Teaching Assignment写作范文:Critical Reflection to Reduce Inequality in Education

发布时间:2022-02-18 13:55:56 论文编辑:cinq888

Teaching Assignment写作范文-减少教育不平等的批判性反思。本文是一篇留学生教学管理方向的Assignment写作范文,主要内容是讲述教学的现实与一个无偏见的教师填补未受污染科目的空洞头脑的形象相去甚远。相反,老师在与学生见面之前就带着先入为主的想法和假设进入课堂。学生们带着一个“虚拟书包”走进教室,里面有关于世界的经验、知识和想法。就连课堂本身也存在于一个教育系统中,该系统目前的运作是以牺牲他人为代价来促进某些类型的人的成功。下面就请参考Teaching Assignment写作范文的具体内容。

Assignment写作范文

The realities of teaching are far removed from the image of an unbiased teacher filling the empty minds of untainted subjects. Instead, the teacher enters their classroom with preconceived ideas and assumptions before even meeting their students (Gobby & Karnovsky, 2017, p. 62). The students enter the classroom with a ‘virtual schoolbag’ of experiences, knowledge and ideas about the world (McGregor & Mills, 2017, p. 373). Even the classroom itself resides within an education system which currently operates to promote the success of some types of people at the expense of others (Gobby & Millei, 2017, p. 48; Gowlett & Niesche, 2017, p. 355; Monchinski, 2008, p. 119).

When left to progress without question, these factors can limit the educational opportunities available to students (Down, 2017, p. 121). Using socio-economic status [SES] as an example, this essay will outline the way that student contexts currently cause educational divides. It will then illustrate the ways in which these divides are reinforced by the culture of the education system. It is then argued that the application of critical analysis by teaching staff can begin to reduce the educational inequalities that exist in the education system. Finally, it is argued that the use of critical pedagogies can help teachers empower students to create a more just world for themselves.
毫无疑问,这些因素会限制学生的受教育机会。本文将以社会经济地位[SES]为例,概述当前学生环境导致教育分化的方式。然后,它将说明教育系统的文化如何加强这些分歧。然后,有人认为,教师应用批判性分析可以开始减少教育系统中存在的教育不平等。最后,有人认为,批判性教学法的使用可以帮助教师授权学生为自己创造一个更公正的世界。
The use of critically reflective practice, where teachers seek out and question common assumptions, norms and practices (Down, 2017, p. 119), is vital to the reduction of inequality in education. Teachers need to acknowledge and understand the cultural powers causing advantage and disadvantage in their classroom. They can then critically assess the norms and assumptions working to further strengthen these powers, adjusting their teaching methods to increase the educational opportunities available to all students.
批判性反思实践的使用,即教师寻求并质疑共同的假设、规范和实践,对于减少教育不平等至关重要。教师需要承认并理解造成课堂优势和劣势的文化力量。然后,他们可以批判性地评估规范和假设,以进一步增强这些能力,调整教学方法,增加所有学生的教育机会。
The social contexts of students control educational outcomes in Australia. In an ideal world, students from all backgrounds would have an equal opportunity to access education and achieve success. This is one of the goals of education in Australia (Ministerial Council on Education, Employment, Training and Youth Affairs [MCEETYA], 2008, p. 7). Yet, the reality of education in Australia looks different from this ideal. Social characteristics such as gender, race, location and SES are overwhelmingly linked to a student’s level of schooling success (Gowlett & Niesche, 2017, p. 356).
在澳大利亚,学生的社会环境控制着教育结果。在一个理想的世界里,所有背景的学生都有平等的机会接受教育并取得成功。这是澳大利亚教育的目标之一(教育、就业、培训和青年事务部长理事会。然而,澳大利亚的教育现实似乎与这种理想有所不同。性别、种族、地理位置和社会经济地位等社会特征与学生的学业成功程度密切相关。
For students with a low SES, this divide in achievement begins in primary school, as shown by the 2017 NAPLAN results (Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority [ACARA], 2017). These results reveal that as a national average, for all year levels and in all domains tested, mean scores increased as parental education levels increased. The same results were found for parental occupation groups, where student mean scores increased as the rank of the occupation of at least one of their parents increased.
