业总销售额中所占的百分比。
Consumers perceive that there is non-price differences among the competitors’ products i.e. there isproduct differentiation. There is a high non price competition.消费者认为竞争对手的产品之间没有价格差异，即存在产品差异。非价格竞争激烈。
Producers have control over price- they are not “price takers” but the “price makers. This competitive edge provides the entity an opportunity to influence their economic periods.生产者可以控制价格——他们不是“价格接受者”，而是“价格制定者”。这种竞争优势为实体提供了影响其经济时期的机会。
There are fewbarriers to entry and exit. Unlike monopoly, there are no any restrictions to enter in the competitive environment. This means that the short run supernormal profit will bring other producers into the industry sector, and so normal profits only are made in the long run.出入境的障碍很少。与垄断不同，进入竞争环境没有任何限制。这意味着短期的超正常利润将把其他生产商带入工业部门，因此正常利润只能从长期来看。
Apple Inc. executes and carries independent action. There is in mutual interdependence concept in the competitive companies.苹果公司执行并执行独立行动。竞争企业中存在着相互依存的概念。
All entities’ objective is to boost up their profits for a number of periods. And the customer tries to maximize welfare by their purchase form such companies.所有实体的目标都是在一定时期内提高利润。客户试图通过从这些公司购买来实现福利的最大化。
One assumption in this type of market structure is that all the factors of production are mobile. If they are not consumed effectively and efficiently, they could move to any other place where they want to be to fulfill their aims.这种市场结构中的一个假设是，所有的生产要素都是流动的。如果他们没有得到有效和高效的消费，他们可能会搬到任何其他他们想去的地方来实现他们的目标。
Priority reason among Competitors:竞争对手中的优先级原因
Monopolistic competition (Imperfect competition) is the terminology for competitive markets that do not match the requirements of perfect competition. They are competitive, but they are imperfect. Many of the markets in real life can be considered as imperfect competition. Market structures with no competition (monopoly) are excluded. Each participant knows the strengths and weakness of its other competitors as well. Many markets operate among the few competitors. In such markets, a participant may gain advantage by offering a quality product that is just a little better than other competitors–not the best product but the little better product. Such competition usually leads to an efficient use of scarce resources. . High profits encourage the new competitors to enter in the market and those who faces losses, leave the market.
Imperfection and inefficiency 缺陷和低效
Sometimes, monopolistic competition cannot efficiently use their allocated sources. They become inefficient because they mostly depend on market control if any other competitor takes the higher rank by wonderful product introduction. Monopolistic competitive entities have modest level of market control whereas oligopolistic companies have strong degree of market control.
Analysis of Apple Inc. with other Competitive Companies 苹果公司与其他竞争公司的比较分析
Apple has an “i” for revolutionary technology.Since its release, the company’s I‑Phone hasmade a revolutionarychange in the market of cell phones and mobile, tablet computing. One of its popular products, iPadtablet computerhasbecome another twirl change in thetechnology market. In past few years, it was stated that Samsung is a strong competitor to Apple Inc. and engaged in a rivalry relationship. Many economist crews said, Samsung will knock down the Apple Inc. and get the top position as a leading company in the modern era of technology.
Samsung is known as a company whose key strategy is to use economies of scale to gain a competitive advantage. Here is the comparison of both companies regarding their economies of scale that shows that a minor difference in the identical products introduced by Apple Inc. and Samsung may award the great profit to other:
Dichotomy in the makeup of Products 产品构成中的二分法
Apple gets its 15% market share with just three models of phones or tablets. While Samsung takes 30% of the market, it must produce 150 models of smart phones to do so. We can analyze that Apple averages 50 MU per handset model while Samsung averages just 2 MU per model. That’s a 25x difference!
苹果仅凭三种型号的手机或平板电脑就获得了15%的市场份额。虽然三星占据了30%的市场份额，但它必须生产150款智能手机才能做到这一点。我们可以分析，苹果平均每款手机50 MU，而三星平均每款仅2 MU。这是25倍的差距！
More volume of products awards a cost advantages in electronics hardware to the competitive leader. Software development and maintenance becomes complex when it has to fix on a broad range of hardware items. It is amazing to compare that Samsung can depreciate the cost of 150 models of phones across 300 MU as profitably as Apple can amortize the cost of just 3 phones across 150 MU.
更多的产品数量将电子硬件的成本优势授予了具有竞争力的领导者。当必须修复广泛的硬件项目时，软件开发和维护会变得复杂。令人惊讶的是，三星可以将150款手机的成本在300 MU上贬值，就像苹果可以将3款手机的价格在150 MU上摊销一样有利可图。
Short run Approach for Competitive Entities 竞争实体的短期方法
In monopolistic competition, both Apple Inc. and Samsung can behave like monopoliesin the short run, including using market power to generate profit. In the short-run approach, both Apple Inc. and Samsung can normally gain some abnormal profit. But over the long run approach, other competitive companies shall enter in the market due to the low entry barriers. New entries will try to get the competitive edge on the existing companies and try to grab the significant market share in terms of profit. It is assumed that Short run is a time period in which at least one factor of production is fixed.
