Commerce Assignment格式范文:Types and Roles of NGOs

发布时间:2022-02-24 11:58:46 论文编辑:cinq888

Commerce Assignment格式范文-非政府组织的类型和作用。本文是一篇国外大学Commerce专业的Assignment写作格式范文,主要内容是讲述非政府组织(NGO)是不属于政府的组织,不是由国家建立的。因此,非政府组织通常独立于政府。虽然该定义在技术上可以包括营利性公司,但该术语通常仅限于目标主要是非商业性的社会、文化、法律和环境倡导团体。非政府组织通常是非营利组织,其资金至少有一部分来自私人来源。Assignment格式范文中提到这个词目前的用法通常与联合国有关,真正的非政府组织是联合国指定的组织。由于“NGO”这个标签被一些人认为过于宽泛,因为它可能涵盖任何非政府组织,许多NGO现在更喜欢使用“私人志愿组织”(PVO)这个词。以下是Commerce Assignment格式范文的全部内容,供参考。

Assignment格式范文

A non-governmental organization (NGO) is an organization that is not part of a government and was not founded by states. NGOs are therefore typically independent of governments. Although the definition can technically include for-profit corporations, the term is generally restricted to social, cultural, legal, and environmental advocacy groups having goals that are noncommercial, primarily. NGOs are usually non-profit organizations that gain at least a portion of their funding from private sources. Current usage of the term is generally associated with the United Nations and authentic NGOs are those that are so designated by the UN. Because the label “NGO” is considered too broad by some, as it might cover anything that is non-governmental, many NGOs now prefer the term private voluntary organization (PVO).
A non-governmental organization (NGO) is a legally constituted organization created by natural or legal persons that operates independently from any government and a term usually used by governments to refer to entities that have no government status. In the cases in which NGOs are funded totally or partially by governments, the NGO maintains its non-governmental status by excluding government representatives from membership in the organization. The term is usually applied only to organizations that pursue some wider social aim that has political aspects, but that are not overtly political organizations such as political parties. Unlike the term “intergovernmental organization”, the term “non-governmental organization” has no generally agreed legal definition. In many jurisdictions, these types of organization are called “civil society organizations” or referred to by other names.
非政府组织(NGO)是由自然人或法人创建的合法组织,独立于任何政府运作,政府通常使用该术语来指代没有政府地位的实体。在非政府组织全部或部分由政府资助的情况下,非政府组织通过将政府代表排除在该组织成员之外来保持其非政府地位。这个词通常只适用于那些追求更广泛的社会目标的组织,这些目标具有政治方面,但不是公开的政治组织,如政党。与“政府间组织”一词不同,“非政府组织”一词没有公认的法律定义。在许多司法管辖区,这类组织被称为“民间社会组织”或以其他名称提及。
The term non-governmental organization or NGO was not in general currency before the UN was formed. When 132 international NGOs decided to co-operate with each other in 1910, they did so under the label, the Union of International Associations. The League of Nations officially referred to its “liaison with private organizations”, while many of these bodies at that time called themselves international institutes, international unions or simply international organizations. The first draft of the UN Charter did not make any mention of maintaining co-operation with private bodies. A variety of groups, mainly but not solely from the USA, lobbied to rectify this at the San Francisco conference, which established the UN in 1945. Not only did they succeed in introducing a provision for strengthening and formalizing the relations with private organizations previously maintained by the League, they also greatly enhanced the UN’s role in economic and social issues and upgraded the status of the Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) to a “principal organ” of the UN. To clarify matters, new terminology was introduced to cover ECOSOC’s relationship with two types of international organizations. Under Article 70, “specialized agencies, established by intergovernmental agreement” could “participate without a vote in its deliberations”, while under Article 71 “non-governmental organizations” could have “suitable arrangements for consultation”. Thus, “specialized agencies” and “NGOs” became technical UN jargon. Unlike much UN jargon, the term, NGO, passed into popular usage, particularly from the early 1970s onwards.
在联合国成立之前,非政府组织这个词不是通用的。1910年,当132个国际非政府组织决定相互合作时,它们以国际协会联盟的名义进行了合作。国际联盟正式称其为“与私人组织的联络”,而当时许多这些机构自称为国际机构、国际工会或仅仅是国际组织。《联合国宪章》初稿没有提到与私人机构保持合作。许多团体,主要但不仅仅来自美国,游说在旧金山会议上纠正这一点,在1945成立了联合国。他们不仅成功地引入了一项条款,以加强和正式确定与联盟以前维持的私营组织的关系,还大大加强了联合国在经济和社会问题上的作用,并将经济及社会理事会(经社理事会)的地位提升为联合国的“主要机构”。为了澄清问题,引入了新的术语来涵盖经社理事会与两类国际组织的关系。根据第70条,“根据政府间协定设立的专门机构”可以“不经表决地参加其审议”,而根据第71条,“非政府组织”可以“作出适当的协商安排”。因此,“专门机构”和“非政府组织”成了联合国的技术术语。与许多联合国术语不同的是,NGO一词被广泛使用,尤其是从20世纪70年代初开始。
Many diverse types of bodies are now described as being NGOs. There is no generally accepted definition of an NGO and the term carries different connotations in different circumstances. Nevertheless, there are some fundamental features. Clearly an NGO must be independent from the direct control of any government. In addition, there are three other generally accepted characteristics that exclude particular types of bodies from consideration. An NGO will not be constituted as a political party; it will be non-profit-making and it will be not be a criminal group, in particular it will be non-violent. These characteristics apply in general usage, because they match the conditions for recognition by the United Nations. The boundaries can sometimes be blurred: some NGOs may in practice be closely identified with a political party; many NGOs generate income from commercial activities, notably consultancy contracts or sales of publications; and a small number of NGOs may be associated with violent political protests. Nevertheless, an NGO is never constituted as a government bureaucracy, a party, a company, a criminal organization or a guerrilla group. Thus, for this article, an NGO is defined as an independent voluntary association of people acting together on a continuous basis, for some common purpose, other than achieving government office, making money or illegal activities. This basic approach will be elaborated and modified below.
