Chapter One Introduction
1.1 Background of the Research
With the development of the society,English has been considered more and moreimportant.Students need to master the necessary knowledge and improve theirEnglish proficiency.Writing,which consists of language,ideas and discoursestructure,is considered a way to reflect students’language competence.The GeneralHigh School English Curriculum Standard(2017 Version)proposes to cultivatestudents’key English competency,which refers to language ability,cultural character,thinking quality and learning ability.Among them,language ability is aimed atcultivating students’ability to use English.As a comprehensive language output skill,writing is essential for cultivating students’language competence,logical thinkingability and cultural character.Since the reform of the NCEE in 2020,continuationwriting has been added to the writing section of the English test paper.Continuationwriting combines reading with writing,which makes great demands on students’ability to write narratives.
However,the present English teaching can not develop students’ability to write.Teachers usually use the traditional teacher-centred teaching approach.It causes theproblem of input-output separation.Teachers regard the text as the carrier ofvocabulary and grammar.They spend much time explaining language points andseldom ask students to participate in class activities.They emphasize input but ignoreoutput.So classroom input cannot help students cope with their writing tasks.Theirwritten production seldom contains newly⁃taught target language items.Furthermore,writing topics are often so far away from students’actual life that they cannot arousestudents’interest in writing.All these factors result in low writing quality.
1.2 Purposes and Significance of the Research
This study aims to explore the effects of the POA on English narrative writing insenior high schools,mainly from the following three aspects:firstly to verify theeffects of the POA on students’narrative writing quality;additionally,to explore theeffects of the POA on students’mastery of narrative target language items;finally,toinvestigate students’attitudes towards narrative writing.All in all,this study intendsto apply the POA to narrative writing teaching to explore an optimized writingteaching approach.
The significance of this study includes two aspects:theoretical significance andpractical significance.In terms of theoretical importance,this study provides asupplement to the relevant empirical research on the POA.In addition,because up tonow there has been no research on the effectiveness of the POA in English narrativewriting teaching in senior high schools,the results of the research can show whetherthe POA can be applied to English narrative writing teaching in senior high schools,for the production⁃oriented approach has been developed as a remedy to overcome theweakness in foreign language teaching at the tertiary level in China(i.e.learning andusing being separated)(Wen,2017).In terms of practical importance,the applicationof the POA to narrative writing teaching in senior high schools is of great help to bothteachers and students.As far as teachers are concerned,the POA provides practicalteaching process,which helps them to organize writing classes more effectively.Therefore,teachers’ability to teach writing will be greatly developed.
Chapter Two Literature Review
2.1 Production-oriented Approach
The POA,put forward by Professor Wen Qiufang,is an innovative foreignlanguage teaching theory with Chinese characteristics.It is mainly used to solve theproblem of separation of learning and using in foreign language teaching in China.
2.1.1 Definition and Development of the POA
The Production-oriented approach(POA),initially proposed by Professor WenQiufang,is an approach to language teaching,which consists of three components:(a)teaching principles;(b)teaching hypotheses;and(c)teacher-mediated teachingprocess.The teaching principles include“learning-centered’,“learning-usingintegration”,“whole-person education”,and the teaching hypotheses are“output-driven”,“input-enabled”,and“selective learning”.The teaching processescontain three phases,each mediated by the teacher:motivating,enabling,andassessing.The three principles set guidelines for the other two components;the threehypotheses serve as a theoretical basis for the teaching process;the three-phaseteaching process reflects and illustrates the principles while testing the hypotheses(Wen,2016).
In 2014,in order to solve the problems faced by the“Output-driven hypothesis”,the POA research team revised the initial hypothesis and put forward the“Output-driven and input-enabling hypothesis”(Wen,2014a).At the 7th InternationalConference on English Language Teaching,Professor Wen(2014b)illustrated thetheory for teaching Chinese adult L2 learners,and finally Professor Alister Cummingconfirmed the theoretical system as the“production-oriented approach”.
2.2 Researches on English Writing Teaching Approaches at Homeand Abroad
This part introduces the relevant studies on English writing teaching approaches at home and abroad.
2.2.1 Researches on English Writing Teaching Approaches Abroad
A.A Brief Introduction to English Writing Teaching Approaches Abroad
English writing teaching approaches have gone through five influentialdevelopment stages:the product approach,the process approach,the genre-basedteaching approach,the content-based instruction and the task-based languageteaching.
Before the 1960s,the product approach,which was based on the BehavioristicTheory,had been playing a leading role in the teaching of English writing.Thisapproach regarded the teaching process as a linear way,following the stages ofstimulus-response-reinforcement(Richards&Rodgers,2001).It emphasizes thecorrect use of language knowledge,such as vocabulary,sentences and coherenceskills.It is regarded as a means to consolidate language knowledge.
Chapter Three Methodology.........................................22
3.1 Research Questions............................23
3.2 Research Subjects.................................23
3.3 Research Instruments..........................................24
Chapter Four Results and Discussion...................................35
4.1 Effects of the POA on Students’Narrative Writing Quality...................36
4.1.1 Effects on the Content of Narrative Writing...................36
4.1.2 Effects on the Language use in Narrative Writing..........................38
Chapter Five Conclusion..............................53
5.1 Major Findings......................................54
5.2 Pedagogical Implications..............................56
Chapter Four Results and Discussion
4.1 Effects of the POA on Students’Narrative Writing Quality
The content,language use and discourse structure are believed to cover thecrucial dimensions of English writing quality(Sun&Han,2013).The followingsections discuss the effects of the POA on the quality of narrative writing from thethree perspectives:content,language use and discourse structure．
4.1.1 Effects on the Content of Narrative Writing
In order to study the effects of the POA on the content of narrative writing,Independent-samples t-test and Paired-samples t-test were used.The following tablesdisplay the results.
Table 4.1 shows that the mean score of the content in the EC is 5.35,while thatin the CC is 5.45,with a mean deviation of.10.The significant level of P-value of thecontent scores is.503,higher than.05,which indicates that there is no significant difference in content scores of narrative writing between the two classes in thepost-test.
Chapter Five Conclusion
5.1 Major Findings
This study sets out to examine the effectiveness of the POA in English narrativewriting teaching in senior high schools.After 13-week teaching experiment,thescores of students’language use in narrative writing have increased significantly.Through the analysis of students’written texts,the number of narrative targetlanguage items used in the post-test in EC has grown and the scores of the languageachievement test also show that the EC has done better than the CC.The diarieswritten by the students from the EC show that they have a positive attitude towardsnarrative writing.Obviously,the POA has positive effects on students’narrativewriting.The major findings are as follows.
First of all,the POA positively affects students’language use in narrative writing.The students from the EC have got higher scores than those from the CC.The POAemphasizes that the input material should be selected,directly contributing to thecompletion of narrative writing task.Besides,guided by the principle of“learning-using integration”,the students in the EC have been fully exposed tolanguage context.Interaction and mini productive activities can increase thefrequency of language use.In addition,the TSCA phase also gives students theopportunity to focus on language use.So in the post-test,the language use in the EC ismore appropriate,complex and relevant to the theme;what is more,they make fewerspelling and syntax mistakes.However,it is a pity that this study has not verified theeffectiveness of the POA on the content and discourse structure of narrative writingdue to various subjective and objective reasons.