对于SES较低的学生,这种成绩差异始于小学,如2017年NAPLAN结果所示。这些结果表明,作为全国平均水平,在所有年度水平和所有测试领域,平均分数随着父母教育水平的提高而增加。在父母职业组中也发现了同样的结果,学生的平均分数随着至少一位父母职业等级的增加而增加。
These statistics demonstrate a sizeable achievement gap between those born in to relative wealth and status and those who are not. In addition to a significant achievement gap there is also a significant completion gap. For example, 60% of students in the lowest SES decile complete Year 12 or an equivalent qualification, while almost 90% of their peers in the highest SES decile achieve this (Lamb, Jackson, Walstab & Huo, as cited in Gowlett & Niesche, 2017, p. 355).
这些统计数据表明,出生在相对富裕和地位较高的家庭与出生在相对富裕和地位较低的家庭之间存在着巨大的成就差距。除了巨大的成就差距,还有巨大的完成差距。例如,60%的SES分数最低的学生完成了12年级或同等学历,而SES分数最高的学生中有近90%达到了这一要求。
Leaving school early can be associated with lower income levels and higher rates of unemployment (OECD, 2012, p. 3). This leaves students who come from a lower SES with lower employment prospects for life. Students from a lower SES are one of many cultural groups who are disadvantaged in the Australian education system.
过早的离开学校与较低的收入水平和较高的失业率有关。这使得来自社会经济地位较低的学生的终身就业前景较低。社会经济地位较低的学生是澳大利亚教育体系中处境不利的众多文化群体之一。
Other academically disadvantaged groups include Indigenous students, males, and students living in regional or remote areas (Lamb et al., as cited in Gowlett & Niesche, 2017, p. 355). By using critically reflective practice, teachers can reject the traditional deficit model where these disadvantaged students are labelled lazy or incompetent (Down, 2017, p. 122).
其他学术弱势群体包括土著学生、男性和居住在地区或偏远地区的学生。通过批判性反思实践,教师可以摒弃传统的赤字模式,即这些处境不利的学生被贴上懒惰或无能的标签。
Instead, teachers can reflect on the powers causing disadvantage and alter their pedagogy to better meet the unique needs of their students. The cause of the achievement gap is not due to the failure of the students or families to measure up, but rather, the failure of the school system to deliver relevant and meaningful content to these students.
相反,教师可以反思造成劣势的力量,改变教学方法,更好地满足学生的独特需求。成绩差距的原因不是学生或家庭未能达到标准,而是学校系统未能向这些学生提供相关且有意义的内容。
Educational divides are reinforced by the current system. Males, Indigenous students, students from remote areas and students from the bottom five SES deciles do not have lower-than-average completion rates due to being unintelligent or having a poor work ethic (Bauman, as cited in Pearce, 2017, p. 203).
目前的体制加剧了教育上的分歧。男性、土著学生、边远地区学生和社会经济地位最低的五分之一学生的毕业率并不低于平均水平,因为他们不聪明或缺乏职业道德。
This type of deficit thinking of disadvantaged groups is an alarmingly common assumption among teachers (Mills & Keddie, 2012, p. 12). The issue lies predominantly with a broken education system which was designed for certain types of students and which values middle- and upper-class types of knowledge and behaviours. Teachers themselves are predominantly middle-class Anglo-Australians who tend to embrace the cultural values of that group (Allard & Santoro, as cited in Mills & Keddie, 2012, p. 9; Pearce, 2017, p. 209).
在教师中,这种对弱势群体的赤字思维是一种令人担忧的普遍假设。问题主要在于为某些类型的学生设计的、重视中产阶级和上层阶级类型的知识和行为的破碎的教育体系。教师本身主要是英澳中产阶级,他们倾向于接受这一群体的文化价值观。
Thus, disadvantaged students are often behind from the moment they begin formal education, carrying with them behaviours, knowledge and experiences that are not always valued by schools and teachers (McGregor & Mills, 2017, p. 373). Bourdieu (as cited in McGregor & Mills, 2017, p. 375) describes these gaps in middle-class experiences and skills as a lack of ‘cultural capital’. Labels are often ascribed to these students, such as ‘slow’ or ‘naughty’, which commonly come to define the relationship these children have with their teachers for the entirety of their school years (Pearce, 2017, p. 204). Inequality is then further entrenched by government policies. These policies include the promotion of school choice, and a one-size-fits-all national curriculum.
