Chapter 1 Introduction
1.1 Research Purpose
The project-based teaching method differs significantly from typical English reading instruction. It treats students as the center of attention in the classroom and encourages them to take initiative. To begin with, project-based learning allows students to work in groups to complete projects or mini-projects. It can be used to test students’ abilities to cooperate and innovate during this process. Second, students in senior high school are capable of doing project-based learning. Students’ ability to innovate and think can be improved by continuing to develop new knowledge and abilities in the light of the original knowledge framework. Finally, the project teaching method can also improve students’ ability to collect and process information and improve students’ comprehensive ability.
As a result of the drawbacks of traditional teaching techniques, this study aims to adapt the project-based teaching method to the teaching of English reading in senior high schools, so as to explore the effectiveness of project-based teaching method in cultivating students’ reading ability, and core competences in the long run as well.
Within the post-epidemic period, this study aims to enrich front-line teachers’ teaching resources and cases of project-based reading teaching based on students’ core competences, provide students with a self-paced learning environment and effectively cultivate their abilities in different aspects. This research will present a number of feasible lesson designs for front-line teachers. This study also attempts to address practical and potential issues by examining the status quo of English reading instruction in senior high schools.
1.2 Research Significance
This study is both theoretical and practical in nature.
On one side, there aren’t enough studies on the PBL of senior high school English catering to the current post-epidemic period. This study will broaden the researches on the innovation of the current reading teaching mode by pointing to mini-project in reading teaching.
On the other side, this study is propitious to enrich the teaching resources and provide feasible teaching cases for elementary education. Teachers’ professional growth will be boosted, and students’ learning styles will shift from passive reception to active exploration.
Chapter 2 Literature Review
2.1 Theoretical Framework
The part gives a map of the theoretical bases of this study, which are constructivism, activity-based approach, and theory of multiple intelligences.
Piaget, a Swiss psychologist, was the first to propose constructivism, often known as structuralism. This theory promotes learner-centered learning with teachers’ assistance. Knowledge, according to the view of knowledge, is objective, and it is obtained by learners through active meaning construction under the background of existing experience. According to the learning approach, which stresses that students themselves are active constructors rather than passive consumers of knowledge, learning is a process in which students actively develop their own knowledge structure in a given context. Teachers, according to the teaching viewpoint, are facilitators and advocates of meaning formation rather than direct knowledge producers. It emphasizes that teachers are the guides of the teaching process and students are the initiators of meaning construction in the teaching process. Therefore, the design and application of English listening and speaking teaching activities in senior middle school based on hybrid teaching should follow the constructivist learning theory. (Vygotsky 1978) Teachers should reconsider their teaching methods, always placing students at the center, taking into account their prior knowledge and experience, creating situations in a reasonable manner, guiding learners to actively involve themselves in classroom activities, and giving full play to students’ subjective initiative.
2.2 Research on Reading Teaching at Home and Abroad
Varied scholars have different emphases when it comes to the research on reading teaching.
2.2.1 Research on Reading Teaching at Home
By amassing a variety of documentaries concerning English reading teaching, it can be found out that the existing domestic reading teaching is primarily investigated from three stages. From the late 1980s to 2004, it belongs to the initial stage of English reading teaching research. Between 2005 to 2010, domestic scholars paid increasing attention to reading instruction, so the researches on English reading increased rapidly in these five years. Since 2011, the pace of research on English reading instruction has slowed.
First, there exist researches on the model of reading theory. Early scholars discovered that the interaction model is a more scientific English reading instruction model after studying foreign reading theory frameworks. In the 21st century, many scholars are beginning to study the discourse teaching model, concluding that the discourse teaching model is beneficial for learners to enhance their English reading skills. Wang Dongping, Pang Guanli and Feng Jing (2021: 90-96) constructed a new model of English reading teaching based on the post-epidemic era. She believes that online “literature circle” English reading teaching model can give full play to advantages of the Internet Age, help innovative practice take root, and improve students’ reading interest and literacy. It is critical to modernize the English reading teaching instruction. How to effectively utilize the Internet plus education online resources reading class is a realistic issue that the education sector must confront. Wang Duqin (2014) constructed a new model of English reading teaching. She believes that one teaching model is not enough for different learning materials. Therefore, she proposes to combine the characteristics of discourse analysis theory and schema theory and apply them to different materials, so that both can give full play to their own strengths and significantly foster learners’ reading literacy. Liu Runqing (2003: 1-5) proposed a “three-dimensional thinking” model based on the relevant theories of reading essence, schema theory and cognitive psychology, which is mainly aimed at English majors. In view of the speculative absence of English majors, Wang Duqin (2014) established a schema interactive visualization model to be applied to English reading teaching, so as to improve students’ speculative ability.
Chapter 3 Research Methodology .................................... 20
3.1 Research Questions .................................... 20
3.2 Research Participants .................................. 21
3.3 Research Instruments ............................................. 21
Chapter 4 Results and Discussion .................................. 44
4.1 Results of Tests and Discussion ....................................... 44
4.1.1 Independent Sample T-test of the Pre-test Scores ............................... 44
4.1.2 Independent Sample T-test of the Post-test Scores ............................. 45
Chapter 5 Conclusion .................................. 66
5.1 Major Findings ................................................. 66
5.2 Pedagogical Implications ........................................... 67
Chapter 4 Results and Discussion
4.1 Results of Tests and Discussion
Both pre-test and post-test are conducted in order to see whether project-based learning can effectively enhance learners’ reading ability.
4.1.1 Independent Sample T-test of the Pre-test Scores
A comparative analysis is made in this chapter by conducting the independent sample t-test on the pre-test results of class 2 of senior one of the experimental class (EC) and class 1 of senior one of the control class (CC). See Table 5-1 and table 5-2 for the specific analysis results.
It can be seen from Table 4-1 that the average scores of the two classes are similar, but the standard deviation is different, indicating that most of the students’ scores of the two classes are quite different from the average. What’s more, it can be indicated from Table 5-2 about the independent sample t-test of the experimental class and the control class that the value of t is -0.106, and the value of sig is 0.157, which is greater than 0.05, indicating the homogeneity of variance. At the same time, the value of sig. (2-tailed) is 0.916 above 0.05, indicating that there is no significant difference between the two classes.
Chapter 5 Conclusion
5.1 Major Findings This study seeks to apply the project-based learning technique to English reading teaching in senior high school based on the experiment. The data analysis and discussion have yielded significant research findings.
To begin with, project-based learning can more successfully drive students’ reading motivation and improve their reading interest than traditional teaching approaches. Students’ attitudes towards English reading are gradually becoming more active. The project-based learning method allows students to learn through specific projects based on real-life themes, or we say situations. Students’ learning objectives are pretty clear, and their learning interest is greatly improved. Students can design the project catering to their interest through group cooperation, so they are more motivated in English learning. During the implementation of the project, students often feel the joy of success, which further enhances students’ interest in English reading.
Secondly, project-based learning method can more effectively foster senior high school learners’ English literal comprehension. The average score of the experimental class is significantly higher than that of the control class, which reflects that the project-based learning method is suitable for English reading instruction within senior high schools. The results of the pre-test and the questionnaire before the experiment show that the students in the two classes have the same level and similar learning habits before the experiment. However, after a four-month teaching experiment, through the analysis of the results of the post-test results and the questionnaire data after the experiment, it is found that the experimental class applying the project-based teaching method has made great progress in English reading comprehension. Although the control class has made some progress after four months of study, it has little effect compared with the experimental class.