许多不同类型的机构现在被描述为非政府组织。非政府组织没有公认的定义,在不同的情况下,这个词有不同的含义。然而,也有一些基本特征。显然,非政府组织必须独立于任何政府的直接控制。此外,还有其他三个普遍接受的特征,将特定类型的机构排除在考虑之外。非政府组织不会被组成政党;它将是非营利组织,不会是犯罪集团,尤其是非暴力组织。这些特征适用于一般用法,因为它们符合联合国承认的条件。界限有时会变得模糊:一些非政府组织实际上可能与某个政党有着密切的联系;许多非政府组织从商业活动中获得收入,尤其是咨询合同或出版物销售;少数非政府组织可能与暴力政治抗议有关。然而,非政府组织从来都不是政府官僚机构、政党、公司、犯罪组织或游击队组织。因此,在本文中,非政府组织被定义为一个独立的自愿协会,由人们为了某种共同的目的而持续共同行动,而不是担任政府职务、赚钱或从事非法活动。下面将详细阐述和修改这一基本方法。
A 1995 UN report on global governance estimated that there are nearly 29,000 international NGOs. National numbers are even higher: The United States has an estimated 2 million NGOs, most of them formed in the past 30 years. Russia has 65,000 NGOs. Dozens are created daily. In Kenya alone, some 240 NGOs come into existence every year. The number of internationally operating NGOs is estimated at 40,000 National numbers are even higher: Russia has 277,000 NGOs; India is estimated to have around 3.3 million NGOs.
1995年联合国关于全球治理的一份报告估计,全球有近2.9万个国际非政府组织。全国的数字甚至更高:美国估计有200万非政府组织,其中大多数是在过去30年中成立的。俄罗斯有65000个非政府组织。每天都有几十个。仅在肯尼亚,每年就有大约240个非政府组织成立。国际运作的非政府组织的数量估计为4万个,而国家的数量甚至更高:俄罗斯有27.7万个非政府组织;据估计,印度约有330万非政府组织。
TERMINOLOGY 术语
NGOs are defined by the World Bank as “private organizations that pursue activities to relieve suffering, promote the interests of the poor, protect the environment, provide basic social services, or undertake community development”.
世界银行将非政府组织定义为“从事减轻痛苦、促进穷人利益、保护环境、提供基本社会服务或从事社区发展活动的私营组织”。
Common usage varies between countries – for example NGO is commonly used for domestic organizations in Australia that would be referred to as non-profit organizations in the United States. Such organizations that operate on the international level are fairly consistently referred to as “non-governmental organizations”, in the United States and elsewhere.
各国之间的通用用法各不相同——例如,NGO通常用于澳大利亚的国内组织,在美国被称为非营利组织。这种在国际一级运作的组织在美国和其他地方相当一贯地被称为“非政府组织”。
There is a growing movement within the non-profit organization/non-government sector to define itself in a more constructive, accurate way. The “non-profit” designation is seen to be particularly dysfunctional because of at least three reasons: 1) It says nothing about the purpose of the organization, only what it is not; 2) It focuses the mind on “profit” as being the opposite of the organization’s purpose; 3) It implies that the organization has few financial resources, which increases the likelihood that it will. Instead of being defined by “non-” words, organizations are suggesting new terminology to describe the sector. The term “social benefit organization” (SBO) is being adopted by some organizations. This defines them in terms of their positive mission. The term “civil society organization” (CSO) has also been used by a growing number of organizations, such as the Center for the Study of Global Governance. The term “citizen sector organization” (CSO) has also been advocated to describe the sector – as one of citizens, for citizens. These labels, SBO and CSO, position the sector as its own entity, without relying on language used for the government or business sectors. However, some have argued that CSO is not particularly helpful, given that most NGOs are in fact funded by governments and business and that some NGOs are clearly hostile to independently organized people’s organizations. The term “social benefit organization” seems to avoid that problem, since it does not assume any particular structure, but rather focuses on the organization’s mission.