因此,弱势学生往往从开始接受正规教育的那一刻起就落后了,他们的行为、知识和经验并不总是受到学校和教师的重视。布尔迪厄将中产阶级经验和技能的这些差距描述为缺乏“文化资本”。标签通常被归为这些学生,比如“慢”或“顽皮”,这通常用来定义这些孩子在整个学年与老师的关系。政府政策进一步巩固了不平等性。这些政策包括促进学校选择和一刀切的全国课程。
A report by the OECD (2012, p. 10) suggests that when parents have complete choice over their child’s schooling, segregation tends to occur. This leads to greater inequality, with whole schools becoming disadvantaged. Studies also show that when students attend a school with a more socio-economically diverse population, they have a greater chance to succeed (Teese, 2010, p. 31).
经合组织(OECD)的一份报告指出,当父母对子女的教育有完全的选择时,隔离往往会发生。这导致了更大的不平等,整个学校都处于不利地位。研究还表明,当学生就读于社会经济更加多样化的学校时,他们有更大的成功机会。
The segregation of students into low or high SES schools therefore poses a problem when trying to achieve equitable access to education for all students. The policy of a national curriculum poses an addition problem for equity. The national curriculum reflects the ideology of the stakeholders of the times, therefore presenting limited viewpoints which may exclude particular groups of people (Pearce, 2017, p. 209). The national curriculum also intends to regulate the content that can be taught in classrooms (Gobby, 2017, p. 17). National high-stakes testing then encourages teachers to stick to the curriculum and discourages creativity in the classroom (Walker & Gobby, 2017, p. 329).
因此,在努力为所有学生实现平等的受教育机会时,将学生分入低或高SES学校是一个问题。国家课程政策给公平带来了额外的问题。国家课程反映了时代利益相关者的意识形态,因此提出的观点有限,可能会排除特定人群。国家课程还打算规范课堂教学内容。然后,国家高风险测试鼓励教师坚持课程,抑制课堂上的创造力。
The results of this narrowing curriculum are rising levels of disengagement from school, with one in four students in Australia failing to complete secondary school (Lamb et al., as cited in Gowlett & Niesche, 2017, p. 355). Walker and Gobby (2017, p. 329) argue that the adverse effects of high-stakes testing are most prominent in schools servicing low SES areas. This creates a conflict of values between what schools are teaching and what students want to learn.
这种课程缩减的结果是辍学率上升,澳大利亚每四名学生中就有一人未能完成中学学业。沃克和戈比认为,高风险测试的负面影响在服务于低SES地区的学校中最为突出。这在学校教学内容和学生想学的内容之间产生了价值冲突。
Teachers need to reject the idea that some students are doomed to fail and embrace the belief that all students can become engaged in learning (McGregor & Mills, 2017, p. 377). This is a core tenet of critically reflective practice. The principles of critically reflective practice can help teachers make a difference in their classroom and increase the chances of success for disadvantaged students.
教师需要摒弃一些学生注定要失败的观念,接受所有学生都可以参与学习的信念。这是批判性反思实践的核心原则。批判性反思实践的原则可以帮助教师在课堂上有所作为,增加弱势学生的成功机会。
Critically reflective practice can reduce the effects of classroom inequality. Critically reflective practice means questioning the assumptions that teachers and policy-makers may take for granted. It is acknowledged that teachers on their own cannot eliminate all inequalities faced by students in the education system (Monchinski, 2008, p. 119; Smyth, 2012, p. 11).
批判性反思实践可以减少课堂不平等的影响。批判性反思实践意味着质疑教师和决策者可能认为理所当然的假设。人们承认,教师本身无法消除学生在教育系统中面临的所有不平等。
However, teachers can make a difference and successfully engage students who would otherwise have missed out on learning opportunities. If the norm is to assume that students are failing because of their lack of ability or family circumstances, and therefore they are beyond help, critically reflective teachers need to instead form a relationship with these students and together identify the unique barriers they are facing (Pearce, 2017, p. 207).
