Chapter One Introduction
1.1 Introduction to the Project
Since the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China, the country has put forward higher requirements for innovation and development of national language and literature. The "Thirteenth Five-Year Development Plan for the National Language and Character Business" puts forward the core task of "serving the country's development needs as the core and focusing on the national strategy". Among them, the issue of foreign translation and dissemination of Chinese traditional culture has been highly valued by intellectuals due to the macro strategy of "Chinese culture going global". This project is conducive to enhancing the country's international image, improving its own cultural attractiveness, interpreting the profound connotations of Chinese culture, and enabling the world to better understand China and Chinese traditional culture.
This is the Forbidden City, whose editor-in-chief of Professor is He Xiaorong of Nankai University, uses nearly 200 high-definition painted pictures and a large amount of text content to restore the history and architecture of the Forbidden City. It's also a children's book that tells the story of the Forbidden City, life in the Ming and Qing Dynasties, and historical stories. The main contents are as follows: 1. Pictures are used to restore the Ming and Qing Forbidden City and its characters. A large number of historical restoration scenes will bring young readers to understand historical facts. 2. Ming and Qing history are written in details by authoritative experts, ranging from the establishment of the Forbidden City, the rise of the Qing Dynasty to the alternation, rise and fall of many dynasties, systematically sorting out historical events and introducing historical turning points by telling stories to provide children with knowledge of Ming and Qing history and culture. 3. Knowledge items inspire people to think, digest knowledge, and introduce a lot of knowledge about etiquette, architecture, and daily life to children.
1.2 Significance of the Project
Chinese traditional culture is rich, broad and profound in connotation, and contains many forms such as literature, medicine, food, martial arts, folk crafts, etc., which are extremely attractive around the globe. Among them, culture is the soul of tourism, and tourism is the carrier of culture. Cultural relics carry important historical, artistic and scientific value passed down by human beings in social activities. It is a precious historical and cultural heritage of mankind. The Palace Museum in the capital is a gem of the essence of Chinese culture. Also known as the Forbidden City, it is the imperial palace of the Ming and Qing dynasties. It can be called an unparalleled architectural masterpiece in the world today. It is often compared with the Palace of Versailles in France, the Buckingham Palace in the United Kingdom, and the The White House in United States, as well as the Kremlin in Russia. Honorably named "the top of the five palaces in the world", the building of the Forbidden City itself is the most important historical relic in the museum: its comprehensive magnificence and perfection, along with the solemn order in layout have become one of the most outstanding and brilliant architectural monuments in the world. It is the crystallization of the wisdom and hard work of the Chinese working people for many years. It has incomparable historical and artistic value.
Chapter Two Pre-translation Preparations
2.1 Source Text Analysis
The series "This is the Forbidden City" (I, II &III) is a set of popular science books for teenagers. This can be seen in the preface of the work, "I hope that young people can understand the magnificence of the Forbidden City and the splendid traditional culture of China for thousands of years, and feel the great charm of the Forbidden City". Since the main reading target is young people, its style naturally has corresponding characteristics. The biggest feature is strong pertinence, easy-to-understand knowledge, concise text, suitable for the psychological characteristics of young people, good for the physical and mental health and helpful for the comprehensive development of young people(Zhang Nianhong, 29). In addition, 200 illustrations are appended to this series of books, which aims at teenagers' reading interest. Researchers believe that there are many benefits of appending illustrations to young people's books. These illustrated books are "aimed at children's physiological and psychological, aesthetic tendencies, and they have the characteristics of playfulness, fantasy and interest. This kind of reading is mainly written, and illustrations play an auxiliary role in the text. It is characterized by realistic modeling and traditional painting, and the character scenes are intuitive, concrete, vivid and emotional."( Zheng Wanlin, 87)
This series of books not only has the practical characteristics of explanatory essays, but also has literary or poetic meaning in it. The format is neat and catchy, and the aesthetic value is high. Generally speaking, the text type of the book is both information type and expression type, but it is mainly information type. In the process of specific translation practice, the author takes into account the text characteristics of the two texts, focusing on content, logic, and conciseness, so that readers can obtain the information conveyed by the original text through the translation. At the same time, for the parts with strong cultural significance, the author strives to convey his emotions and attitudes, focuses on expressing his language form, and st rives to be faithful to the original work.
