本文是电子商务专业的留学生Essay范例，题目是“Factors to Consider for E-Commerce（电子商务需要考虑的因素）”。您的朋友 Lara 正在开设一家在线零售店。 她计划向全世界的猫爱好者销售与猫有关的服装和商品。 劳拉知道你正在学习商业，所以她征求你的意见。
Your friend Lara is launching an online retail store. She plans to sell cat-related garments and merchandise to cat lovers all around the world. Lara knows that you are studying business, so she asks for your advice.
What does Lara need to consider as she prepares to engage in eCommerce?’
Electronic commerce (e-commerce) is the buying and selling of goods or services using the internet. This includes transmitting funds and agreeing contracts electronically, marketing goods and services online, making reservations online and much more. There is a lot to consider before engaging in e-commerce such as; digital marketing, information and security. It is important for businesses to consider engaging in e-commerce as ‘over the past decade global e-commerce has been expanding at an average rate of 20%’ (E-commerce takes off, 2017).
Lara, who plans to sell cat-related garments and merchandise to cat lovers all around the world could use electronic commerce to give her businesses a competitive advantage. Ecommerce will also allow a business like Lara’s to gain customers from all around the world. she would need to consider the fact that not all countries are devolved and have access to electronics.
Lara 计划向全世界的猫爱好者销售与猫有关的服装和商品，她可以利用电子商务为她的企业提供竞争优势。 电子商务还将让像 Lara's 这样的企业获得来自世界各地的客户。 她需要考虑一个事实，即并非所有国家都已下放并可以使用电子产品。
Digital marketing will give you insight on how to engage with your customers. Marketing is the activity of communicating, promoting products or services that have value for customers at large. Marketing becomes digital when it uses an electronic device or the internet to sport it. Social media plays an important part in digital marketing. A business like Lara’s, can use people with social platforms to advertise products or services available, to gain exposure and attract potential customers. Social media gives people an easy access to share, comment, and leave reviews for products and services. This will promote the brand and content to increase awareness which will increase overall sales for Lara.
Ecommerce allows businesses to sell products and services on an international platform. Customers can use search engines to look for specific products like cat garments which will lead them straight to a website that sells them. Not only is it easier for customers to just shop online from a website, it makes it easier for a seller to make sales as customers are actively searching for their products. Offering products and services on a website where the buying process is easy for customers to shop from is crucial as would increase customer satisfaction. Making the process complicated would make customers resistant to buying from the specific company.
Email marketing allows businesses to send commercial messages to a large group of people using email. Emails are an effective way to attract potential customers as not everyone has access to social media. When people subscribe to companies they would expect something in return, for example vouchers, discounts, rewards and special offers.
Before sending emails to people you have to make sure you have their consent and you have to provide them a way to let them opt-out of further communications. To get people to give their consent to emails, businesses usually have a pre-launch page on their websites to sign up for more information. Transactional emails are the first, out of three, category in e-commerce marketing emails. These include key points of a transaction for example, order confirmation and the dispatch of goods. The second category is promotional emails which are to promote offers and products. This includes offers for special holidays and occasions like mother’s day, father’s day or Valentine’s Day.
Customer lifecycle emails is the last category in e-commerce marketing emails. This is based on where the customer is in their relationship with the brand. Rather than sending generic emails to all customers, companies would send emails based on where the customer is in their relationship with the brand. Emails are targeted to specific customers depending on where they are in the lifecycle. This allows companies to advertise personalised products to the targeted customers.
客户生命周期电子邮件是电子商务营销电子邮件中的最后一个类别。 这是基于客户与品牌的关系。 公司不会向所有客户发送通用电子邮件，而是根据客户与品牌的关系来发送电子邮件。 电子邮件针对特定客户，具体取决于他们在生命周期中的位置。 这使公司可以向目标客户宣传个性化产品。
Customer relationship management take account of the ‘understanding and influencing customer behaviours through meaningful communications to increase new customers, prevent the loss of existing customers, promote customer loyalty, and enhance customer profitability’ (Yang and Hu, p.175). Businesses that want to engage in ecommerce would use customer relationship management as a method to maintain the communications with current or future customers. Businesses could use customer relationship management to strengthen the loyalty and commitment customers have with them.
