本文是管理专业论文范例，题目是“valuation of various aspects of four companies operating in New Zealand（对在新西兰经营的四家公司各方面的评价）”，这份报告将评估在新西兰经营的四家公司的各个方面。这四个组织分别是:毛利人所有的Kono NZ LP公司;国际连锁酒店Novotel & Ibes;著名的户外服装企业加德满都和全球通讯品牌沃达丰新西兰。本报告的第一部分概述了建立，进展，公司功能和目标，以帮助我们理解其管理含义。它强调了组织的目的、结构、生命周期以及它们如何受到各种PESTEL元素的影响。这些公司的基于资源的视图已经被确定并分析了它们之间的不同之处。本报告试图分析和指出所有四家公司的文化范式和内部文化。报告的第二部分比较了四个组织，并讨论了它们在7S模式和文化范式方面的异同。在最后一部分，我们调查了不同的组织态度，技能和行为，一个管理者应该成为一个成功和高效的领导者的最高管理。
This report will evaluate various aspects of four companies operating in New Zealand. The four organizations are Kono NZ LP, which is a Maori owned company; Novotel & Ibes which is an International hotel chain; Kathmandu, a reputed outdoor apparel company and Vodafone New Zealand, which is a global telecommunication brand. The first part of this report outlines the establishment, progresses, company functions and objective to help us understand its managerial implications. It highlights the organizational purpose, structure, life cycle and how they are influenced by various PESTEL elements. The Resource based view for these companies have been identified and analyzed as in how they differ from each other. This report has made an effort to analyze and indicate the cultural Paradigm and Internal Culture of all four companies. The second part of the report compares four organizations and addresses their similarities and differences in terms of 7S models and cultural paradigms. In the last part, we investigate different organizational attitudes, skills and behaviors that a manager should has to become a successful and efficient leader of top management.
Table of Contents
Executive Summary Introduction Part 1: Individual Organizational Overviews Kathmandu Holdings Ltd, by Yuen Sum Lo Introduction Organizational Purpose Organizational Life Cycle Contemporary Influences The Resource Based View The Cultural Paradigm The Internal Culture Novotel & Ibies Group Hotel, by Haoyuan Zhao Introduction Organizational Purpose. Organizational Life Cycle Contemporary Influences. The Resource-Based View The Cultural Paradigm The Internal Culture KONO NZ LP, BY ZHENG LI Introduction Organizational Purpose Organizational Life Cycle Contemporary Influences The Resource Based View The Cultural Paradigm The Internal Culture Maori Principles and Values VODAFONE NEW ZEALAND, by Shiva Raj Sharma INTRODUCTION Organizational Purpose Organizational Life Cycle Contemporary Influences The Resource based View The Cultural Paradigm The Internal Culture Part 2: Implications for Organizational Managers Introduction The 7S Model The Cultural Paradigm Maori Principles and Values Attitudes Skills Behaviors Conclusion Bibliography
执行摘要导言第一部分:个人组织概况加德满都控股有限公司导言组织宗旨组织生命周期当代影响资源观文化范式内部文化诺富特&伊比斯集团酒店导言组织宗旨组织生命周期的当代影响。资源基础观文化范式内部文化KONO NZ LP，郑丽介绍组织目的组织生命周期当代影响资源基础观文化范式内部文化毛利人原则和价值观沃达丰新西兰导言组织目的组织生命周期当代影响基于资源的观点文化范式内部文化第二部分:对组织管理者的启示导言7S模型文化范式毛利人原则和价值观态度技能行为结论文献
This report consists of two parts: Part 1 is individual organizational overviews of a designated organization; Part 2 is the analysis of implications for organizational managers. In Part 1, we analyze four organizations by four students: Kathmandu Holdings Ltd, by Yuen Sum Lo; Novotel & Ibies Group Hotel, by Haoyuan Zhao; Kono NZ LP, by Zheng Li; Vodafone New Zealand by Shiva. We discuss about organizational purposes, life cycles, contemporary influences, the resourced based views, cultural paradigms and internal cultures. In Part 2, we compare four organizations and address their similarities and differences in terms of 7S models and cultural paradigms. In the last part, we investigate different organizational attitudes, skills and behaviors that a manager should has to become a successful and efficient leader of top management.