在非营利组织/非政府部门中,越来越多的人在以更具建设性、更准确的方式定义自己。“非营利”名称被认为是特别不正常的,因为至少有三个原因:1)它没有说明组织的目的,只说明它不是什么;2) 它将注意力集中在“利润”上,因为它与组织的宗旨背道而驰;3) 这意味着该组织几乎没有财政资源,这就增加了它的可能性。组织建议用新的术语来描述这个行业,而不是用“非”字来定义。“社会福利组织”(SBO)一词正在被一些组织采用。这就定义了他们的积极使命。“公民社会组织”一词也被越来越多的组织使用,例如全球治理研究中心。“公民部门组织”(CSO)一词也被用来描述该部门——作为公民之一,为公民服务。这些标签SBO和CSO将该行业定位为自己的实体,不依赖政府或商业部门使用的语言。然而,一些人认为,民间社会组织并不是特别有用,因为大多数非政府组织实际上都是由政府和企业资助的,而且一些非政府组织显然对独立组织的人民组织怀有敌意。“社会福利组织”一词似乎避免了这个问题,因为它不承担任何特定的结构,而是侧重于组织的使命。
HISTORY OF NGOs 非政府组织的历史
Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) as we know them today are generally thought to have come into existence around the mid-nineteenth century. It was only about a century later that the importance of NGOs was officially recognized by the United Nations. At the UN Congress in San Francisco in 1968, a provision was made in Article 71 of the Charter of the United Nations framework that qualified NGOs in the field of economic and social development to receive consultative status with the Economic and Social Council.
我们今天所知道的非政府组织一般被认为是在19世纪中叶左右形成的。直到大约一个世纪后,非政府组织的重要性才被联合国正式承认。在1968旧金山联合国大会上,《联合国框架宪章》第71条规定,在经济和社会发展领域,合格的非政府组织应获得经济和社会理事会的咨商地位。
The development of modern NGOs has largely mirrored that of general world history, particularly after the Industrial Revolution. NGOs have existed in some form or another as far back as 25,000 years ago. Since 1850, more than 100,000 private, not-for-profit organizations with an international focus have been founded. The growth of NGOs really took off after the Second World War, with about 90 international NGOs founded each year, compared with about 10 each year in the 1890s. Only about 30 percent of early international NGOs have survived, although those organizations founded after the wars have had a better survival rate. Many more NGOs with a local, national or regional focus have been created, though like their international counterparts, not all have survived or have been successful.
现代非政府组织的发展在很大程度上反映了整个世界历史,尤其是在工业革命之后。早在25000年前,非政府组织就以某种形式存在。自1850年以来,已经建立了10多万个以国际为重点的非营利私人组织。非政府组织的发展在第二次世界大战后真正开始了,每年大约有90个国际非政府组织成立,而在19世纪90年代,每年大约有10个。早期的国际非政府组织只有约30%幸存下来,尽管战后成立的非政府组织存活率更高。更多以地方、国家或地区为重点的非政府组织已经成立,尽管与国际同行一样,并非所有非政府组织都幸存下来或取得了成功。
International non-governmental organizations have a history dating back to at least 1839. It has been estimated that by 1914 there were 1083 NGOs. International NGOs were important in the anti-slavery movement and the movement for women’s suffrage, and reached a peak at the time of the World Disarmament Conference. However, the phrase “non-governmental organization” only came into popular use with the establishment of the United Nations Organization in 1945 with provisions in Article 71 of Chapter 10 of the United Nations Charter for a consultative role for organizations which are neither governments nor member states-see Consultative Status. The definition of “international NGO” (INGO) is first given in resolution 288 (X) of ECOSOC on February 27, 1950: it is defined as “any international organization that is not founded by an international treaty”. The vital role of NGOs and other “major groups” in sustainable development was recognized in Chapter 27 of Agenda 21, leading to intense arrangements for a consultative relationship between the United Nations and non-governmental organizations.
国际非政府组织的历史至少可以追溯到1839年。据估计,到1914年,共有1083个非政府组织。国际非政府组织在反奴隶制运动和争取妇女选举权运动中发挥了重要作用,并在世界裁军会议期间达到了顶峰。然而,“非政府组织”一词直到1945年联合国组织成立时才开始流行,因为《联合国宪章》第十章第七十一条规定,非政府组织和会员国都不具有咨商地位。1950年2月27日,经社理事会第288(X)号决议首次给出了“国际非政府组织”的定义:它被定义为“任何非国际条约所成立的国际组织”。《21世纪议程》第27章确认了非政府组织和其他“主要群体”在可持续发展中的重要作用,从而促成了联合国与非政府组织之间建立协商关系的紧张安排。
Rapid development of the non-governmental sector occurred in western countries as a result of the processes of restructuring of the welfare state. Further globalization of that process occurred after the fall of the communist system and was an important part of the Washington consensus.
由于福利国家的改革进程,西方国家的非政府部门迅速发展。这一进程的进一步全球化发生在共产主义体系崩溃后,是华盛顿共识的重要组成部分。
Globalization during the 20th century gave rise to the importance of NGOs. Many problems could not be solved within a nation. International treaties and international organizations such as the World Trade Organization were perceived as being too centred on the interests of capitalist enterprises. Some argued that in an attempt to counterbalance this trend, NGOs have developed to emphasize humanitarian issues, developmental aid and sustainable development. A prominent example of this is the World Social Forum, which is a rival convention to the World Economic Forum held annually in January in Davos, Switzerland. The fifth World Social Forum in Porto Alegre, Brazil, in January 2005 was attended by representatives from more than 1,000 NGOs. Some have argued that in forums like these, NGOs take the place of what should belong to popular movements of the poor. Others argue that NGOs are often imperialist in nature, that they sometimes operate in a racialized manner in third world countries, and that they fulfill a similar function to that of the clergy during the high colonial era. The philosopher Peter Hallward argues that they are an aristocratic form of politics. Whatever the case, NGO transnational networking is now extensive.