然而,教师可以有所作为,成功地吸引那些原本会错过学习机会的学生。如果标准是假设学生因缺乏能力或家庭环境而失败,因此无法获得帮助,批判性反思教师需要与这些学生建立关系,共同确定他们面临的独特障碍。
Once the real barriers are identified, rather than simply assumed, the school, student and family can find ways to help the student overcome these barriers. Another common assumption is that the students in disadvantaged schools aren’t capable of learning to the same level as elite schools, and thus deserve an ‘easier’ curriculum.
一旦确定了真正的障碍,而不是简单地假设,学校、学生和家庭就可以找到方法帮助学生克服这些障碍。另一个常见的假设是,弱势学校的学生无法学习到与精英学校相同的水平,因此应该有一个“更容易”的课程。
In reality, research shows that a rigorous curriculum of high expectations helps students in socio-economically disadvantaged schools achieve higher learning outcomes (OECD, 2012, p. 136). This shows that there are ways for teachers to bring more opportunities to disadvantaged students, if they are willing to challenge common assumptions. Teachers also need to be critically reflective of their own long-held views. This is especially true as the profession is largely made up of middle-class Anglo-Australians (Allard & Santoro, as cited in Mills & Keddie, 2012, p. 9; Pearce, 2017, p. 209).
事实上,研究表明,严格的高期望课程有助于社会经济弱势学校的学生取得更高的学习成绩。这表明,如果教师愿意挑战常见的假设,他们有办法为处境不利的学生带来更多机会。教师还需要批判性地反思自己长期持有的观点。这一点尤其正确,因为该行业主要由中产阶级英澳人士组成。
As such, they may hold pre-conceived ideas about the different groups of students found in Australian schools. Teachers need to realise they may hold biased assumptions and that these assumptions are typically reinforced by the official curriculum and policies created for schools (Pearce, 2017, p. 209). If these assumptions are recreating inequalities in their classroom, teachers need to actively work against them. It is impossible to be neutral in this case, as by refusing to change their habits, the teacher is actively agreeing with the assumptions and policies which are creating disadvantage (Down, 2017, p. 120; Horton & Freire, as cited in Smyth, Down, & McInerney, 2014, p. 94).
因此,他们可能对澳大利亚学校的不同学生群体持有预先设想的想法。教师需要意识到,他们可能持有有偏见的假设,而这些假设通常会被为学校制定的官方课程和政策所强化。如果这些假设在他们的课堂上重现不平等,教师需要积极地反对它们。在这种情况下,不可能保持中立,因为通过拒绝改变他们的习惯,教师积极同意造成不利影响的假设和政策。
By integrating critically reflective practice into their work, teachers can begin unravelling the power that social norms have over students and expand their educational opportunities. By integrating critical pedagogies into their classroom, teachers can also demonstrate to students the way to question unjust customs in their homes and communities.
通过将批判性反思实践融入到工作中,教师可以开始解开社会规范对学生的影响,并扩大他们的教育机会。通过将批判性教学法融入课堂,教师还可以向学生展示质疑家庭和社区中不公正习俗的方法。
Critical pedagogies can empower students to challenge inequality themselves. One of the goals of education in Australia is to help create confident, active and informed citizens who are ready to participant fully in society (MCEETYA, 2008, p. 7). One of the ways teachers can do this is by using critical pedagogies in their classroom. Teachers who do this do not merely impart pre-packaged knowledge onto eagerly awaiting students, rather, they encourage students to see this knowledge in its own social and historical contexts (Down, 2017, p. 127). They teach students how to research and become critical thinkers themselves, continuing to evaluate the information they will be bombarded with in their everyday lives.
批判性教学法可以让学生自己挑战不平等。澳大利亚教育的目标之一是帮助培养自信、积极和知情的公民,他们准备充分参与社会。教师可以做到这一点的方法之一是在课堂上使用批判性教学法。这样做的教师不仅仅是将预先包装好的知识传授给急切等待的学生,他们还鼓励学生在自己的社会和历史背景中看待这些知识。他们教会学生如何进行研究,自己成为批判性思考者,继续评估他们在日常生活中会遇到的信息。
Teachers using critical pedagogies have a classroom build on democratic principles, where students have a say in how learning happens and what they learn (Down, 2017, p. 129). When students have input into what happens in the classroom, they are participating in curriculum negotiation. This is one of the core principles of student-centred teaching and learning (Walker, 2017, p. 462). The OECD (2012, p. 136) recommend integrating student-centred instruction with the nationally administered curriculum and assessment practices to achieve better academic outcomes for students in disadvantaged schools.
