Chapter One Introduction
1.1 Research Background
Deep learning is one of the research hotspots in the field of education in recent years. Many scholars and teaching practitioners are committed to researching its role, methods and strategies in promoting students’ deep learning. This research is based on the following background.
1.1.1 The Requirements of Core Competencies Development
With the continuous development of society, the requirements of the country and society for the quality of talents are also constantly improving. With the continuous enrichment and development of knowledge in various disciplines and the continuous updating of people’s learning concepts, students need to learn not only the superficial knowledge in books, but more importantly, the cultivation of core competencies throughout the entire learning process.
The English Curriculum Standards for Senior High School (2017 edition, 2020 revision) points out that the purpose of high school education is to focus on the development of core competencies. The core competencies of student development mainly refers to the necessary character and key competencies that students should have. Improving the core competencies of students is an important measure to accomplish the task of fostering virtue through education. At the same time, it is also the urgent need to meet the development trend of education reform and improve the international competitiveness of China’s education.
1.2 Research Purpose and Significance
In order to enhance students’ deep learning, a key high school in Chengdu has been applying a teaching model for many years. They call the model as REL. However, they have not carried out any research to verify its effectiveness. In order to verify the effectiveness of REL, this study will carry out teaching experiments and find out the answer. The main objectives are as follows:
Firstly, academic performance reflects students’ learning effect to a certain extent. This study aims to analyze the influence of REL on students’ academic performance by analyzing the students’ academic performance between EC and CC.
Secondly, REL is a learning model of deep learning. This study aims to analyze the deep learning experience of students in the process of taking REL through questionnaires.
The new curriculum standard emphasizes that language learning is a meaningful theme exploration activity, and the learning process should reflect the principal status of students, and through learning understanding, application practice, transfer innovation and other practical activities to cultivate students’ logical thinking, innovative thinking and critical thinking. As a research hotspot in the field of education research, deep learning happens to coincide with the concept of the new curriculum standard (Wang, 2021). Deep learning emphasizes students’ deep thinking on learning content, whole-body involvement and dominant position in the learning process, and focuses on cultivating students’ ability to solve problems. Deep learning can’t be realized by relying on single structure learning (Wang, 2021). Therefore, as an English learning and teaching system integrating “listening, dictation, reading aloud, reciting and thinking, back translation, reading comprehension exercise, accumulation of expressions, grammar review, summary writing and learning reflection”, the REL model proposed by a key high school has become an important form of deep learning.
Chapter Two Literature Review
2.1 Key Terms Related to the Research
There are three key terms related to this study, namely deep learning, REL and deep learning experience. They will be explained in detail in this section.
2.1.1 Deep Learning
Deep learning was first proposed by scholars in the field of machine learning, and later received extensive attention from scholars in the educational field (Guo, 2017). The initial definition of deep learning in the educational field was put forward relative to surface learning, but with the deepening and enrichment of deep learning research, different scholars have given different views on the definition and concept of deep learning, with different emphases. Views can be divided into learning models, learning processes, and learning results, which also reflect different stages of deep learning development (Bu, 2016).
The concept of deep learning was proposed by American educational psychologists Martin and Saljo (1976). They believed that deep learning is an active, inquiry-based, and comprehensible learning method that requires learners to learn comprehensively in order to solve practical problems.
Li and He (2005) first defined the concept of deep learning in China, and they put forward the most representative statement on the connotation of deep learning from the perspective of learning methods. They pointed out that deep learning refers to the process of learning in which students critically acquire new ideas and knowledge based on their own understanding, integrate them into existing cognitive structures, and then transfer existing knowledge to new situations to make decisions and solve problems. Other scholars who have studied deep learning as a learning method include Zhang and Wu (2012), Sun (2007), Zhu (2017), Biggs (1979), etc.
2.2 Previous Studies of Some Deep Learning Models
There are many learning models whose purpose is to enhance students’ deep learning.