本报告由两部分组成:第一部分是一个指定组织的个别组织概述;第2部分是对组织管理者的启示分析。在第一部分中，我们分析了四个由四个学生组成的组织:Kathmandu Holdings Ltd，作者是Yuen Sum Lo;Novotel & Ibies集团酒店，Haoyuan Zhao;Kono NZ LP，Zheng Li;Vodafone New Zealand, Shiva。我们讨论了组织的目的、生命周期、当代影响、基于资源的观点、文化范式和内部文化。在第2部分中，我们比较了四个组织，并讨论了它们在7S模型和文化范式方面的异同。在最后一部分，我们调查了不同的组织态度，技能和行为，一个管理者应该成为一个成功和高效的领导者的最高管理。
Part 1: Individual Organizational Overviews
This section includes four students’ individual reports. Students and designated organizations are: Yuen Sum Lo, Kathmandu Holdings Ltd; Haoyuan Zhao, Novotel & Ibies Group Hotel; Zheng Li, Kono NZ LP; Shiva Raj Sharma, Vodafone New Zealand.
Kathmandu Holdings Ltd, by Yuen Sum Lo
Established in Christchurch in 1987 (Kathmandu, 2017), Kathmandu Holdings Limited is a New Zealand based company and a market leading retailer of travel and adventure outdoor clothing and equipment. According to (Kathmandu, 2017), it has 1955 employees and 163 stores across New Zealand and Australia. Although the main operations are in the Southern Hemisphere, its manufacturers are located in China, Vietnam and Taiwan. Kathmandu also imports materials sourcing and corporate with community partnerships from every part of the world including Antarctica (Kathmandu, 2017). The organizational structure is a traditional hierarchy as Firgure 1 shows (Kathmandu, 2017). flatorganizationtypes-slide01-hires(05-21-15)Figure 1 (Morgan, 2015)
Organizational purpose establishes a systemic process typically focuses on products, services and customers (Sheila Margolis, 2018). The external inputs are raw materials from suppliers, manufacture production from Asia countries, global transportation, partnerships with industry associations. The internal conversion of Kathmandu is a transformation process which transfers inputs into goods and services for customers. This stage usually happens inside the organization and controlled by managers (Seth, 2017). It requires management skills to control purchasing, transporting materials, monitoring product quality, recycling internal wastes and used clothing, and all employee efforts. The external outputs are outdoor garments and equipment, contribution to environment in terms of wastes and carbon emission, contribution to charities like Red Cross, creating job opportunities in different regions, profits and dividends to shareholders (Kathmandu, 2017).
Organizational Life Cycle
The current life cycle of Kathmandu is maturity as it produces stable net profit annually. The management is likely to be pleased with the status as the CEO and CFO remain the same people. Figure 2 represents the life cycle of an organization.
There are a number of factors influencing Kathmandu’ behavior. We can investigate the organizational behavior by analyzing two of the PESTEL elements. Social element: The leisure interests of population can affect the demand. Also, the willingness and motivation to choose Kathmandu rather than other outdoor brands are affected. The social element represents a negative effect on Kathmandu: limitation on population’s leisure interests. In reality, only New Zealanders and Australians enjoy outdoor adventures, so the demand is still small. This explains why Kathmandu only operates stores in these 2 countries. Technological: In the era of sustainability, “greens” technology for recycling wastes, used materials and put into garment production is acquired and staffs should be skillful. This represents a positive effect. With “green” technology, it successfully depicts Kathmandu as eco-friendly organization and controls as less as possible damage to the environment. The Force of Globalization: Supply sources are critical to Kathmandu because it is not always easy to obtain “green” materials. The company prefers to balance between fair trade and global competition as it purchases raw materials from minority communities (Kathmandu, 2017). Although it fosters the local economies, these minor communities face tremendous competition in global supply sources market and may not capable to stabilize the costs of supplying the materials. This could lead to managerial difficulty and profit decline.
