On July 18th, 1918, Nelson Mandela was born in a small village called Mvezo which belongs to the Umtata district of South Africa (Suttner,2007). He was one of the world’s greatest leaders of all times. Nelson’s clan name, Madiba, was a term of respect in South African language. Challenging the apartheid dictatorship in South Africa, he then became the first Black president of South Africa (Suttner, 2007). Nelson Madiba Mandela began the South African presidency from May of 1994 with national pride. Nowadays, Mandela was recognized as one of the ‘models of leadership’ all around the world.
Leadership does not necessarily relate to personality. However, it is about behaviour. These are noticeable set of features. There are five observable practices in all of the greatest leaders when they are at their personal best which were observed by Kouzes and Posner called the Five Exemplary Leadership Practices. These set of characteristics have proven their competence as a clear pathway for outstanding successes. From what can be seen in these practices, the typical leaders would (1) model the approach, (2) motivate a common vision, (3) modify the development, (4) allow others to perform and (5) inspire the emotion (Suttner,2007).
First, Mandela created the way. He established the set of principles on the way to pursue ultimate goals and how the South African people should be treated. He shaped the values of excellence and laid foundation for the anti-apartheid civil movement in South Africa. Mandela preferred to unite people from all classes in the society to fight against the apartheid dictatorial regime; he get insight of the significant of representative bureaucracy when it obstructed his goals. In the early years of the anti-apartheid movement, Mandela maintained the sober evaluation of the temporary political situation in South African. The key characteristics of the temporary political condition was “the subjugation of the Black African after centuries of oppression, tyranny, and exploitation by the whites in South Africa” (Varela, 2013). However, each legalized means of protest against discrimination and injustices was prevented by the Apartheid dictatorial regime. Observing the blacks being oppressed and exploited, Mandela learned the nature of oppressors and the way how to rescue the Black African. He said “A freedom fighter learns the hard way that it is the oppressor who defines the nature of the struggle, and the oppressed is often left no recourse but to use methods that mirror those of the oppressor. At a point, one can only fight fire with fire”. A military wing was formed by Mandela that recognized and damaged government facilities, demolished power plants and caused interference to communication and transportation. He created the pace and path that the apartheid fight took (Varela, 2013).
He enthused a common vision among the people in South Africa, which brings an end to racial segregation and oppression. The South African people stand together behind their common vision of the future. He created a unique and ideal world of what the country could develop (Varela, 2013). In the re-establishing process in South Africa, Nelson Mandela must have persuaded everyone on the same page and on his side. It was, of course, a difficult mission to complete especially in the context of the profound racial segregation of the temporary South African society. Mandela had to maintain the inspiration of the people by showing his strong character and dedication as well as his strong leadership. He also inspired for a common vision by emphasizing the importance of integration and equality. By consistently following those criteria, and yet again “modelling the way”, Nelson Mandela exhibited others how to network with people that considered “dissimilar” (Varela, 2013). Because of his dedication and vision, Nelson Mandela was a huge inspiration to so many people, and still is a huge inspiration up until now. His stubbornness, on the positive side, gave him his dedication and determination to lead the people into the same ideas of fairness. His “persistent sense of equality”, permitted him to remain doing what he believed was right even when at first it didn’t seem to be successful, or when others went against it (Varela, 2013).