使用批判性教学法的教师有一个建立在民主原则基础上的教室,在那里,学生对学习如何发生和学习内容有发言权。当学生输入课堂上发生的事情时,他们就参与了课程协商。这是以学生为中心的教学的核心原则之一。OECD建议将以学生为中心的教学与国家管理的课程和评估实践相结合,为处境不利的学校的学生取得更好的学业成绩。
Smyth (2012, p. 13) argues that the practices of middle-class schools which rely on blind compliance simply will not work in socio-economically disadvantaged schools. Schools instead need to become listeners, giving students and families a real say in how learning will happen (Smyth, 2012, p. 13). This may then empower them to rally for change in other areas of society (Smyth et al., 2014, p. 100). Gobby (2017, p. 22) argues that the way the classroom is organised teaches children about how the world works. They learn about power and authority.
Smyth认为,中产阶级学校依靠盲从的做法根本不适用于社会经济条件较差的学校。相反,学校需要成为倾听者,让学生和家庭在学习过程中有真正的发言权。这可能会使他们能够团结起来,在社会的其他领域进行变革。戈比认为,课堂的组织方式教会了孩子们世界是如何运转的。他们学习权力和权威。
Classrooms which are organised in an authoritarian manner may implicitly teach students how to obey authority or accept the consequences (Gobby, 2017, p. 22). Students in this type of classroom may feel they have no voice to stand up for witnessed injustices. By operating the classroom in a more democratic way, students can learn how to become active democratic citizens and how to make their voice count (Smyth et al., 2014, p. 100).
以威权主义方式组织的课堂可能会含蓄地教会学生如何服从权威或接受后果。这种教室里的学生可能会觉得,他们没有声音为目睹的不公正行为辩护。通过以更民主的方式操作课堂,学生可以学习如何成为积极的民主公民,以及如何让自己的声音有价值。
Most importantly, all students are more likely to engage in their learning if they have had a say in the way it will happen (Walker, 2017, pp. 462-463). Thus, using critical pedagogies increase the educational opportunities available to students. Critical pedagogies also enable the teacher and students to achieve a greater understanding of the cultural powers that exist in our society to cause advantages for some and disadvantages for others.
最重要的是,如果所有学生都对学习方式有发言权,他们就更有可能参与学习。因此,使用批判性教学法可以增加学生的教育机会。批判性教学法还使教师和学生能够更好地理解我们社会中存在的文化力量,这些力量对某些人有利,对另一些人不利。
The school system that teachers currently work in was created by and for the advantaged groups of society. Australian education is rife with advantaged and disadvantaged students, with a large gap between those who succeed and those who do not. A deep understanding of the societal powers creating these divides is required by all teachers who wish to be a part of the movement of change towards a more equitable education system.
教师目前工作的学校体系是由社会上的优势群体创建的,也是为社会上的优势群体创建的。澳大利亚的教育充斥着优势学生和劣势学生,成功者和不成功者之间存在巨大差距。所有希望成为朝着更公平的教育制度转变运动的一部分的教师,都需要深刻理解造成这些分歧的社会力量。
Teachers also need to realise how the education system itself feeds into the existing inequalities by the way it is structured and orchestrated. However, understanding these powers alone is not enough to change them. Teachers need to possess the courage required to go against commonly held beliefs and assumptions about the way students learn and the capabilities they possess. Critically reflective practice is the crucial component needed to get there.
教师们还需要意识到,教育体系本身是如何通过其结构和编排方式,加剧现有的不平等的。然而,仅仅了解这些力量还不足以改变它们。教师需要有勇气去反对关于学生学习方式和能力的普遍信念和假设。批判性反思练习是实现这一目标所需的关键组成部分。
Critically reflective practice seeks out the ideas and behaviours which may cause inequality, followed by actively working to change these ideas and behaviours. Critically reflective practice also brings critical pedagogies into the classroom, recognising that by equipping students with the skills to question information and norms, a ripple effect can begin to spread out into the broader community. Students are given a greater voice in the classroom. They can then use these critical thinking skills to create democratic changes in their world. Teachers alone cannot eliminate the structural inequalities of Australia’s education system. They can, however, engage their students with more equitable styles of learning, and begin to equip them with the skills and passions to have more control over their own futures.