The Resource Based View
A resource-based view is used to determine whether the organization is capable to deliver comparative advantages over its competitors (Wikipedia, 2018). It measures organizational progress regularly (Seth, 2017). In Kathmandu, it keeps expanding partnerships with 14 industrial associations. This is a big help for organizational progress and developing strategic solutions to challenges in garment industry (Kathmandu, 2017). Another resource-based view for Kathmandu is sophisticated fabric technology. In 1994, Kathmandu launched “Ecofleece” which was a recycled fleece fabric (Kathmandu, 2017). Nowadays, it still recycles and transform used materials, such as polyesters and plastic bottles, into production every year. In 2017, Kathmandu recycled 4 million bottles into products (Kathmandu, 2017).
The Cultural Paradigm文化范式
The most obvious indicators of Kathmandu’s cultural paradigm are organizational structure, internal process and story. First, the organizational structure is hierarchy that clearly defines each Chief Officer’s job responsibilities and authorities. Second, Kathmandu internal process is mainly outsourced. Most of the material supply sources, manufacturers, partnerships and employee efforts obtained outside New Zealand. Third, the story of Kathmandu remains green and eco-friendly as an organizational heritage.
The Internal Culture
The internal culture mostly applicable to Kathmandu is adhocracy. First, the internal-external focus of attention is the company’s external focus on how to sustain organizational growth and environment. To the extent of reducing damages to the environment, emissions of wastes during production and collecting sustainable materials are essential to decision-making. It supports innovativeness, eco-friendly visions and finding new resources. Second, the organizational structure is stable and flexible at the same time because it has various community partnerships from the globe. Advices and coaching from industrial associations will be taken into organizational operations (Kathmandu, 2017). Third, the control processes are delegated to suppliers and manufacturers and inspected by company’s audit teams. Kathmandu has over 140 suppliers outside New Zealand which requires sophisticated audit teams to ensure product quality and labour performance (Kathmandu, 2017)
Novotel & Ibies Group Hotel, by Haoyuan Zhao
Novotel is one of the members of AccorHotel. The first Novotel was opened at 1967 by Paul Dubrule and Gérard Pélisson in France (accorhotel 2001). There are 9 Novotel & Ibis hotels located in New Zealand and two of these are in Auckland, one is at Ellerslie and another one is at Auckland International Airport. According to the statistics, there are about 300 employees hired in each Novotel Hotel around the world. (Novotel & Ibis, 2011). As one of the luxury brand of AccorHotel, Novotel & Ibis always follow two core primary activity. They make two strategic divisions since the end of 2013 in order to ensure long term expansion: Hotel Service, that include the operator and franchiser, and Hotel lnvest, that include the owner and investor. The first part, that is the 4100 Hotel and 570,000 operating which under the AccorHotel brand, their need to manage all of the operation and provide the best choice of service for partner owner, achieve the values and resource shared. And the second part what the owner and investor, they need to simplify and manage existing portfolios through three standard asset disposals and acquisitions: margin, cash generation and location (Accorhotel). The structure of an organization is mainly a hierarchical concept. In the early 1990s, the top managers of AccorGroup realized that company was in a transitional state, they have to make a new project to catch this stage. The new project is preparing to reduce the costs and install the new work practices to take advantage from competitors. As picture shown below is current management structure of Novotel. In addition, top manager has authority for choosing team member, it is a typical geographical organization (UKEssays 2015).
Common areas were redesigned, new food and beverage offers were created, and new consumer technologies were used. Have 1500 economy hotels on four continents, all economy brands of Accor must be unified with the purpose of profit and global development. With this new brand strategy, Accor`s purpose was reinforcing their economy brand, increase customer satisfaction, utilize the distribution-loyalty systems efficiently and grow globally by using these brands (HNN Newswire, 2011). The External Input of Novotel is they would get the difference style of F&B and decoration from local supplier in order to adapt local custom. It`s internal conversation is as a hospitality industry, they would transit the best service and accommodation experience for customer to keeping their customer loyalty. Also external output is attraction of outside tourism and increase local income of tourist trade.
