本文是留学生assignment作业代写范例，题目是“Apple, Inc. as a Multinational Corporation: Strategy and Management（苹果公司作为一家跨国公司:战略与管理）”，本文试图回顾跨国公司的角色和声誉。它还将试图审查他们如何在所有跨国公司的竞争世界中生存下来。
This paper attempts to review what Multinational Corporations’ roles and reputation. It will also attempt to review how they survive in the competitive world of all the Multinational Corporations out there. Apple, Inc. is an example of a Multinational Corporations and this paper will discuss the background and the strategies that Apple, Inc. to be able call themselves as one of the most successful company out there. In this paper, there will be a discussion on how Apple, Inc. adapts being one of the most successful Multinational Corporations out there. Next, in this paper, there will be discussions about the implications for management. Lastly, there will be recommendations that Apple, Inc. should take so that they can continue to be a successful corporation.
Apple, Inc. is a multinational corporation that started out with Steve Jobs. He and his friend, Steve Wozniak, were high school drop outs (MarketLine Company Profile: Apple Inc., 2019). They started Apple in Steve Job’s basement (MarketLine Company Profile: Apple Inc., 2019). They created the first Apple computer in April of 1976 (MarketLine Company Profile: Apple Inc., 2019). They introduced the 2nd computer which brought sales from 35,000 computers in 1979 to 78,000 computers in 1980. In 1980, the company had 1,000 employees and they went public. In the early 1990s they created the Macintosh which was extremely successful. There was a power struggle among the executives, so Steve Jobs left the company along with other executive.
苹果公司是由Steve Job创立的跨国公司。他和他的朋友Steve Wozniak是高中辍学生(MarketLine Company Profile: Apple Inc., 2019)。他们在Steve Job的地下室创立了苹果公司(MarketLine Company Profile: Apple Inc., 2019)。1976年4月，他们创造了第一台苹果电脑(MarketLine Company Profile: Apple Inc., 2019)。他们推出了第二代计算机，使其销量从1979年的3.5万台增加到1980年的7.8万台。1980年，该公司拥有1000名员工，并上市。在20世纪90年代早期，他们创造了麦 Macintosh，非常成功。高管之间存在权力斗争，所以Steve Job和其他高管离开了公司。
Multinational Corporations, or otherwise known as MNCs, are huge industrial organizations that have multiple subsidiaries and facilities in multiple countries (Chen, 2018). The subsidiaries that are in multiple countries are run by a parent company. Multinational Corporations play a very important role in with economics for undeveloped countries (Chen, 2018). Multinational Corporations advance from outsourcing their parts for their products to low wage countries which keep producing cost low and achieve bigger profit margins (Boersma & Clarke, 2018).Multinational Corporations become successful by adopting economic, political, and other factors in the respect of host countries (Sageder and Feldbauer-Durstmuller, 2018).
跨国公司(或称跨国公司)是在多个国家拥有多个子公司和设施的大型产业组织(Chen, 2018)。在多个国家的子公司是由一个母公司经营的。跨国公司在欠发达国家的经济中扮演着非常重要的角色(Chen, 2018。跨国公司从将其产品的零部件外包到低工资国家，这些国家保持低生产成本并获得更大的利润空间(Boersma & Clarke, 2018)。跨国公司通过采用东道国的经济、政治和其他因素获得成功(Sageder和Feldbauer-Durstmuller, 2018)。
Multinational Corporations have the responsibility to preserve their integrity of their value chain. They need to make sure they don’t have any unresolved human rights, environmental and ethical dilemmas.
In the review of literature, I will begin to explain what a Multinational Corporations is and how they face a more intense competence and higher number of changes in the different countries that operate. Then I will continue to talk about Multinational Corporations’ roles and reputation. Next, I will talk about management control and how Multinational Corporations survive in today’s competitive world. Executing management is crucial for Multinational Corporations. Next, I will talk about the sustainability of Apple, Inc. as a Multinational Corporations. Lastly, I will talk about the human rights, ethical and environmental dilemmas that occurred within Apple, Inc. In the research findings, I will talk about the discussion of the disadvantages and advantages of Multinational Corporations.
Apple Inc. is an example of a Multinational Corporations. Apple Inc. is one of the most well-known Multinational Corporations in the world. They are one of the richest of the entire Multinational Corporations. They are a great example to use to explain how Multinational Corporations work. First, I will talk about their missions and values and how they implement it all in their business strategies. Using Apple Inc., we can then determine Multinational Corporations corporate social responsibility for actions by its suppliers.