The European convention on human rights states that everyone has the ‘right to respect for his private and family life, his home and his correspondence’. The definition of privacy becomes more complicated and harder to protect in the Information Age. As technology is continuously being developed, new threats are arising. Although businesses can use ‘personal information to provide better services, information could also be misused; for example, by sending unwanted emails to customers, selling customers’ information to others, or disclosing potentially sensitive information that the customer would prefer to keep private’(Boritz, 2011).
欧洲人权公约规定，每个人都“有权尊重他的私人和家庭生活、他的家和他的通信”。 在信息时代，隐私的定义变得更加复杂和难以保护。 随着技术的不断发展，新的威胁正在出现。 尽管企业可以使用“个人信息”来提供更好的服务，但信息也可能被滥用； 例如，通过向客户发送不需要的电子邮件、向他人出售客户信息或披露客户希望保密的潜在敏感信息”（Boritz，2011 年）。
Online systems are exposed to cyber-attacks and IT failure. This could compromise any data an e-commerce business holds. If a business is solely based online and has a system failure, this could cost the business potential sales and expenses to maintain an online system. British Airways PLC experienced an IT failure that cost them £80m in 2017 (Financial Times). This clearly shows that the size of the business doesn’t really matter and that an IT failure can happen to any business at any time. Businesses that would like to engage in e-commerce should be prepared for any failures or cyber-attacks. Businesses will have to use privacy enhancing technology to allow online users to protect their identities. Even though technology is always developing to protect customers, ‘new technologies are equally able to facilitate gross breaches of an individual’s privacy’ (Smith and Shao, 2007). There are many rules and regulations in place regarding ecommerce which ensures that businesses take appropriate technical and organisational measures to secure personal data.
The General Data Protection Regulation (2016) is a regulation in EU law which relates to the processing of personal data. Any business that is considering engaging in e-commerce needs to familiarise themselves and put in practice of the regulations in order to protect customers and themselves. The General Data Protection Regulation applies to both public and private companies in the UK that process personal data and states that ‘technology allows both private companies and public authorities to make use of personal data on an unprecedented scale in order to pursue their activities’ ( EU Regulation, 2016).
‘Personal data’ has three types; the first is anything that allows a living person to be directly or indirectly identified. This includes names, addresses or even IP addresses. The second type of personal data includes sensitive personal data such as religious beliefs, political opinions, racial information and sexual orientation. The last type of personal data is criminal and offence data.
Processing data consists of collecting, recording, storing, retrieval and even destruction of data. The EU regulation gives EU citizens a right to their own data which means they can decide whether to share their personal data or not and even have it erased. This regulation ensures that businesses in the UK don’t take advantage of individuals’ privacy.
处理数据包括收集、记录、存储、检索甚至销毁数据。 欧盟法规赋予欧盟公民拥有自己数据的权利，这意味着他们可以决定是否共享他们的个人数据，甚至可以将其删除。 该法规确保英国的企业不会利用个人隐私。
The Data Protection Act (2018) and Privacy and Electronic Communications Regulations (PECR) are UK regulations that protect personal data and privacy rights on computers in regards to electronic communications. The Data Protection Act implements the General Data Protection Regulation, controlling how businesses use your personal data but with more factors that is specific to the UK.
The Privacy and Electronic Communications Regulation outlines rules on marketing, cookies, communication services and customer privacy. Businesses in the UK that engage in e-commerce will have to be well aware of the use of data in their businesses as a breach of regulations can lead to the company being fined. This may create complications for a new business like Lara’s as it may be hard for them to pay the fines. It would also be bad for publicity if a business is in breach of any data protection acts as it will be very hard for people to trust them with their information.
Electronic commerce has numerous strengths and weaknesses. Online shopping has become very popular for customers with no time to shop in person. A weakness of ecommerce is the time and resources used to keep up maintenance and protection from cyber-attacks. Businesses would have to make sure they are operating with the restrictions of all the regulations regarding privacy and data protection.
电子商务有许多优点和缺点。 对于没有时间亲自购物的顾客来说，网上购物变得非常流行。 电子商务的一个弱点是用于保持维护和保护免受网络攻击的时间和资源。 企业必须确保他们在所有有关隐私和数据保护的法规的限制下运营。