Organizational Life Cycle组织生命周期
AccorHotel Group and Novotel & Ibies hotel`s life cycle is current maturity. Whole business running has already format an integrated system. This system available for most of firm which under the Accor Group even any new brand is created, only need to do small change depend on the specific condition.
Public sector increase revenue and taxation by easier controlling of large hospitality industry. The increase of hospitality industry also influences local`s societal. Tourism attract more and more people come to the place to bring abundant of resource, that would promote the development of local infrastructure.
The Resource-Based View
The most noteworthy capabilities of the two directors are their radical response to the threats that companies face, the ability to effectively allow internal consultation processes among employees, and the rapidity of sales and implementation of change plans in other hotel (UKEssays 2015).
The Cultural Paradigm
Every brand of hotel has their own organizational culture, so Novotel is. Novotel & Ibies is one of the luxury brand in Accor Group, it has their own group cultural paradigm, that is story and symbol. Paul Dubrule and Gérard Pélisson opened the first Novotel in 1960s. Today, it is become to AccorsHotel around the world. In the Novotel & Ibies, it is always said that they are not talking about the employee, they are talking about talents, they always try to recognize each person`s value, and make it to their promise. They bring their talent to the group and to make them a proactive part of their own development.
The Internal Culture
Novotel & Ibies Hotels group has a strict structure system, so it pertains to Hierarchy Internal Culture. There 250,000 talents people hired by AccorHotels and more 300 employees in each firm, so every department has their own department structure, from the bottom to up, everyone has to be report their inquire to each manager or supervisor in order to get acceptation. Because everyone has their own duty and responsibility, only the right person can figure out the right inquire.
KONO NZ LP, BY ZHENG LI
Kono NZ LP is a Maori owned company which was established in Nelson in 2011 (Wakatū Incorporation, 2015). It deals in seafood, wine, fruits, fruit processing products and fisheries with more than 400 employees (Wakatū Incorporation, 2018). Kono is a subsidiary of Wakatu Incorporation, a famous Maori company with a history of more than 40 years (Wakatū Incorporation, 2015). The organizational structure of Kono is likely to be this graph (Kono, 2015):
External Input: 530 hectares of land and oceans, and more than 400 employees (Wakatū Incorporation, 2018). Internal Conversion: Plant, produce, sell and transport services (Kono, 2015).External Output: Customs, job opportunities, profits (Kono, 2015).
Organizational Life Cycle组织生命周期
The company should be at a growth stage in the organizational life cycle. As I mentioned before it was founded in 2011, and then acquired Tohu (Kono, 2015), an award-winning wine brand (Tohu wines, 2018), and Yellow Brick Road which is leading the way in the industry by quickly placing orders online (Yellow Brick Road, 2013). We foresee that these high-quality subsidiaries will bring great wealth to the parent company, Kono, in the next five to 10 years. Therefore, we believe that Kono will have a certain stage of growth in the future.