2.2 Translation Schedule and Tools
2.2.1 Translation Schedule
The translation schedule may fall into three categories, respectively pre-translation, while-translation, and post-translation. In the first stage, which lasted from December, 1st, 2019 to December 30th, 2019, the author would focus on source text and paralleled text reading, along with the theoretical preparations on culture-loaded expression translations. In the second stage, which starts at January 1st, 2020 and ends at February 28th, 2020, the author plans to finish three drafts of the translation. In this process, the translated scripts shall be reviewed respectively by the author herself, her peers and her supervisor. For the third stage, which starts at March 1st, 2020 and last throughout the year, the author shall finish the first draft of the practice report of the translation task and be prepared for the defense of dissertation for the coming year. The final revised draft is supposed to be finished before June 1st, 2021.
here are many translation tools, such as translation software, the Internet, and reference books. The main translation tools used in this translation practice are translation software, such as Youdao Dictionary, cnki translation assistant; Internet resources, such as Wikipedia, Google translation tools; reference books, such as Longman Contemporary English Dictionary, Oxford Advanced English-Chinese Bilingual Dictionaries; related translation theory books, such as "Advanced English-Chinese Translation", "English-Chinese Translation Theory and Practice", "New Contemporary Translation Theory".
Chapter Three Translation Theories and Strategies ........................ 8
3.1 Translation Theories......................................... 8
3.2 Translation Strategies ...................................... 9
Chapter Four Case Analysis.............................................. 11
4.1 Transliteration Plus Annotation ...................................... 11
4.2 Literal Translation Plus Annotation ........................... 14
Chapter Five Translation Quality Evaluation .................................. 22
Chapter Five Translation Quality Evaluation
In this chapter, the author mainly talks about the revision of the translation and the post-translation evaluation. The author had self-proofreading firstly, and asked the international students to have another proofreading, and also thanked to the supervisor's advice, the translation quality met the basic requirements. All of their suggestions helped the author have a deeper understanding of the translation practice performance, and had a further recognition about her own translation ability and her future.
After translating the work of This is the Forbidden City, the author gave a self-proofreading firstly, among which she found some lexical errors and grammar errors in the translation. There are also some missing information of the original text. However, the most difficult problem is the translation of many culture-loaded words in the Chinese text. This work is a kind of traditional Chinese palace work, abundant with traditional Chinese culture-loaded words, the author spent lots of time in finding out the translation methods and strategies to translate these culture-loaded words. As for the translation strategies, the author searched many references to prove that the strategies used here are suitable. The international students also helped her to check the translation to see if there were any sentence that they cannot understand, which helped her a lot. Sometimes the translation cannot be understood by the target language readers, in that case, translation losses its meaning without meeting the goal of spreading the original meaning. If the translation cannot be understood by the target language readers, then the translation is failure, thus the suggestions of international students were very important and useful, which helped her revise many sentences that could not express the original meanings. The supervisor also gave the author lots of useful advices, which helped her solve many problems to complete the whole thesis structure, and guided her to search the references so as to find the suitable translation strategies to translate those culture-loaded words. The author learned a lot from the supervisor and the international students.
Conclusion The author selects the work of This is the Forbidden City, because it can reflect the traditional Chinese culture, spread it to the world, this is very worthwhile. However, there are many culture-loaded words in the original text, it is not easy to find suitable translation strategies to translate those culture-loaded words, the author spends lots of time researching appropriate translation strategies to complete the translation of those culture-loaded words, it is difficult, but also valuable and worthwhile. Based on the cultural translation concept and translation compensation theories, the author adopts five translation strategies, such as transliteration plus annotation, literal translation plus annotation, explanatory translation, substitutive translation and concretization translation. Through the whole process of translation practice, the author improves her translation ability largely, she can use proper translation strategies to translate some difficult sentences, and she understands the translation theories in a better way. The author learns to solve many problems occur in the process of translation practice. However, there are still some deficiencies in the translation.
Through this translation practice, the author realizes the important role of pre-translation preparation, translation process and post-translation reflection.
First of all, the role of pre-translation preparation in translation practice cannot be ignored. Many translators often start the translation immediately. Not only will it not save translation time, but sometimes it will get twice the result with half the effort. Before the translation, one should review the original text, select the appropriate translation theory, which will have a good guiding role in translation practice. It is proved that Newmark's communicative translation theory is the most suitable theory to guide the author's translation practice.