Project-based learning (hereinafter referred to as PBL) is considered an active form of learning (Serife, 2011). Learners are actively involved in the learning process when they use PBL. (Gurpinar, Kulac, Akdogan, Mamakli, 2013). Hu, Wang, Tang, Sun and An (2020) constructed a three-in-one dual-line teaching model. Dolmans et al. (2016) reviewed the existing PBL teaching models, and measured depth and surface treatment through Biggs’ theoretical framework. The review shows that PBL seems to enhance deep learning to some extent.
Blended teaching is closely related to the development of Internet technology. Among them, SPOC platform is one of the important medium. Sun (2021), Zhang and Lv (2018) proposed their teaching model based on it. Flipped classroom is another form of blended teaching. Le (2019), Huang (2021), etc carried out research based on it. There are also some other feasible models proposed by scholars according to teaching practice. For example, multi-model circulation model (Deng, 2020), deep teaching model based on learning analysis technology (Peng, 2017), collaborative knowledge construction model (Wei, 2019), “3*3” blended learning model (Huang, 2019 ), a research-based blended teaching model (Cheng, 2021).
Chapter Three Research Methodology .................................... 25
3.1 Research Questions .................................... 25
3.2 Research Participants ................................... 25
3.3 Research Instruments .............................. 26
Chapter Four Results and Discussion .................................. 33
4.1 The Effect of Reverse English learning on Students’ English Academic Performance ........................... 33
4.1.1 Results and Analysis of Pre-test Data for Experimental and Control Classes............................. 33
4.1.2 Results and Analysis of Post-test Data in Experimental and Control Classes.................................... 34
Chapter Five Conclusion........................... 58
5.1 Major Findings ..................................... 58
5.2 Research Implications .................................. 60
5.3 Research Limitations ........................... 61
Chapter Four Results and Discussion
4.1 The Effect of Reverse English learning on Students’ English Academic Performance
In this study, students in the EC and the CC were tested before and after the experiment, and the question types, score distribution and difficulty level of the test papers were basically the same. The pre-test is to prove that the English proficiency of the two classes is basically the same, and the post-test is to analyze the effect of REL, a deep learning model, on students’ academic performance. SPSS 26.0 was used in this study to analyze the results of pre-test and post-test.
4.1.1 Results and Analysis of Pre-test Data for Experimental and Control Classes
In this study, the study chose Class Four as the EC and Class Five as the CC. Through the analysis of the pre-test English academic performance data of the EC and the CC, the following results are obtained. The result is as follows:
Chapter Five Conclusion
5.1 Major Findings
Deep learning is a necessary process and a necessary result of students’ learning, which meets the English teaching requirements in the context of the new curriculum reform. How to apply the concept of deep learning to practical teaching has become a research hotspot of scholars. Based on this background, a key high school proposed a deep learning model called REL. Whether the deep learning model of REL can really promote students’ deep learning is the focus of this study.
In the early stage, the study reviewed and classified the concepts, connotations, requirements and models of deep learning by reading relevant literature, and then joined the English research group of a key high school for in-depth study and discussed the connotation, principles and steps of the REL model. Subsequently, the study conducted an experimental study of the deep learning model in high school English learning, and carried out an effect test to explore its effectiveness and feasibility, and tried to find the shortcomings of the model, and gave some application suggestions for reference. The main conclusions of this study are as follows:
Firstly, REL learning model can improve students’ academic performance in English. As a way of expressing deep learning, academic performance can also reflect the deep learning level of students. Through the analysis of the students’ English academic performance data collected before and after the experiment, it can be found that there is no significant difference in the academic level of the EC and the CC before the experiment. But after the end of the experiment, the English academic performance of the EC has increased significantly. On the contrary, by adopting the traditional English learning method, the English academic performance of the CC showed a decrease in the mean. Although this change is not significant, it is certain that the traditional English learning model has no obvious effect on the students’ academic performance.