20世纪的全球化导致了非政府组织的重要性。许多问题无法在一个国家内解决。国际条约和世界贸易组织等国际组织被认为过于集中于资本主义企业的利益。一些人认为,为了平衡这一趋势,非政府组织已经开始强调人道主义问题、发展援助和可持续发展。一个突出的例子是世界社会论坛,它是每年1月在瑞士达沃斯举行的世界经济论坛的竞争对手。2005年1月在巴西阿雷格里港举行的第五届世界社会论坛有1000多个非政府组织的代表出席。一些人认为,在这样的论坛上,非政府组织取代了本应属于穷人群众运动的组织。另一些人则认为,非政府组织本质上往往是帝国主义的,它们有时在第三世界国家以种族化的方式运作,它们履行着与殖民地末期神职人员类似的职能。哲学家彼得·霍尔沃德(Peter Hallward)认为它们是一种贵族政治形式。不管是什么情况,非政府组织的跨国网络现在已经非常广泛。
HISTORY OF NGOs IN INDIA 印度非政府组织的历史
Stepping carefully around the pits and mounds, four men approached the only source of light to be seen – a small kerosene lantern burning inside a mud and grass hut. There were four residents inside – a couple and their two children, 10 and eight. They dug the pits, cut the rock and hauled it to the trucks, all without salary. They were bonded labourers, bonded for life and for generations to the owner of the pit because some ancestor sometime had borrowed money and had been unable to pay it back. Two of the four men who visited the hut that night in 1985 were from a nongovernmental organization called Bandhua Mukti Morcha (Bonded Labour Liberation Front). The other two were journalists brought by the NGO to prove that bonded labour – a form of slavery – did exist right in the nation’s capital. After the visit, the men from the NGO went to the police station to lodge a complaint, because bonded labour is illegal in India, and so is child labour in a profession as hazardous as this. The complaints, and the articles written by the journalists after the visit, were part of the NGO campaign to make the government implement the law. Every day, different NGOs all over India are doing things like this. Sometime it may be taking a sample of water from a well that has been polluted by a nearby factory, getting the water analysed and then filing a “public interest petition” in a court to force the factory to follow anti-pollution laws. Another time, it may be a heated debate with a bureaucrat on why all citizens should have the right to be informed about all government decisions that affect their lives. Though the term NGO became popular in India only in the 1980s, the voluntary sector has an older tradition. Since independence from the British in 1947, the voluntary sector had a lot of respect in the minds of people – first, because the father of the nation Mahatma Gandhi was an active participant; and second because India has always had the tradition of honouring those who have made some sacrifice to help others. In independent India, the initial role played by the voluntary organizations started by Gandhi and his disciples was to fill in the gaps left by the government in the development process. The volunteers organized handloom weavers in villages to form cooperatives through which they could market their products directly in the cities, and thus get a better price. Similar cooperatives were later set up in areas like marketing of dairy products and fish. In almost all these cases, the volunteers helped in other areas of development – running literacy classes for adults at night, for example. In the 1980s, however, the groups who were now known as NGOs became more specialized, and the voluntary movement was, in a way, fragmented into three major groups. There were those considered the traditional development NGOs, who went into a village or a group of villages and ran literacy programmes, creches for children and clinics, encouraged farmers to experiment with new crops and livestock breeds that would bring more money, helped the weavers and other village artisans market their products and so on – in short became almost a part of the community in their chosen area (usually in rural India) and tried to fill all the gaps left in the development process by the government. There are many examples of voluntary organizations of this kind running very successfully in India for the last five decades. Perhaps the most celebrated example would be the treatment centre for leprosy patients run by Baba Amte in central India.
四名男子小心翼翼地绕过坑和土堆,走近唯一能看到的光源——一盏在泥泞草屋中燃烧的小煤油灯。里面有四名居民——一对夫妇和他们的两个孩子,10岁和8岁。他们挖坑、切割岩石,然后把它们拖到卡车上,所有这些都没有薪水。他们是抵押劳工,终身抵押,世世代代抵押给矿坑的主人,因为一些祖先有时借钱,无法偿还。1985年当晚参观小屋的四名男子中有两人来自一个名为班杜瓦·穆克蒂·莫查(Bandhua Mukti Morcha,保税劳工解放阵线)的非政府组织。另外两人是该非政府组织带来的记者,目的是证明该国首都确实存在着一种形式的奴役——债役。访问结束后,来自该非政府组织的男子前往警察局提出投诉,因为在印度,债役是非法的,从事如此危险的职业的童工也是非法的。这些投诉,以及记者在访问后撰写的文章,都是非政府组织推动政府实施该法律的活动的一部分。每天,印度各地不同的非政府组织都在做这样的事情。有时,它可能会从附近一家工厂污染的水井中抽取水样本,对水进行分析,然后向法院提交“公共利益请愿书”,迫使工厂遵守反污染法。还有一次,这可能是一场与官僚的激烈辩论,讨论为什么所有公民都有权了解所有影响他们生活的政府决定。虽然NGO这个词直到20世纪80年代才在印度流行起来,但志愿部门有一个更古老的传统。自1947年脱离英国独立以来,志愿服务部门在人们心目中赢得了很多尊重——首先,因为国父圣雄甘地是一个积极的参与者;第二,因为印度一直有向那些为帮助他人做出牺牲的人致敬的传统。在独立的印度,甘地及其信徒创办的志愿组织最初发挥的作用是填补政府在发展进程中留下的空白。志愿者们在村里组织手织机编织工成立合作社,通过合作社,他们可以直接在城市销售产品,从而获得更好的价格。类似的合作社后来在乳制品和鱼类营销等领域成立。在几乎所有这些案例中,志愿者都在其他发展领域提供帮助——例如,在夜间为成年人开办识字课程。然而,在20世纪80年代,现在被称为非政府组织的团体变得更加专业化,志愿运动在某种程度上分裂为三个主要团体。还有一些被认为是传统发展非政府组织的人,他们走进一个村庄或一群村庄,开展扫盲项目、儿童托儿所和诊所,鼓励农民试验新的作物和牲畜品种,从而带来更多的资金,帮助织工和其他乡村工匠推销他们的产品等等——简言之,他们几乎成了他们所选择地区(通常在印度农村)社区的一部分,并试图填补政府在发展过程中留下的所有空白。在过去50年里,印度有许多这样的志愿组织非常成功。也许最著名的例子是印度中部由Baba Amte运营的麻风病患者治疗中心。