To earn maximum profits over Samsung, Apple Inc. should produce quantity Qs at price Ps. The firm produce the products where marginal cost (MC) and marginal revenue (MR) curves will meet, because MC is the cost of producing an one more (additional item) of the good and MR is the revenue of selling one more good and their intersecting point shall be most efficient production in favor of Apple Inc. This means that the shaded area between Ps, ACs (average production cost of one item at this defined quantity) and the AR curve (average revenue curve) is the abnormal profit that the Apple Inc will enjoy. AR is equivalent to the demand curve and is the average revenue the Apple Inc. will earn on sold of one item. Production on this point shall award maximum profits for the Apple Inc.
Thus, equilibrium is created in the short run. For maximum profit, Samsung or Apple Inc. both firms have to produce quantity of goods at point Qs where marginal revenue curve coincides with the marginal cost curve. If the company face losses in the short run, such company will quit from competition race and the remaining firms will meet the higher demands on the will of entities on price.
Whereas in the long run approach, it is impossible to earn abnormal profits because of the features and assumption of Monopolistic competition. There are a few large firms, but many small firms that will compete for profit and thus company shall be bound to deflate its prices to achieve targets. Another factor, other competitors of Apple Inc. and Samsung due to low entry barriers in the market structure will enter into the market and further add competition for market share. Finally, the goods are similar enough to ensure that competition will always remain high. The one, who makes slighter difference as said early, will earn maximum profits and achieve not only its primary objectives but the secondary also.
The price of items to be sold plays a key and vital role in establishing an efficient and effective allocation of resources in a market system. Price acts as a sign for surplus and deficit which assist the company respond to changing market conditions and field forces. Apple Inc. should consider the price of super tablets in order to achieve optimum benefits and positive result relevant to their economic concerns. Pricing also plays vital role as a competitive edge to help a business to extract market opportunities.
Theory of price describes that the market price will show intercourse between two opposing concepts. At one side are demand considerations depending on marginal utility; while on the other side are supply considerations that depend on marginal cost. An equilibrium price is supposed to be equal to marginal utility (counted in income units) from the consumer’s perspective and marginal cost from the seller’s side. Every economist accepts this viewpoint, and it defines the gist of economics mainstream, recently this concept has been challenged seriously.
Importance of Price in Apple Inc. Economy 价格在苹果公司经济中的重要性
In the given scenario, management of Apple Inc. has conducted a recent research for the new “super tablet” computer. Consumers demand seems to be high for this electronic item as per research results and the supply of super tablet is reduced, this will boost up the price.
Price stability of product in a long run approach may have also positive outcomes on the profits of Apple Inc. Price stability means to avoid the increase and decrease of that electronic item to be sold. Following points encourages avoids the negative results of economies of scale:
Price stability shall chip in to achieve high levels of economic activity ;价格稳定应发挥作用，以实现高水平的经济活动；
Increase the limpidity of the price mechanism of super tablet. People can find changes in relative prices (i.e. prices between different products and articles), without being untidy by changes in the overall price dimensions of competitors similar electronic items;提高超级平板电脑价格机制的透明度。人们可以发现相对价格（即不同产品和物品之间的价格）的变化，而不会因竞争对手类似电子产品的整体价格维度的变化而混乱；
Encourage buyer to make high demands and to use his scarce resources more effectively and efficiently by comparisons with strong competitors;鼓励买方提出高要求，并通过与强大的竞争对手进行比较，更有效地利用其稀缺资源；
Discourages useless exertion to draw barrier against the negative impact of inflation or deflation;不鼓励无用的努力来消除通货膨胀或通货紧缩的负面影响；
Avoids contortions of inflation or deflation, which can have worse impact on economic behavior of social security systems and taxation requirements;避免通货膨胀或通货紧缩的扭曲，这可能会对社会保障体系的经济行为和税收要求产生更严重的影响；
Preventing an imperious division of wealth and income as a result of unexpected deflation or inflation.防止由于意外的通货紧缩或通货膨胀而造成财富和收入的过度分配。
Thus, price of super tablet charged by Apple Inc. is the most important business decisions management has to make for the achievement of budgeted profits.For example, unlike the other units of the marketing mix (product, place & promotion), pricing decisions affect the revenue or sales figure than the cost factor. Pricing also requires being congruent with the other elements of the marketing mix, since it shapes to the perception of a product by consumers. In short, setting a price of super tablet that may too high or too low will limit the growth of a business. At worst, it may result serious paradox for sales and cash flow of Apple Inc.
Market force Analysis in Long run approach 长期方法中的市场力量分析
Market forces can be explained as way that the behavior of Apple Inc (seller) and buyers affects the price and wages levels, without any government intervention. Marketing mix (product, place and promotion) seems to be more important than price, and thus requires more attention of Apple Inc., but determining the price of “super tablet” is actually one of the most important decisions of management. This robust concept introduces the competitive forces in the market and ensures that innovation in the inventions of Apple Inc. in the form of “super tablet” is at the frontline of any industry policy.