References 参考文献
Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority [ACARA]. (2017). NAPLAN Achievement in Reading, Writing, Language Conventions and Numeracy: National Report for 2017.
Down, B. (2017). Critically reflective practice: What is it and why is it needed now? In B. Gobby & R. Walker (Eds.), Powers of curriculum: Sociological perspectives on education (pp. 60-85). South Melbourne: Oxford University Press.
Gobby, B. (2017). What is curriculum? In B. Gobby & R. Walker (Eds.), Powers of curriculum: Sociological perspectives on education (pp. 5-34). South Melbourne: Oxford University Press.
Gobby, B. & Karnovsky, S. (2017). Questioning how and what we know: new concepts to approach education. In B. Gobby & R. Walker (Eds.), Powers of curriculum: Sociological perspectives on education (pp. 60-85). South Melbourne: Oxford University Press.
Gobby, B. & Millei, Z. (2017). Schooling, its history and power. In B. Gobby & R. Walker (Eds.), Powers of curriculum: Sociological perspectives on education (pp. 36-59). South Melbourne: Oxford University Press.
Gowlett, C. & Niesche, R. (2017). Learner diversity and school practices. In B. Gobby & R. Walker (Eds.), Powers of curriculum: Sociological perspectives on education (pp. 353-372). South Melbourne: Oxford University Press.
McGregor, G. & Mills, M. (2017). The virtual schoolbag and pedagogies of engagement. In B. Gobby & R. Walker (Eds.), Powers of curriculum: Sociological perspectives on education (pp. 372-392). South Melbourne: Oxford University Press.
Mills, C. & Keddie, A. (2012). ‘Fixing’ student deficit in contexts of diversity: Another cautionary tale for pre-service teacher education. International Journal of Pedagogies and Learning, 7, 9-19.
Ministerial Council on Education, Employment, Training and Youth Affairs [MCEETYA]. (2008). Melbourne Declaration on Educational Goals for Young Australians.
Monchinski, T. (2008). Critical pedagogy and the everyday classroom. In T. Monchinski (Ed.), Critical pedagogy and the everyday classroom (pp. 115-139). Dordrecht: Springer.
OECD. (2012). Equity and quality in education: Supporting disadvantaged students and schools.
Pearce, J. (2017). The trap of binary thinking: Problematising gender and social disadvantage. In B. Gobby & R. Walker (Eds.), Powers of curriculum: Sociological perspectives on education (pp. 195-214). South Melbourne: Oxford University Press.
Smyth, J. (2012). The socially just school and critical pedagogies in communities put at disadvantage. Critical studies in education, 53, 9-18.
Smyth, J., Down, B., & McInerney, P. (2014). Socially critical pedagogy of teaching. In J. Smyth, B. Down, & P. McInerney (Eds.), The socially just school (pp. 93-110). Netherlands: Springer.
Teese, R. (2010). Is growth of private schooling good for raising standards for all children? Dissent, 33, 30-33.
Walker, R. (2017). Student-centred approaches to planning in primary and secondary schools. In B. Gobby & R. Walker (Eds.), Powers of curriculum: Sociological perspectives on education (pp. 445-470). South Melbourne: Oxford University Press.
Walker, R. & Gobby, B. (2017). Testing times for assessment and pedagogy. In B. Gobby & R. Walker (Eds.), Powers of curriculum: Sociological perspectives on education (pp. 323-349). South Melbourne: Oxford University Press.

Teaching Assignment写作范文通过批判性反思实践寻求可能导致不平等的想法和行为,然后积极努力改变这些想法和行为。批判性反思实践还将批判性教学法引入课堂,认识到通过让学生掌握质疑信息和规范的技能,一种连锁反应可以开始蔓延到更广泛的社区。学生在教室里有更大的发言权。然后,他们可以利用这些批判性思维技能在他们的世界中创造民主变革。仅靠教师无法消除澳大利亚教育系统的结构性不平等。然而,他们可以用更公平的学习方式吸引学生,并开始让他们掌握更多的技能和激情,从而更好地控制自己的未来。

本站提供各国各专业Assignment写作指导服务,如有需要可咨询本平台。


如果您有论文代写需求,可以通过下面的方式联系我们
点击联系客服