The second group of NGOs were those who researched a particular subject in depth, and then lobbied with the government or with industry or petitioned the courts for improvements in the lives of the citizens, as far as that particular subject was concerned. A well-known example of an NGO of this type is the Centre for Science and Environment. It was a CSE who picked up that sample of well water and then submitted the results of the chemical analysis to a court because the organization had not been able to get the factory to change its polluting practices in any other way. In the third group were those volunteers who saw themselves more as activists than other NGOs did. Of course, all NGOs undertook a certain amount of activism to get their points across – they petitioned the bureaucrats, they alerted the media whenever they found something wrong and so on. But this third group of NGOs saw activism as their primary means of reaching their goals, because they did not believe they could get the authorities to move in any other way. Perhaps the best-known example of an NGO in this category is the Narmada Bachao Andolan (Save Narmada Campaign), an organisation that opposed the construction of a series of large dams in a large river valley of central India. The members of this NGO believe that large dams worsen water scarcity for the majority of the people in the long run rather than solve the problem, and they oppose the displacement it entails upstream of the dam. When the NBA found that it could not persuade the planners in India to agree to its point of view, the NBA members put up pickets, held demonstrations and tried every other way they could think of to oppose the construction of the first of the big dams. Most of the NBA member went to jail a number of times as a result. Right now, some of them – including celebrated novelist Arundhati Roy – face the prospect of being jailed again, because they criticized the Supreme Court of India when the court’s decision on dam construction did not go in their favour. There is no strict boundary between these three groups of NGOs – in fact, Baba Amte is now an important member of the Narmada Bachao Andolan. And whatever be the category a particular NGO falls into, all of them play an important role in modern India – they hold the politicians accountable to the people. India is a representative rather than a participatory democracy. Once the elections are over, the politicians who run the federal and state governments do not really need to go back to the electorate for every major decision – there is no tradition of referendums in India, as there is in Switzerland or Denmark. So, in the five years between on election and another, the NGOs – and parts of the media, to some extent – are often the only means available to the citizens to voice their opinions on any decision taken by a government. In a large developing country like India, there are numerous gaps left by the government in the development process – sometimes by intention, sometimes due to lack of funds, sometimes due to lack of awareness. These are the gaps that many NGOs try to fill in modern India. Some of them may work in areas that the government does not want to get into – like fighting discrimination on the basis of caste. Most Indian politicians do not really want to upset the existing caste hierarchy in his or her constituency, because the politician is dependent for votes on the dominant castes of that particular constituency. In the process, laws prohibiting discrimination on the basis of caste are often ignored unless there is an NGO working in the area that is willing to take up the cause of those being discriminated against.
第二类非政府组织深入研究某一特定主题,然后就特定主题向政府或行业游说,或向法院请愿改善公民生活。这类非政府组织的一个著名例子是科学与环境中心。是CSE采集了井水样本,然后将化学分析结果提交给法院,因为该组织无法让工厂以任何其他方式改变其污染行为。第三组是那些比其他非政府组织更视自己为积极分子的志愿者。当然,所有非政府组织都采取了一定程度的行动主义来表达自己的观点——他们向官僚请愿,发现问题时提醒媒体,等等。但这第三批非政府组织将激进主义视为他们实现目标的主要手段,因为他们认为他们无法让当局以任何其他方式采取行动。这类非政府组织中最著名的例子或许是Narmada Bachao Andolan(拯救Narmada运动),该组织反对在印度中部一个大河谷修建一系列大型水坝。这个非政府组织的成员认为,大型水坝从长远来看会加剧大多数人的缺水状况,而不是解决问题,他们反对大坝上游的排水问题。当NBA发现它无法说服印度的规划者同意它的观点时,NBA的成员们就竖起了纠察队,举行了示威,并想尽一切办法反对修建第一座大坝。大多数NBA球员因此多次入狱。现在,他们中的一些人——包括著名小说家阿伦达蒂·罗伊——面临再次入狱的前景,因为他们批评了印度最高法院,因为该法院关于大坝建设的决定不利于他们。这三个非政府组织之间没有严格的界限——事实上,巴巴·阿姆特现在是纳玛达·巴乔·安多兰的重要成员。无论某个NGO属于哪一类,它们都在现代印度发挥着重要作用——它们让政客对人民负责。印度是一个有代表性的民主国家,而不是一个参与式的民主国家。一旦选举结束,掌管联邦和州政府的政客们并不需要为每一项重大决策回到选民那里——印度没有像瑞士或丹麦那样的公投传统。因此,在选举前后的五年里,非政府组织——以及部分媒体在某种程度上——往往是公民就政府的任何决定发表意见的唯一途径。在印度这样一个发展中大国,政府在发展过程中留下了许多空白——有时是出于意图,有时是因为缺乏资金,有时是因为缺乏意识。这些都是许多非政府组织试图在现代印度填补的空白。其中一些人可能在政府不想涉足的领域工作——比如反对基于种姓的歧视。大多数印度政客并不真的想打乱他或她的选区中现有的种姓等级制度,因为政客的选票依赖于该选区占主导地位的种姓。在这一过程中,禁止种姓歧视的法律往往被忽视,除非该地区有一个非政府组织愿意为那些受到歧视的人辩护。
PURPOSES OF NGOs 非政府组织的宗旨
NGOs exist for a variety of purposes, usually to further the political or social goals of their members. Examples include improving the state of the natural environment, encouraging the observance of human rights, improving the welfare of the disadvantaged, or representing a corporate agenda. However, there are a huge number of such organizations and their goals cover a broad range of political and philosophical positions. This can also easily be applied to private schools and athletic organizations.