他热情地表达了南非人民的共同愿景，即结束种族隔离和压迫。南非人民对未来有着共同的愿景。他创造了一个独特和理想的世界，这个国家可以发展(Varela, 2013)。在南非重建进程中，纳尔逊·曼德拉肯定说服了所有人站在他这一边。当然，这是一项艰巨的任务，特别是在临时南非社会严重种族隔离的情况下。曼德拉必须通过展示他坚强的性格和奉献精神以及他强有力的领导才能来鼓舞人民。他还强调一体化和平等的重要性，从而促成共同的愿景。通过一贯地遵循这些标准，并再次“建模的方式”，纳尔逊·曼德拉向其他人展示了如何与被认为“不同”的人建立网络(Varela, 2013)。由于他的奉献精神和远见卓识，纳尔逊·曼德拉对很多人都是一个巨大的鼓舞，直到现在仍然是一个巨大的鼓舞。从积极的方面来说，他的固执给了他献身精神和决心，引导人民遵循同样的公平理念。他的“持久的平等意识”，允许他继续做他认为是正确的，即使一开始似乎不成功，或当其他人反对它(Varela, 2013)。
South African’s democracy would never have been achieved if Mandela had not dare to challenge the apartheid regime and put his effort into changing the status quo. He was a risk taker who “took risks’ and “hunted opportunities” that reformed the progression of South African democracy (Varela, 2013). He was well-known for leading South Africans on the fight against dictatorship. He said “White supremacy implies black inferiority”. His words represented the nature of temporary social system. Nelson Mandela devoted his life to opposing the system which is unfair for Black African. He was an identifiable icon on the fight against discrimination, oppression, and injustice not only in South Africa but also all around the world (Varela, 2013). He was not only a politician but also was a social activist. He had strong faith in the cause of democracy, justice, and freedom. What apartheid did to the black community caused a remarkable impression on Mandela’s memory; making him to take up the cause of fighting justice for the Black African.
Nelson Mandela was an iconic leader in South Africa, and the “allow others to act” practice was exemplified by him through alliance nurturing and motivating others. He prospered in leading South Africa in getting rid of apartheid while inspiring racial integration. Although being a president of South Africa, Mandela did not become selfish and occupy power for his own. In being so modest, he enabled others to develop as leaders. The captain of the rugby team during Nelson Mandela’s presidency named Francois Pienaar could be the perfect example (Varela, 2013). By showing Francois that Africa completely supported him and the team as well as inspiring him, Nelson Mandela basically facilitated Francois becoming a leader in the victory of South African rugby team in World Cup 1995 (Varela, 2013). Mandela made the people in South Africa understand that they play the key role in the success of Africa. He enabled others to make decision and inspiring them contribute their best to his headship. His supporters not only cared him as a leader but also recognized him as a friend. Essentially, by treating everyone as if their relative in the family and being recognized from everyone, Nelson Mandela enabled others to act. Nelson Mandela “heartened the heart”. He respected the use of victories and values and recognized the efforts made by others.
纳尔逊·曼德拉(Nelson Mandela)是南非的一位标志性领导人，他通过联盟培养和激励他人，体现了“允许他人行动”的做法。他领导南非废除种族隔离制度，同时鼓励种族融合。虽然曼德拉是南非的总统，但他并没有变得自私，也没有独揽大权。由于他的谦虚，他使别人成长为领导者。纳尔逊·曼德拉担任总统期间的橄榄球队队长弗朗索瓦·皮纳尔(Francois Pienaar)可能是一个完美的例子(Varela, 2013)。纳尔逊·曼德拉向弗朗索瓦展示了非洲完全支持他和他的球队，并激励了他，基本上帮助弗朗索瓦成为了南非橄榄球队在1995年世界杯上获胜的领导者(瓦雷拉，2013)。曼德拉使南非人民明白，他们在非洲的成功中发挥着关键作用。他使其他人能够做出决定，并激励他们为他的领导做出最大的贡献。他的支持者不仅视他为领袖，而且视他为朋友。从本质上讲，纳尔逊·曼德拉把每个人都当作家庭中的亲戚，并得到每个人的认可，从而使其他人能够采取行动。纳尔逊·曼德拉“鼓舞人心”。他尊重胜利和价值的使用，并认可他人所做的努力。
Analysing Leadership Style of Mandela分析曼德拉的领导风格
It can be analysed from Mandela’s leadership style by using the transformational leadership theory. The basics of transformational leadership comprise (1) perfect influence (2) inspiring motivation (3) personalised consideration and (4) intellectual simulation (Read, 2010). Mandela was known as a person who has visionary and widely charismatic under the scope of inspirational motivation. For example, he established a group with his friends in 1943 for persuading the president of ANC to act to prevent this party from the marginalization. This goal then became the common vision of the members in ANC group (Read, 2010). Mandela is renowned to have the capability to be a hero, stimulate others, and lead the country. Using individualised consideration, he had a capability to appeal to everyone. For example, he possessed the ability to remember others’ names hence spread an energy and warmth to everyone. He also possessed clear communication skills, management abilities, and listening skills. The leadership style of Nelson Mandela is accredited for converting the ordinary person to an exceptional individual. Under the scope of intellectual simulation, Mandela mainly had the capability of being ground-breaking and inspired. He is noted with an exceptional memorable skill, learning skills and detail-oriented characteristic. When approaching an issue, he always considers the problem from both positive and negative sides.