公司应该处于组织生命周期的成长阶段。正如我之前提到的，它成立于2011年，然后收购了Tohu (Kono, 2015)，一个获奖的葡萄酒品牌(Tohu wines, 2018)，以及Yellow Brick Road，通过快速在线下单，在行业中处于领先地位(Yellow Brick Road, 2013)。我们预计，这些优质的子公司将在未来5到10年为母公司河野带来巨大的财富。因此，我们相信河野在未来会有一定的成长阶段。
Political influence: It is obvious that Kono benefit from TTe Ture Whenua Maori Act 1993 and the Maori Reserved Land Act 1955 (plus amendments), and no exception (Wakatū Incorporation, 2015). Only after these laws were passed did Kono's founders have access to a vast amount of high-quality land and sea areas, thus creating Kono. Technological influence: Kono has a close partnership with Callaghan Innovation to provide the company with a number of up-to-date research projects that have a positive impact on Kono's continuous progress (Wakatū Incorporation, 2015). The impact of globalization: The increasingly globalized business is a great challenge for many companies (Colapinto, 2013), but a good opportunity for Kono . Kono has a rich product resource, with excellent quality, and the influence of globalization has caused the products of Kono to be exported to 25 countries and regions (Kono, 2015). Especially in the Asian market with a large population, globalization has brought positive and far-reaching effects to Kono (Alden, Steenkamp & Batra, 2006). The Resource Based View This part will analyze the matching relationship between the resources, internal structure and the ability to meet the challenges of market (Szymaniec-Mlicka, 2014). Advantageous resources:
Land and ocean resources: This enterprise has vast quantities of good land and ocean resources, and these resources are not easily obtained by any other organization. This indicates the scarcity of the market competitive resources of Kono.
Strong financial resources: Kono's parent Wakatu incorporation well-funded. This is also a rare advantage.
Special cultural resources: Maori culture is similar to Asian culture, and Asians have a natural affinity for Maori culture. Therefore, in the competition of Asian market, Maori will highlight its cultural advantage to gain more Asian market share.
Access and management of special resources: Kono's parent Wakatu incorporation has a department that is responsible for the talent supporting, to continue to supply and train the people that Kono needs (Wakatū Incorporation, 2015). Wakatu also established Kono General Partner Ltd for managing Kono NZ LP (Wakatū Incorporation, 2015). This allowed Kono to get rid of the traditional family management mode of gross profit and set up a new scientific and effective organizational management structure.
The Cultural Paradigm
Kono, a Maori company, also seems to conform to the story and symbols of organizational culture paradigm (Harmsworth, 2005). For example, on the home page of their company's website, they highlight the history of the founder of the company and emphasize the cultural values of the Maori people.
The Internal Culture
It seems that the clan is the internal organizational culture of the company. Teamwork, people-oriented, recognition and respect for everyone's talents are the values of this company. Moreover, employees can have multiple flexible movements within the enterprise (Kono, 2015), which also indicates that Kono's internal culture is mainly based on the value needs of employees (Smith, Peters & Caldwell, 2016). Therefore, we believe that its internal organizational culture is the clan type.
Maori Principles and Values
Through the case analysis of Kono company, we can see the following principles and values of this Maori company: 1. Principles combine cultural and commercial aspects (Harmsworth, 2005) 2. Value the continuity of the enterprise. Their goal is to build a business that will last 500 years (Kono, 2015) 3. With the development and progress of society, they began to pay attention to education (Wakatū Incorporation, 2015) and the cultivation of future generations (Harmsworth, 2005) 4. There is a need to balance competing cultures, societies, businesses and the environment (Harmsworth, 2005)
VODAFONE NEW ZEALAND, by Shiva Raj Sharma
The internet, mobile telephony, mobile data, broadband internet, satellite communications, digital television & radio, various internet-based business etc. has all surrounded us and it seems impossible that businesses & life today is possible without these services. Among few global leaders with international operations, Vodafone is one of the world’s largest telecommunication service provider. Vodafone NZ was first established here in the year 1998 after purchasing BellSouth’s operation in New Zealand making it New Zealand’s largest mobile phone operator. Parent Vodafone company is a London based Public Limited Company (PLC) and Vodafone New Zealand is its subsidiary (Wikipedia, 2018). Organizational structure of Vodafone New Zealand is a hierarchical one with each individual staff reports to their immediate superiors.
Vodafone New Zealand being a telecom provider basically serves a purpose to generate revenue selling products designed to meet requirements of millions of customers. Vodafone New Zealand has its main internal inputs as manpower, infrastructure, interconnected mobile network (4G & 5G), fixed line and internet service. With a proven and successful business plan and sophisticated system in place it utilizes infrastructure, manpower and technical assets to generate profit for its shareholders. Vodafone NZ has also been giving out back to the society as part of their corporate social responsibility (Wikipedia, 2018).