非政府组织的存在有多种目的,通常是为了促进其成员的政治或社会目标。例如改善自然环境状况、鼓励尊重人权、改善弱势群体的福利或代表公司议程。然而,此类组织数量巨大,其目标涵盖广泛的政治和哲学立场。这也很容易适用于私立学校和体育组织。
TYPES OF NGOs 非政府组织的类型
There are numerous possibilities to classify NGOs. The following is the typology the World Bank uses
对非政府组织进行分类的可能性有很多。以下是世界银行使用的类型学
Operational NGOs: 可运作的非政府组织:
Their primary purpose is the design and implementation of development-related projects. One categorization that is frequently used is the division into relief-oriented or development-oriented organizations; they can also be classified according to whether they stress service delivery or participation; or whether they are religious and secular; and whether they are more public or private-oriented. Operational NGOs can be community-based, national or international. Operational NGOs have to mobilize resources, in the form of financial donations, materials or volunteer labor, in order to sustain their projects and programs. This process may require quite complex organization. Charity shops, staffed by volunteers, in premises provided at nominal rents and selling donated goods, end up providing finance to the national headquarters. Students in their vacations or during a break in their education provide labor for projects. Finance obtained from grants or contracts, from governments, foundations or companies, require time and expertise spent on planning, preparing applications, budgeting, accounting and reporting. Major fund-raising events require skills in advertising, media relations and motivating supporters. Thus, operational NGOs need to possess an efficient headquarters bureaucracy, in addition to the operational staff in the field.
其主要目的是设计和实施与开发相关的项目。经常使用的一种分类是将组织分为救济性组织和发展性组织;他们也可以根据是否强调提供服务或参与来分类;或者他们是否信仰宗教和世俗;以及它们是否更面向公共或私人。可运作的非政府组织可以是基于社区、国家或国际的。运营中的非政府组织必须以财政捐款、材料或志愿劳动的形式动员资源,以维持其项目和计划。这个过程可能需要相当复杂的组织。慈善商店由志愿者组成,在以象征性租金提供的场所里出售捐赠物品,最终为国家总部提供资金。学生在假期或教育休息期间为项目提供劳动力。从政府、基金会或公司的拨款或合同中获得的资金,需要在规划、准备申请、预算、会计和报告方面花费时间和专业知识。大型筹款活动需要广告、媒体关系和激励支持者方面的技能。因此,除了外地的业务工作人员外,运营中的非政府组织还需要拥有一个高效的总部官僚机构。
Advocacy NGOs (sometimes called militant NGOs): 倡导非政府组织(有时称为激进非政府组织):
Their primary purpose is to defend or promote a specific cause. As opposed to operational project management, these organizations typically try to raise awareness, acceptance and knowledge by lobbying, press work and activist events.
他们的主要目的是捍卫或促进特定的事业。与运营项目管理相反,这些组织通常试图通过游说、新闻工作和活动活动来提高认识、接受度和知识。
NGO type can be understood by orientation and level of co-operation.
NGO类型可以通过合作的方向和水平来理解。
NGO types by orientation: 按方向划分的非政府组织类型:
Charitable Orientation often involves a top-down paternalistic effort with little participation by the “beneficiaries”. It includes NGOs with activities directed toward meeting the needs of the poor -distribution of food, clothing or medicine; provision of housing, transport, schools etc. Such NGOs may also undertake relief activities during a natural or man-made disaster.
Service Orientation includes NGOs with activities such as the provision of health, family planning or education services in which the programme is designed by the NGO and people are expected to participate in its implementation and in receiving the service.
慈善导向通常涉及自上而下的家长式努力,几乎没有“受益人”的参与。它包括非政府组织,其活动旨在满足穷人的需求——分发食物、衣物或药品;提供住房、交通、学校等。此类非政府组织还可以在自然灾害或人为灾害期间开展救援活动。              服务导向包括非政府组织,其活动包括提供保健、计划生育或教育服务,该方案由非政府组织设计,人们预计将参与方案的实施和接受服务。
Participatory Orientation is characterized by self-help projects where local people are involved particularly in the implementation of a project by contributing cash, tools, land, materials, labour etc. In the classical community development project, participation begins with the need definition and continues into the planning and implementation stages. Cooperatives often have a participatory orientation.