In long run, demand and supply forces represents the whole influence on buyers and sellers on quantity and price of the super tablets offered in the market. In general,excessive demand may result increase in price and quantity, and excess supply causes it to fall. In particular, market researchers should examine changing patterns in customer demands which may show that a longer term change in economy is occurring. Changes that continue over a long term approach may be included as a portion of the business cycle of an economic period. When economic forces are restricted, supply and demand decides the prices of goods and Prices. As a result, force businesses what to produce; if people want more of a particular item, the price of the good rises.
Some of the advantages and disadvantages of market forces are entailed below:市场力量的一些优点和缺点如下
Apple Inc. may produces a wide range of super tablets to meet the buyers’s wants 苹果公司可能会生产多种超级平板电脑来满足买家的需求
The market force responds instantly to consumer’s wants 市场力量对消费者的需求做出即时反应
Market system promotes the use of new and improved techniques and machines to produce improved version of super tablets 市场体系促进使用新的和改进的技术和机器来生产改进版的超级药片
factors of production will be used if profit is earned at level required 如果利润达到所需水平，将使用生产要素
the free market can fail to provide certain items due to inherent market limitations 由于固有的市场限制，自由市场可能无法提供某些商品
the free market may promote the use of harmful goods that may result in litigation and claims 自由市场可能会促进有害商品的使用，从而导致诉讼和索赔
the production’s social effects and needs may be filtered 生产的社会影响和需求可能会被过滤掉
the market structure allocates more products to those buyers who are financially strong 市场结构将更多的产品分配给那些经济实力雄厚的买家
When prices are not allowed to increase in comparison with market level, suppliers may not provide demanded “super tablet” computers as buyer want. In simple words, shortages of super tablet computers will be found in the market. These shortages become serious sometimes. Nevertheless, if prices set are low than market level, more consumers shall be able to buy the electronic item. When Apple Inc. management does not allow reducing their price from market level, suppliers may supply more electronic items than consumers needs.
Market gives necessary information for both seller and buyers to make important decisions for the daily market deals. This is a universal rule that we need things from others and others need things from us. Somehow, both the buyer and seller find their own equilibrium point.
Consequences if Apple Inc. fails to introduce Innovation 如果苹果公司未能引入创新的后果
Objectives are the strategic goals of an entity. Conversion of goals into measurable targets is possible through a cataract process that flows from Company’s objectives, to planned business unit objectives, to operate plans for execution of a successful business. To survive in today’s competitive business era, organizations have to understand the factors that cause the entities to achieve their objectives efficiently and effectively.
A goal-management solution ensures that employee goals and objectives should corroborate with the vision, mission and strategic goals of the entire entity. Goal-management provides company with a technique to effectively and efficiently communicate entity’s goals and corporate objectives to each individual employed in the entire organization. Information Technology affects corporate challenges and creates opportunities and issues that management of an organization need to address in many aspects of their business to execute it in effective and efficient manner.
Instant changes in information technology have created a market, and a society, where information plays vital role for strong competition among competitors. For Apple Inc. its patent may be its software technology patents that are used as intangible assets. For most businesses, its information database is the most valuable and priceless commodities it owns.
It is mandatory for an organization to introduce change in its environment according to the market situation. In the same scenario, if Apple Inc. fails to meet changes of innovation and marketing, it may not only have worst impact on the economy of Apple Inc. but the going concern also affects. If Apple Inc. fails to achieve the innovation requirements in its products then it will have nothing to work towards. Following issues may arise if Apple Inc fails to meet marketing requirements and innovation in technology items:
Entity shall not be able to survive in market due to strong competitors 由于强大的竞争对手，实体将无法在市场上生存
Low profits due to reduced revenues 收入减少导致利润低
Once a customer is diverted to other entity, it is difficult to bring him again 一旦客户被转移到其他实体，就很难再把他带回来
Chances of economic growth will become low 经济增长的机会将变低
Here is the practical example of Nokia. What happened to Nokia, Reason is: Apple and Android ruined it. But the reasons for that failure are a bit more mysterious. Historically, after all, Nokia had been a surprisingly adaptive company; but shifting to new era create problem for its survival.
Some of the reasons are given below by the suitable research about their failure:以下通过对其失败的适当研究给出了一些原因
“They lost contact with their customers.” True, — and interesting to notice that this is the same Nokia company that in the early 2000s was applause to its customer responses.
“They failed to introduce the necessary technology requirements.” This might be the significant issue.
“They didn’t recognize that competition basis was shifting from the hardware to the ecosystem.” Not really true — the “ecosystem” battle was initiated in the early 2000s, with Nokia joining forces with Motorola, and Ericsson to create Symbian as a technological platform that kept the Microsoft at bay.
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Kondratenko, Anatoly, 2013 Probability Economics: Market Force in The Price Space.