Organizational Life Cycle组织生命周期
At the launching in 1998 it had just 138,000 customers which roughly would be one in 30 New Zealanders with a limited coverage area. With other competitive service providers in the market and constantly evolving market of telecommunication it would be safe to assume that Vodafone New Zealand is in growing stage of its organizational life cycle.
Like any other multinational company Vodafone New Zealand’s behavior is highly influenced by number of factors which can be investigated by analyzing the 3 of the PESTEL elements. Social Element: Vodafone New Zealand is highly affected by the social factors like the population of any given coverage area, their profession and need to use its services, age group of people and their expense habit. Vodafone New Zealand would have significant social influence as the people using and spending on their services will fluctuate with factors like festivities, natural calamities, and different time in days of a week as well. Technological Element: Vodafone New Zealand has a great technological influence that has helped it acquire new market and customers with its fast-paced service evolution. Today Vodafone is thriving as more people use their services as they offer better technology in cheaper rates. Vodafone currently has 1560 cell sites that covers 98.5 % of area where major population lives. They have 72 Vodafone shops in the country from where they offer their services (Wikipedia, 2018). It is safe to assume that technological element has always been a strong hand for this company as they are quick to adapt and offer the latest in competitive rates compared to other operators in the country (Vodafone NZ, 2018). The Force of Globalization: Vodafone being a Multinational Company that has operations in over 27 countries including New Zealand. Vodafone New Zealand acquires the hardware and equipment’s from all around the world specially China, USA and Europe. It also outsources customer care and software R&D to countries like India and China (Vodafone NZ, 2018).
The Resource based View
Vodafone New Zealand’s capabilities to stand out and beat its competition and deliver strong global presence and its ability to adapt and offer latest technology in the market at lower cost is to name one. Best quality call, High speed broadband, fixed line phone, broadband television is considered better and preferred by millions of New Zealanders today. It has helped gain Vodafone New Zealand the largest market share as well.
The Cultural Paradigm
The most notable cultural paradigm of Vodafone New Zealand is its obsession for the customers and an ambitious team that offers new products and services in the market first. This company is innovation hungry as they were the first to offer various services & products. Vodafone New Zealand has a culture to lead the market and bring the best innovation, network experience and value to their customers.
The Internal Culture
Vodafone NZ has a thriving internal culture that offers flexibility and growth to its employees. It seems to respect individuality and thus has smart causal as dress code. However, retail staffs are provided with snappy uniforms that represents Vodafone (Vodafone NZ, 2018). Work hours has flexibility too as one can work in shifts, part-time, remote working, condensed hours depending on the role.
Maori Principles and Values
As we mentioned before, through the case study of Kono company we can see the Maori organizations' principles and values usually combine their cultural and commercial aspects (Harmsworth, 2005). They value the sustainability of the organization and the needs of community (Warriner, 2009). In this case, we recommend that if the Maori companies can conform the processes cultural paradigm, such as Kathmandu and Novotel, their productivity of the companies will be more efficient.
The organizational attitude is a deeply held belief, originating from company’s own characteristics, upbringing, influence in the industry which determines what is right or wrong, achievable or unachievable (Seth, 2017). With the previous discussion of similarities and differences, there are some values and attitudes that would be most commonly expected of an organizational manager.
With the previous discussion of similarities and differences, there are some skills that would be most commonly expected of an organizational manager.
With the previous discussion of similarities and differences, there are some behaviours that would be most commonly expected of an organizational top-level manager.
In this report, our group chose four difference organization that including retail industry, hospitality industry, food processing industry, electronics industries and analyze some parts of difference and similar business and leadership. After collected all the details of the four organizations which we choice, we have got a result that main management mode of each domain. The top manager not only has to be possess the basic management capacity, but also need to have some specific capability which ordinary stuff doesn`t have. That would contribute to us to understand core competitiveness and organizational culture of each domain. Thereby understand more capability of management in various of industry.