参与式导向的特点是自助项目,当地人通过提供现金、工具、土地、材料、劳动力等参与项目的实施。在传统的社区发展项目中,参与从需求定义开始,持续到规划和实施阶段。合作社往往具有参与性。
Empowering Orientation is where the aim is to help poor people develop a clearer understanding of the social, political and economic factors affecting their lives, and to strengthen their awareness of their own potential power to control their lives. Sometimes, these groups develop spontaneously around a problem or an issue, at other times outside workers from NGOs play a facilitating role in their development. In any case, there is maximum involvement of the people with NGOs acting as facilitators.
 赋权导向旨在帮助穷人更清楚地了解影响他们生活的社会、政治和经济因素,并增强他们对自己控制生活的潜在能力的认识。有时,这些群体是围绕一个问题自发发展起来的,有时,非政府组织的外部工作者在他们的发展中起到了促进作用。在任何情况下,非政府组织作为促进者的人都有最大程度的参与。       
NGO Types by level of operation: 按运营级别划分的NGO类型:
Community-based Organizations (CBOs) arise out of people’s own initiatives. These can include sports clubs, women’s organizations, and neighbourhood organizations, religious or educational organizations. There are a large variety of these, some supported by NGOs, national or international NGOs, or bilateral or international agencies, and others independent of outside help. Some are devoted to raising the consciousness of the urban poor or helping them to understand their rights in gaining access to needed services while others are involved in providing such services.
社区组织(Community-based Organization,CBO)产生于人们自己的倡议。这些组织可以包括体育俱乐部、妇女组织、社区组织、宗教或教育组织。其中有很多,一些得到非政府组织、国家或国际非政府组织、双边或国际机构的支持,另一些则独立于外部帮助。其中一些致力于提高城市贫困人口的意识,或帮助他们了解获得所需服务的权利,而另一些则参与提供此类服务。
Citywide Organizations include organizations such as the Rotary or lion’s Club, chambers of commerce and industry, coalitions of business, ethnic or educational groups and associations of community organizations. Some exist for other purposes, and become involved in helping the poor as one of many activities, while others are created for the specific purpose of helping the poor.
全市性组织包括扶轮社或狮子会、工商会、商业联盟、种族或教育团体以及社区组织协会等组织。有些是为了其他目的而存在的,并作为许多活动之一参与帮助穷人,而另一些则是为了帮助穷人而创建的。
National NGOs include organizations such as the Red Cross, YMCAs/YWCAs, professional organizations etc. Some of these have state branches and assist local NGOs.
国家非政府组织包括红十字会、基督教青年会/女青年会、专业组织等组织。其中一些组织设有国家分支机构,并协助当地非政府组织。
International NGOs range from secular agencies such as REDDA BARNA and Save the Children organizations, OXFAM, CARE, UNDP, UNICEF, Ford and Rockefeller Foundations to religiously motivated groups. Their activities vary from mainly funding local NGOs, institutions and projects, to implementing the projects themselves.
国际非政府组织的范围从世俗机构,如雷达·巴纳和拯救儿童组织、乐施会、援外社、联合国开发计划署、联合国儿童基金会、福特基金会和洛克菲勒基金会,到有宗教动机的团体。他们的活动各不相同,从主要资助当地非政府组织、机构和项目,到自行实施项目。
Apart from “NGO”, often alternative terms are used as for example: independent sector, volunteer sector, civil society, grassroots organizations, transnational social movement organizations, private voluntary organizations, self-help organizations and non-state actors (NSA’s).
除“NGO”外,还经常使用其他术语,例如:独立部门、志愿者部门、民间社会、基层组织、跨国社会运动组织、私营志愿组织、自助组织和非国家行为者(NSA)。
ROLES OF NGOs 非政府组织的作用
Roles of NGO according to the expectation of people: 根据人们的期望,NGO的作用:
NGOs play a critical role in all areas of development. People and policy makers are agree on one thing that NGOs play a very important role in development. Role of NGOs vary over the years as the policy of government changes. NGOs are almost dependent on polices of government. Socio economic development is a shared responsibility of both i.e. government and NGOs. Role of NGOs are complementary but vary according to polices of government. If we closely pursue the voluminous literature on NGOs many roles can be found according to the expectations of people. The major development roles ascribed to NGOs are to act as:
非政府组织在所有发展领域都发挥着关键作用。人们和政策制定者一致认为,非政府组织在发展中发挥着非常重要的作用。随着政府政策的变化,非政府组织的作用也会随着时间的推移而变化。非政府组织几乎依赖政府的政策。社会经济发展是政府和非政府组织的共同责任。非政府组织的作用是互补的,但因政府政策而异。如果我们密切关注有关非政府组织的大量文献,可以根据人们的期望找到许多角色。非政府组织的主要发展角色是:
Planner and implementer of development programmers, 开发程序员的规划者和实施者
Mobiliser of local resources and initiative, 当地资源和倡议的动员者
Catalyst, enabler and innovator, 催化剂、推动者和创新者
Builder of self reliant sustainable society, 自力更生可持续社会的建设者
Mediator of people and government, 人民和政府的调解人
Supporter and partner of government programme in activating delivery system implementing rural development programmes, etc.,政府计划的支持者和合作伙伴,启动交付系统,实施农村发展计划等。
Agents of information, 情报人员
Factor of improvement of the poor, and 穷人的改善因素,以及
Facilitator of development education, training, professionalisation, etc. 发展教育、培训、专业化等的推动者。
Basically NGOs role is to prepare people for change. They empower the people to overcome psychological problem and opposition of oppress. Its role cannot be denied
基本上,非政府组织的作用是让人们为变革做好准备。它们赋予人民克服心理问题和反抗压迫的能力。它的作用不容否认
The Role Of NGOs and Communities: 非政府组织和社区的作用:
Some NGOs see themselves as champions of the poor, lobbying government to give them a better deal. Others play a watchdog role, ensuring that governments and utilities remain honest, focused on serving the people. A third variety prefer to focus at ground level, finding ways to bring communities together to provide basic services to those in most need. Many look to combine these roles within one organisation.
