Chapter One Literature Review
1.1 Definition of key terms
This research is mainly about the orientation of teacher’s roles.The researchersstart from the perspective of roles,and thus extend to the classroom role of teachersand the orientation of teacher’s roles.
The so-called role is originally a term used in theater and movies,which refers toa specific character played by an actor on stage according to a script.Human societyis also like a naturally formed stage,and all kinds of activities of human society canbe said to be a kind of social drama.(Kerashen,1982)As Shakespeare said,“Theworld is a stage.”According to Shakespeare,life is naturally a drama.Since it is adrama,and there will be people to play,there will be people to see.The actors stoodon the stage,taking steps and holding their tones,so they acted with joy,anger,sorrow,all vividly and to the fullest extent possible.People who watch the drama arestunned and complacent off stage,even began to dance.All’s well that ends well.Everyone is an actor in drama,and everyone plays a variety of roles.Everyone playshis or her“role”in this social drama according to a certain pattern of behavior.Theconcept of role has been widely used in sociological and psychological research todescribe the identity and behavior of individuals in the social arena.
In English,the word role comes from the theater,originally referring to thecharacter played by an actor on the stage,but later extended to the role of theindividual in society and is interpreted in social psychology as a dynamic aspect ofidentity.A scientific definition of role contains three social psychological elements:the concept of“role”can be interpreted in four ways.(a)Roles are determined bypeople’s social status and identity,and the behavior of roles more truly reflects eachof our positions in the life of the group.
1.2 Research on teacher’s roles orientation abroad
The orientation of the teacher’s roles have been influenced by differenteducational purposes in different historical periods.By reading relevant researchmaterials,the researcher found that most of the studies conducted on the teacher’s roleat home and abroad describe,summarize,and generalize the identity assumed by theteacher in a specific teaching model and lesson type.Observing teachers’classroombehaviors thus outlines the characteristics of the teacher’s role and explores what teachers should do.
With the deepening development of English curriculum reform,English teachingresearchers began to pay more attention to the teacher’s role orientation.Many booksand materials on English teaching have mentioned that teachers should correctly viewand understand their roles.There are also many articles that point out that teachersshould adjust their role in the classroom to meet the requirements of the newcurriculum reform and the needs of the future society.
The research on the role of modern teachers in foreign countries is very fruitful.The main treatises are N.Goebbels and J.Porter(1991),whose theme is the generaltrend of the role transfer of teachers in social change.In the article,it is said that therole of teachers should be diversified in the process of education and teaching,and therelationship between teachers and students should also be improved.In the process ofEnglish education,the author attachs importance to the cooperation between teachersand teacher’s roles,teachers and parents,and all aspects of society.D.John McIntyreand others have published a book that elaborates on the ten roles of teachers from theperspective of sociology.
Chapter Two Theoretical Basis and Methodology
2.1 Theoretical basis
The research on teacher role orientation has been a hot topic in recent years,which cannot be separated from the support of many theoretical basis.Next,theauthor will introduce the theoretical basis supporting this study.
2.1.1 Constructivism theory
The earliest proponent of constructivism theory can be traced back to J.Piaget ofSwitzerland.Constructivismt theory is mainly a theory about children’s cognitivedevelopment,and since the cognitive development of individual students is closelyrelated to the process of student learning.Therefore,making full use of constructivismtheory can better illustrate the cognitive laws of students’learning process.In otherwords,using constructivism theory,it is possible to explain more clearly how learningoccurs,how learning is constructed,how the concept of learning is formed,what themain elements of an ideal learning environment should contain,etc.In short,a newand more effective cognitive learning theory can be formed under the guidance ofconstructivist ideas,and an ideal constructivist learning environment can be realizedon this basis.Constructivism advocates learner-centered learning under the guidanceof teachers.Therefore,knowledge is not imparted by teachers,but acquired bylearners in a certain context,namely social and cultural background,with the help ofothers(including teachers and learning partners),using necessary learning materialsand through the construction of meaning(Qin&Yang,2008).Williams andBurden(1997)also put forward the social constructivist learning theory.
2.2 Research questions
The goal of this study is to observe senior high school English classroomteaching in an attempt to discover how teachers position their roles in senior highschool English teachers in teaching practice,and to explore how they can accuratelyposition their roles in the teaching process to improve students’learning ability,cultivate students’interest in learning,and promote English teaching activities.Usingteachers and students as the research objects,the analysis draws conclusions withpractical significance,which are important for front-line teachers to accuratelyposition the role of English teachers in the classroom and help English teaching andlearning research.This study intends to explore and answer the following questions.
First,what are the perceptions of senior high school English teachers in Tongliaoregion about the role of teachers in the classroom?
Second,what are the factors that affect the role orientation of senior high schoolEnglish teachers in classrooms in Tongliao region?
Third,how should teacher’s roles be positioned and applied in senior high school English teaching?
Chapter Three Results and Discussion...........................30
3.1 Data analysis..........................................30
3.1.1 Analysis of teacher’s questionnaire...................................30
3.1.2 Analysis of interview....................................35
Chapter Three Results and Discussion
3.1 Data analysis
How can teachers achieve role accuracy in actual senior high school Englishclassroom teaching?In what direction should teacher’s roles evolve?Through theanalysis and discussion of the research data in the previous chapter,combined withthe questionnaires and interviews with senior high school English teachers,somereflections on the role orientation of senior high school English teachers are proposedbased on the research results.
3.1.1 Analysis of teacher’s questionnaire
The authors listed several teacher roles in the distributed questionnaireaddressing the role of senior high school English teachers.
From the perspective of teache’r role orientation,as can be seen in Figure 1,theroles of teachers are mainly as knowledge transmitters(85.71%),class managers(64.29%),teaching leaders(60.71%),interpersonal coordinators(53.57%),disciplinarians(50%),learners and curriculum research developers,counselors,researchers,role models and guides(42.86%),and reflective practitioner(39.29%).
Based on the above data,from the perspective of senior high school Englishteachers’selection of teaching methods and their statistical results of classroombehavior,English teachers generally exhibit the characteristics of relatively simpleteaching methods,mostly through teaching methods and questioning.In specificclassroom activities,a minority of English teachers participate in classroom activities.In other words,the English teachers of the research object play a particularly smallrole as participants and consultants in the classroom,further highlighting the problemsof the solidification and simplification of the classroom roles of the English teachersof the research object,as well as the inflexible and untimely transformation of theteacher’s roles.The author analyzes the reasons for this result.
Main FindingsThrough questionnaires and teacher interviews,the main problems of senior highschool English teacher’s role orientation in the classroom are as follows.
(1)Single teaching model.Senior high school English teachers do not knowenough about the role of teachers,and the teaching mode in the senior high schoolEnglish classroom is relatively single.
(2)Teacher-oriented teaching philosophy.Senior high school English teachersdo not clearly and accurately understand their roles.Currently,the teaching contentsof senior high school English teachers mainly serve the examinations,and theteachers acting as the leaders and transmitters of knowledge in the classroom is moreextensive.
(3)Conflicts between expected and actual classroom roles.There are obviousconflicts between the roles of senior high school English teachers in the actual seniorhigh school English teaching,and teachers encounter many obstacles in the process ofrole orientation.In questionnaires and interviews,most senior high school Englishteachers are expected to promote student’s all-round development in the context of thenew curriculum and to play the role of teachers as knowledge transmitters,learners,instructors,dominators of teaching,reflective practitioners,role models and guides insenior high school English classrooms.However,the actual senior high schoolEnglish classroom is conducted by teachers due to the school’s teacher managementmechanism,educational system,social environment,and teacher evaluationmechanism.