1.1 Research Background
The research background of this paper can be discussed from the theoretical part and pedagogical part. For the theoretical part, the xu-argument stems from the alignment model. For the pedagogical function, translation teaching needs a new pedagogical method.
Wang (2017) pointed that xu-argument comes from two basic theories: First, the acquisition of a language comes from xu. Second, the high effectiveness of a language learning comes from xu. As for the first point, in various usages of language, the conversation is the primary way (Pickering & Garrod, 2004). When two speakers communicate with each other, the interactive model is involved in the process. The interactive alignment model was first demonstrated experimentally by Pickering and Garrod in 2004. The model assumes that the linguistic representations of dialogue can be aligned at any linguistic level during the conversation. In the process of conversation, language can be learned in the linguistic situation between two speakers.
As for the second point, Wang (2017: 549) suggested: “Language usage has to happen in linguistic situation. There are fictions of linguistic situation: Fostering language usage and initiation of language. So, the linguistic situation is very important for the learning of foreign language. According to the interactive alignment model, Wang (2010) firstly suggested the xu-argument and he published a paper to describe the effective way of learning foreign languages: interaction → comprehension → alignment → production → acquiring. Wang (2017) pointed that linguistic situation is a bridge between comprehension and production.
1.2 Purpose of the Research
The purpose of this study can be discussed in three parts: The needs of translation teaching, cognitive psychology in translation, and the relationship between second language ability and translation continuation task.
The 21st century is characterized by globalization. There is no doubt that many translators play a crucial in the new global society. Translation teaching is critical to fostering excellent translators (Mu, 2004). So, this situation needs us to provide valuable and positive translation methods to improve the quality of translation teaching. For example, technological skills have been involved in the current translation class. Wang (2004), Qin and Wang (2007) used corpus in translation class. Moreover, they found that corpus can help students study autonomously and positively. However, more than one foreign language learner faces the same problem: They cannot possess many opportunities to communicate with native speakers (Xu, 2016). Although they all played an essential role in translation teaching, they neglected an effective way to learn a foreign language: The combination of comprehension and production (Xu, 2016). This combination can significantly and effectively improve translation ability (Wang, 2018). It is manifest that a new translation teaching should replace traditional education (Xu, 2016). Translation continuation task, an effective way, has emerged as a new idea for translation teaching because it follows the effective acquisition way: interaction → comprehension → alignment → production → acquisition (Wang, 2011).
2. Literature Review
2.1 Studies on xu-Argument and Translation Continuation Task
In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in the xu-argument, derived from the interactive alignment model pointed out by Pickering and Garrod in 2004. Wang and Wang (2021) published a paper and they examined the continuation task's effectiveness. Many published articles have paid attention to various applications of xu-argument, such as continuation task, iterative continuation task, continuation translation task.
2.1.1 Previous Studies about xu-Argument
For previous studies on xu-argument, it could be discussed the resource of xu-argument from theoretical part. The primary and vital methodology of xu-argument was the interactive alignment model (Wang, 2010; Wang & Wang, 2014). Pickering and Garrod (2004) published a paper. In the paper, they described the interactive alignment model. The model meant that during the process of conversation, linguistic representations of dialogue could be aligned at any linguistic levels. Pickering and Garrod (2004) showed that input matched with output in the discussion, and production was following comprehension. The previous words restricted the following words. The emotional presentation of one speaker followed up the other (Pickering & Garrod, 2004). It can be found that context between two speakers is very important for the conversation.
2.2 Previous Studies on Foreign Language Anxiety
In investigating the emotional factors in learning second languages, Arnold (2005) pointed out that anxiety was the classic problem in second languages research. Horwitz et al. (1983) published a paper that first described the foreign language anxiety that caused much interest of plenty of research. Up to now, a growing body of literature has paid attention to the various kinds of foreign language anxiety: listening anxiety, speaking anxiety, reading anxiety, and writing anxiety.
2.2.1 Foreign Language Learning Anxiety and Translation Anxiety
In this part, theories of foreign language anxiety can be discussed firstly. Anxiety had a pivotal role in acquiring second languages (Arnold, 2005). Brown (1973) published a paper that first showed relationships between emotional elements and second language learning (Brown, 1973). Before Horwitz et al. (1983), the role of foreign language anxiety was largely unknown. Horwitz (1983) demonstrated that foreign language anxiety was a remarkable self-awareness, belief, and action. A foreign language learner had those when he acquired a foreign language. Horwitz firstly demonstrated the foreign language anxiety experimentally and created the foreign language classroom anxiety scale. From the 1970s to now, many researchers from China and other countries have studied foreign languages from many levels (Shi &Xu, 2013).
3. Research design ................................ 28
3.1 Research questions ....................... 28
3.2 Participants ..................................... 28
3.3 Instruments .................................. 28
4. Data analysis and results ............................. 36
4.1 Analysis of relationships between L2 proficiency and translation strategies before and after the treatment.. .................... 39
4.3 Analysis of differences among participants with different translation anxiety levels before and after the treatment .............. 39
5. Discussion ................................ 43
5.1 Effects of translation anxiety on acquisition translation strategies .................... 43
5.2 Effects of L2 proficiency on acquisition translation strategies .......................... 47
5.1 Effects of Translation Anxiety on Acquisition Translation Strategies
According to the correlations between tests and translation anxiety, interestingly translation anxiety has a negative effect on pre-test, while it has a positive effect on post-test. But both correlations are not significant. In addition, both in pre-test and post-test, differences among participants with low, middle, and high levels of translation anxiety are not significant.
Firstly, from the results of correlation and differences in the pre-test, this study finds that in the pre-test, different levels of translation anxiety can’t produce significant effects on acquiring translation strategies assisted with translation continuation task. It can be explained by three theories. It can be started with cognitive translatology, translation is not only a cognitive process but also a complex psychological process that can be influenced by some emotional and psychological factors, such as anxiety (Wu, 2000; Kang, 2011; Lu & Wang 2013). The acquiring and producing translation strategies are both new experiences for those 106 participants. All participants never accept training of translation continuation tasks. So, the effects of translation strategies and translation continuation on different translations may be similar.
6.1 Major Findings
This study set out to the effect of iterative translation continuation task on the translation strategies in the light of translation anxiety and L2 proficiency. The current study found that translation anxiety and L2 proficiency play different effects on the acquisition of translation anxiety.
As for translation anxiety, in the light of the pre-test, the most interesting finding is that there are different significant effects between translation anxiety and translation strategies. Another finding is that, both in pre-test and post-test, among three translation anxiety levels, the differences are not significant.
As for the L2 proficiency, in the light of the pre-test, one finding is that there is a significant correlation between L2 proficiency and translation strategies. Another finding is that there are no significant differences among the three levels of L2 proficiency. In the light of the post-test, there is a negative correlation between L2 proficiency and translation strategies. Another finding is that there is no difference between low L2 proficiency and middle proficiency.