一些非政府组织将自己视为穷人的捍卫者,游说政府给予他们更好的待遇。其他人则发挥监督作用,确保政府和公用事业部门保持诚实,专注于为人民服务。第三种倾向于把重点放在基层,寻找方法把社区聚集在一起,为最需要的人提供基本服务。许多公司希望在一个组织内将这些角色结合起来。
Partnerships can struggle to accommodate these different visions, making it hard to harness the skills, abilities and local contacts that NGOs offer to best effect. NGOs themselves can be torn between engaging other stakeholders in order to provoke change from the inside and maintaining their independence from the outside. Equally, how partnerships can engage and relate to poor communities is not straightforward.  In some cases Community-Based Organisations are preferred to NGOs as partners.
伙伴关系可能难以适应这些不同的愿景,因此很难利用非政府组织提供的技能、能力和当地联系发挥最佳效果。非政府组织本身可能会在与其他利益相关者接触以引发内部变革和保持独立于外部之间左右为难。同样,伙伴关系如何与贫困社区接触并与之相关并不简单。在某些情况下,社区组织优先于非政府组织作为合作伙伴。             
The Role of NGOs in Rural Transformation: 非政府组织在农村转型中的作用:
Ninety percent of the world’s population lives below the poverty line. This is more prominent in developing countries. There are a lot of schemes that are designed by the Government to enrich the lives of the unfortunate and the underprivileged. As much as the Government of Nations are assisting the down trodden and the underprivileged, an equal measure is contributed by Non Governmental Organizations.
世界上90%的人口生活在贫困线以下。这在发展中国家更为突出。政府设计了许多计划来丰富不幸和弱势群体的生活。各国政府在帮助被践踏者和弱势群体的同时,非政府组织也做出了同样的贡献。
Non governmental organizations are funded by private donors and are also funded by Government Initiatives. Non Governmental organizations function in the following areas of uplifting the lives of the underprivileged.
非政府组织由私人捐助者资助,也由政府倡议资助。非政府组织在以下方面发挥作用,以改善弱势群体的生活。
Health, Housing and Food – Providing for basic facilities 卫生、住房和食品——提供基本设施
Gender Inequality Issues in Developing countries 发展中国家的性别不平等问题
Care for HIV -AIDS affected children and adults 照顾受艾滋病影响的儿童和成人
Elder Care – A large proportion of elders are being neglected and many NGOs and private donors have built orphanages for elders and senior citizens 老年护理——很大一部分老年人被忽视,许多非政府组织和私人捐助者为老年人和老年公民建造了孤儿院
Providing for education and vocational training such as Computer Typing etc 提供教育和职业培训,如电脑打字等
The quantity and the quality of social reforms that are undertaken by this section of workers is phenomenal. There are also concerns about fraud and pilferage of funds that have been expressed. For the first time, similar to Manufacturing and other institutions that are being audited for compliance using standards such as ISO, social institutions are also audited by a social standard that has been developed in the United Kingdom. Every fortunate citizen of the world should think calmly about charity and upliftment of the downtrodden in some aspect or the other. It may not be necessary to own a champion NGO, but just a thought to donate money, medicines and other assets to the poor is sufficient.
这部分工人所进行的社会改革的数量和质量都是惊人的。也有人对欺诈和盗窃资金表示担忧。与使用ISO等标准进行合规性审计的制造业和其他机构类似,社会机构也首次由英国制定的社会标准进行审计。世界上每一个幸运的公民都应该冷静地思考慈善事业和被压迫者在某些方面的提升。也许没有必要拥有一个领先的非政府组织,但只要想一想向穷人捐赠资金、药品和其他资产就足够了。
CONCLUSION 结论
Non Governmental Organizations (NGOs) are mainly for the betterment of the people and society, it’s their duty also. There are different types of NGOs which have specific area of focus and it works according to their interest area. In wikipedia it is mentioned that there may be 3.3 million NGOs in India. But the other truth also that many NGOs fails in playing their roles and it collapse and there may also be several reason behind it. If all the NGOs truly realize its responsibilities and play their role perfectly then it is sure that the conditions of individual as well as the society will change and it also helps in nation building.

Commerce Assignment格式范文总结非政府组织主要是为了人民和社会的福祉,这也是他们的职责。有不同类型的非政府组织,它们有特定的重点领域,并根据其兴趣领域开展工作。维基百科提到,印度可能有330万非政府组织。但另一个事实是,许多非政府组织未能发挥作用,它崩溃了,这背后可能有几个原因。如果所有非政府组织真正意识到自己的责任,完美地发挥自己的作用,那么个人和社会的状况肯定会发生变化,这也有助于国家建设。本站提供各国各专业Assignment写作指导服务,如有需要可咨询本平台。


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