本文是电子商务专业的留学生Essay代写范例，题目是“Effect of Displaying Online Privacy Information on Purchasing Behaviour（显示在线隐私信息对购买行为的影响）”。互联网正迅速成为世界上最大的公共电子市场。 据估计，全球有 5000 万人，客户以每月 10% 的速度增长（Wang 等，1998） 隐私是最重要的消费者权利之一，也是电子商务的主要部分。 在线卖家需要消费者的个人数据来收款和交付产品。 从商家的角度来看，这些信息被认为是保证和确认订单所必需的。
The Internet is quickly becoming the world’s largest public electronic marketplace. It is estimated to reach 50 million people worldwide and customers are growing with the rate of 10% per month (Wang et al., 1998) Privacy is one of the most important consumer right and major part of e-commerce. Online sellers require personal data of consumer for collection of payments and delivery of products. From merchant perspective this information is consider necessary for assurance and confirmation of order.
From customer perspective this is the right of consumer that the information they provide should be kept confidential. This is the major issue that customers are facing in e-commerce, because online companies do not kept their information secret and disclose this information to other stake holders like, government, banks and to cargo service providers. The risk of misusing this information can be lower if online merchants adopt fair information policy; through this policy the risk of leaking customer’s information can be lower by limiting the collection of personal data to the relevancy of transaction.
从客户的角度来看，消费者有权对他们提供的信息保密。 这是客户在电子商务中面临的主要问题，因为在线公司不会将他们的信息保密，并将这些信息透露给其他利益相关者，如政府、银行和货运服务提供商。 如果网上商户采取公平的信息政策，滥用这些信息的风险会更低； 通过这项政策，通过将个人数据的收集限制在交易的相关性，可以降低泄露客户信息的风险。
It is the right of consumer that online merchants should place the privacy statement on their website which will help customer to know the risk of disclosing personal information. But many customers do not give value to these privacy statements and agree with these statements without studying them. For Lack of consumer trust, consumer protection and privacy laws are major barriers in the growth of e-commerce. There are in efficient cyber laws prevailed in the system which denominate the consumer rights. (Hann et al., 2002).
This research will examine whether the efficient display of privacy information plays any role in making purchase decision by consumer. For this purpose previous researcher conducted a survey regarding online privacy and perceived risks associated with online shopping, and they steered an experiment in which participants are asked to take a purchase decision that will affect their private information. So we will structure the experiment as an online shopping experience at existing online merchants, and tested whether signals about the different levels of privacy protection among merchants would affect the participants’ price sensitivity and purchase decisions (Tsai et al., 2007)
Our research questions will be as follows:
Do consumers value privacy statements and privacy seals? If so, do they affect consumer disclosure of personal information?
We will guide the exploratory field experiment to determine these matters. Specifically, we will mix gifts to ensure privacy between the three levels of treatments and how consumers react to each level. It will be three steps:
any information with regard to the adoption of fair information policy will be through the provision of customers
information concerning the privacy of your data will be made available to the client
accumulation of the privacy statement, privacy statement is displayed
This research will provide the pressures that arise between the collection and use of personal information that people during the most consumer transactions, and privacy. In today’s world, increasingly competitive strategies for successful companies rely on large amounts of customer data. Oddly enough, the same information practices that provide value to organizations also raised concerns about the privacy of individuals.
This study assumes that organizations can address these issues and getting the business advantage through customer retention. On personal data given by customers businesses make decision what benefits should be given to customers, and sometimes government require personal data of online customers for making regulatory policies.
Our first objective is to determine that the effect of online privacy on purchase behavior of consumer either it affects positively or negatively?
Our second objective would be to determine the impact of monetary benefits on disclosure.
Our Third objective will be to determine the impact of information incentive on disclosure.
Many researchers worked on determining the effect of online privacy on purchase behavior. Their research finding shows that implementation of fair information policy impacts positively on purchase behavior of consumer. It means that if online merchants adopt fair information policy to keep the personal information of consumer confidential then consumer respond positively in purchase behavior.