Then I will discuss the SWOT analysis for Apple, Inc. I will then talk about Apple’s marketing strategy and how they make their company as successful as they are today. Apple, Inc. uses several different marketing and generic strategies for their business plan. I will analyze Apple’s financial situation. In the end, I will talk about the implications for managers that are used to motivate employees to achieve organizational effectiveness. Lastly, I will give Apple, Inc. recommendations that they can use to improve their business and become more successful.
Brown talked about the effective protection of workers’ health and safety in global supply chains. Using qualitative data, he mentions that protecting workers’ health and safety has become a big problem especially in countries where governments don’t have the political will or resources (Brown, 2015). Asia is a good example of country that does not protect their workers and sacrifice safety and health for foreign investment (Brown, 2015).
Apple is the most dominated company in the consumer electronic supply chain (Aguilera-Caracuel, Guerrero-Villegas & García-Sánchez, 2017). They have created a closed ecosystem where they control different parts of the supply chains such as design and retail (Aguilera-Caracuel, et al., 2017). Their combination of increasing gross revenues and maintaining their high gross profit margin for each of their product that they launch, they are getting big amounts of cash, They continue to be the best in the electronics component supply chain (Aguilera-Caracuel, et al., 2017). This control of operations of business activities is defined as supply chain management. Value chain is about the full range of activities which are crucial to take a product or service through the whole entire process (Aguilera-Caracuel, et al., 2017).
Sustainable management of supply chains is the accomplishment of an organization’s social, environmental, and economic goals of the business process to progress long-term economic performance of corporations and their supply chains (Aguilera-Caracuel, et al., 2017). Their supply chain plays a role in protecting workers’ health and safety. There has been a shift on concentrating on the issues relating to labor and workplace issues, which included low wages, working conditions and labor practices (Aguilera-Caracuel, et al., 2017). Apple has had to handle the governance gap in global operations and to shut down this gap, code of conducts is essential to be made. Even though codes of conduct can advance the performance of the supply chain, it can cause companies to do unethical issues to meet the expectations (Aguilera-Caracuel, et al., 2017).
Multinational Corporations depends on corporate social responsibility (CSR) in supply chains and depends on the pressure of stakeholders. Stakeholders can really affect the success of an organization’s objectives (Aguilera-Caracuel, et al., 2017). Multinational Corporations should try to develop their image positively and impact the corporate social reputation. By doing this, Multinational Corporations can grow their long-term performance. Overall, Aguilera-Caracuel, Guerrero-Villegas & García-Sánchez concluded how Multinational Corporations can advanced by reporting through corporate reputation to their stakeholders and other parties using information about their social and environmental responsibility in their supply chain. However, there are concerns that Multinational Corporations are more focused on making profits rather than focusing on their employees and communities (Aguilera-Caracuel, et al., 2017).
4.Human rights, Environmental and Ethical Dilemmas人权、环境和伦理困境
Boersma and Clarke talks about human rights, environmental and ethical dilemmas in the Apple supply chain. They used observational research method and had qualitative data. They mentioned that since Apple is one of the biggest, most successful market leaders, they have the responsibility to preserve their integrity of their value chain. However, Apple had unresolved human rights, environmental and ethical dilemmas in China. Their products were produced by suffering of young workers in electronic sweatshops in China (Boersman, et al., 2015).
Boersma和Clarke谈到了苹果供应链中的人权、环境和道德困境。他们采用观察研究方法，有定性资料。他们提到，由于苹果是最大、最成功的市场领导者之一，他们有责任保持其价值链的完整性。然而，苹果在中国的人权、环境和道德困境仍未解决。他们的产品是由中国电子厂的年轻工人辛苦生产的(Boersman, et al.， 2015)。
Multinational Corporations advance from outsourcing their parts for their products to low wage countries which keep producing cost low and achieve bigger profit margins (Boersma, et. al., 2018). Apple is one of the common Multinational Corporations that outsource their parts. Most of their products come from Asia. Apple has 785 suppliers in total in over 31 counties worldwide. 349 of the 785 suppliers are in Asia (Boersma, et al., 2015). Without China, Apple would not be as successful as they are today because they have cheap labor and create quick profits.
Apple’s brand has never been expressed as ethical or sustainable. They never called themselves social and environmental responsible and are known to be as reactive (Boersma, et al., 2015). Their values have been built using organizational legitimacy and their values been created to configure with the stakeholders (Boersma, et al., 2015). Multinational Corporations are likely to show governance gaps and weaknesses (Boersma, et al., 2015). In Apple’s case, these weaknesses included the existing Chinese labor laws and nonexistence of enforcement to give protection for workers. Apple has tried to fill this gap with independent audits and investigations (Boersma, et al., 2015). Consumers are still not aware of this process because the sales of Apple were unaffected even with the controversies. (Boersma, et al., 2015).