许多研究人员致力于确定在线隐私对购买行为的影响。 他们的研究结果表明，公平信息政策的实施对消费者的购买行为产生积极影响。 这意味着，如果在线商家采取公平的信息政策来为消费者的个人信息保密，那么消费者在购买行为中就会做出积极的反应。
In this regard (Tsai et al., 2007) conduct a research to determine the impact of online privacy on purchase behavior. The goal of this study was to determine whether the availability of private information affects purchasing decision of consumer. He used Privacy Finder to display the privacy policies of certain online shopping sites in a fashion that, possibly, reduces the gap of information asymmetry. In his study he found that participants were affected by having this additional information displayed to them. Their experiment shows that that once privacy information is made more visible, people will tend to purchase from merchants that offer more privacy protection and even pay a premium to purchase from such merchants. This was true for both privacy-sensitive and non-privacy-sensitive items.
Another research was conducted by (Brown & Muchira, 2004) in which they steered a relationship between online privacy and purchase decision of consumer Results of a survey study indicate that both errors and invasion of privacy have a significant negative relationship with online purchase behavior. Unapproved use of secondary data seems to have little impact on purchase decision. Data used in this study was collected through questionnaire survey and sampling technique was used convenience sampling. Sampling frame uses in this research was under graduate and post graduate students in East Coast University of Australia and hypothesis was tested using ANOVA. Unauthorized use of data is considered as independent variable while invasion of privacy and errors is treated as dependent variable.
To study the consumer willingness to provide private information (Phelps et al., 2000) conducted a study finding of research shows that there is a strong relationship between level of concern of customers regarding usage of their private information and their purchase intention. Data was collected through questionnaire surveys and ANOVA was used to test the hypothesis.
To investigate the difference in purchase intention of peoples who belongs to different demographics and culture (Bellman et al., n.d.) investigated that to build the trust of consumer internet companies should be allocated on the system of data collection in accordance with customer needs. Research shows that most customers have concerns with privacy regulations prevailing in the country. There is a difference in management and law enforcement on a company’s culture.
为了调查属于不同人口和文化的人群的购买意愿差异（Bellman 等，n.d.），调查了建立消费者互联网公司的信任应该根据客户需求分配在数据收集系统上。 研究表明，大多数客户都担心该国现行的隐私法规。 公司文化的管理和执法存在差异。
(Jordaan, 2007) found that the ability to collect and sustain personal information does not show that direct marketers are able to maintain true and honest relationship with customers. Direct marketing organizations need to be careful regarding consumers’ collected information and attend to several privacy issues if they want to facilitate relational exchanges between themselves and consumers. A probability (systematic) sampling design was used to draw a representative sample of households with listed telephone numbers in the different provincial Telkom telephone directories. The sample units were randomly selected, after which 800 telephone interviews were conducted with adults from these households.
(Papacharissi & Fernback, 2005) Evaluate the effectiveness of privacy statements and focus on language, format, assurances of privacy, and the complexity of the legal and technical aspects, and the perceived credibility of the statement. Analysis of the content of privacy statements that data privacy is always protected the interests of customers as it is a legal guarantees to the companies concerned.
Instead, we found that although the data was widespread and extensive in most major business portals, such as Google, Yahoo and AOL, several smaller trading portals don’t feature them at all, or at least featured much less widespread, and reassure versions. The main gates were much more likely to feature lengthier statements, certified by TRUSTe, perhaps because they had the personnel to dedicate to this important task, and they can afford to provide full privacy disclosure.
相反，我们发现尽管数据在大多数主要商业门户网站（如 Google、Yahoo 和 AOL）中都很广泛且广泛，但一些较小的交易门户网站根本没有提供这些数据，或者至少提供了不那么广泛且令人放心的版本。 大门更有可能发表更长的声明，经 TRUSTe 认证，这可能是因为他们有人员致力于这项重要任务，而且他们有能力提供完整的隐私披露。