Apple does not experience consumer pressure at all. The configuration that exists with stakeholder pressures has not stopped the human rights and employment rights that Apple’s supply chain from occurring (Boersma, et al., 2015). Apple’s biggest concern is to approve their legitimacy with their consumers of their products (Boersma, et al., 2015). Luckily for Apple, their legitimacy is not a threat with their consumers.
Ryanget talks about the human rights abuses that Apple committed. Since Apple has high demands of their products, suppliers seem to find a way to cut corners in order to make a greater profit margin (Ryangert, 2018). This means they create lower wage for workers and have an unsafe production facility (Ryangert, 2018).
Due to technological advances, the products at Apple are more expensive to make. Apple pays toward to the cost of producing these products in exchange for rights to output which a discounted rate (Ryangert, 2018). This gives Apple the advantage of having access of more new advanced components before their competitors. Even when competitors do get access to those advanced components that Apple already has, Apple still negotiates to receive it at a lower cost due to the discounted rate (Ryangert, 2018). Therefore, Apple has become a monopsony which means the one buyer who can control the market (Ryangert, 2018).
5.Apple, Inc.’s Mission & Vision苹果公司的使命和愿景
Apple’s mission statement talks about how they design all their products like the Macs which are the best personal computers in the world (Apple, Inc., 2018). It also talks about how they lead the digital music revolution with their iPods and iTunes. Apple stated in their mission statement about how they reinvented the mobile phone and the future of mobile media (Apple, Inc., 2018). Their visions included that they believe that they on are on this earth make great products and how they are constantly focusing on innovating (Apple, Inc., 2018). They believe in simple, but they don’t believe in complex (Apple, Inc., 2018).
Their vision stated they don’t believe in making a bunch of products, rather than just a few so that can truly focus on making the most out of those few products (Apple, Inc., 2018).
6.Supplier Code of Conduct供应商行为守则
In Apple’s Supplier Code of Conduct, it states that they are required to give safe working conditions and treat their workers with respect (Apple, Inc., 2018). It also states that they act ethically and be environmentally responsible. It also states that if a supplier violates this conduct they will terminate the relationship with Apple (Apple, Inc., 2018). Since Apple has high demands of their products, suppliers seem to find a way to cut corners in order to make a greater profit margin. This means they create lower wage for workers and have an unsafe production facilities (Pun, et. al., 2016).
在苹果公司的《供应商行为准则》中，要求供应商提供安全的工作条件，尊重员工(Apple, Inc.， 2018)。它还指出，他们的行为符合道德规范，对环境负责。它还声明，如果供应商违反这一行为，他们将终止与苹果(Apple, Inc.， 2018)的关系。由于苹果对他们的产品有很高的要求，供应商似乎找到了捷径，以获得更大的利润。这意味着他们为工人创造了较低的工资，并拥有不安全的生产设施(Pun等人，2016)。
The technology is more advanced today, so they are more expensive to make. Apple pays toward to the cost of producing these products in exchange for rights to output which a discounted rate (Pun, et. al., 2016). This gives Apple the advantage of having access of more new advanced components before their competitors. Even when competitors do gain access to those advanced components that Apple already has; Apple still gets it at a lower cost due the negotiation of the discounted rate (Pun, et. al., 2016). Therefore, Apple has become a monopsony which means the one buyer who can control the market.
The workers in this type of situation receive little to no protection of the government because independent trade unions and labor strikes are not allowed in China (Pun, et. al., 2016). There have been audits to uncover the working conditions in these facilities, but these operations are in line with China’s formal regulations created by Chinese authorities (Pun, et. al., 2016). Apple and the EMS companies have decided to pledge to make changes so that they can comply with China’s labor laws. China’s labor law gives their workers inadequate protection (Pun, et. al., 2016). China has every right to change their laws but with the global economy, the Chinese government is apprehensive about having stricter labor and wage regulation because it will weaken their economy (Pun, et. al., 2016).
As the global supply chains have become longer, consumers have no more influence on where the product they buy comes from and how they are made. However, there’s a big chance that a lot of the Apple consumers do not know about the circumstances of how their product is being made (Pun, et. al., 2016).
There are a lot of factors associated with the general environment of a company which includes technological segment, demographical segment, and socio-cultural segment (Apple, Inc., 2018). In the technological segment, technology is the main key factor of the success of Apple. Their technological segment increases each year (Apple, Inc., 2018). The demographic segment is also a main key to the company’s success (Apple, Inc., 2018). The United States population is increasing each year. The world’s population is also growing quickly. They need to use the demographic segment to figure out which parts of the whole world is using their products the most and what ages is using their products (Apple, Inc., 2018).