这可以通过运用变革型领导理论从曼德拉的领导风格进行分析。变革型领导的基本要素包括(1)完美影响(2)激励动机(3)个性化考虑和(4)智力模拟(Read, 2010)。曼德拉被认为是一个在鼓舞人心的激励下具有远见卓识和广泛魅力的人。例如，他在1943年和他的朋友成立了一个组织，说服非国大的总统采取行动，防止这个政党被边缘化。这一目标随后成为ANC集团成员的共同愿景(Read, 2010)。曼德拉以有能力成为英雄、激励他人、领导国家而闻名。通过个性化的考虑，他有能力吸引每一个人。例如，他有能力记住别人的名字，因此传播一种能量和温暖给每个人。他还具有清晰的沟通能力、管理能力和倾听能力。纳尔逊·曼德拉的领导风格被认为是将普通人转变为卓越个人的秘诀。在智力模拟的范围内，曼德拉主要是具有开创性和启发性的能力。他以特别令人难忘的技巧、学习技巧和注重细节的特点而著称。在处理一个问题时，他总是从正反两方面考虑这个问题。
Nelson Mandela showed many features of a great leader. Nevertheless, he broke the rule of common vision, and starting negotiations between the government and ANC secretly was exemplified by him (Read, 2010). The ANC policies on negotiations has been severely violated in this case. South Africa could have deepened into extreme chaos like a civil war just by this attitude. When Mandela said that his colleagues would not approve of the idea of government negotiations, it is clearly that he was not also having a mind of a transformational leader. Mandela said “I knew that my colleague’s upstairs would condemn my proposal, and that would kill my initiative even before it was born”. His action opposes the element of transformational leadership. Furthermore, while Mandela followed to the idea of collective leadership, he believed that leaders must undertake things and decide without prior consultation.
There is an individual assessment standard used for the development of work productivity communication as well as collaboration called DISC. This non-judgmental tool assisted people direct their behavioural transformations. In the case of Nelson Mandela, Dominance would represent the behaviour of compliant challenges. Influence represented optimism and enthusiasm. Steadiness would be showing the set of helpful actions and humbleness. Finally, C stand for Conscientiousness, Mandela adored freedom and his reasoning was unbiased. Mandela would be placed in Activator, Strategic and Futuristic by the strength finder assessment. Mandela was an activator; he activated things happen; transformed thoughts into action. He was strategic since he altered the apartheid dictatorship into the democracy for South Africa, futuristic because others were inspired by Mandela with his vision of the future. Mandela characteristics group would lean towards the letter code named as INFJ. It was abbreviated for introverted-intuitive-feeling-judging. Otherwise, this characteristics category is mentioned as the advocate. This is a rare personality in not more than one percent in all demographics; nevertheless, these people leave a noticeable mark in the history of human beings. Nelson Mandela was recognized as a diplomat (NF); an intuitive sense of idealism and morality and a judging characteristic (J), which set him aside.
This essay is about Nelson Mandela, one of the greatest leaders of all times. In this essay, there are an analysis of the leadership style of Mandela under the scope of Transformational leadership theory and the remarkable quotes was left to the future generations by Mandela. The meaning of nationalistic was taught by Mandela (Read, 2010). He also gave a vision for Africans that African nationalism would be a good force that stood for liberty and accomplishment of Africans. He changed unfairness, subjugation, and misery that the Black Africans faced into a national fight. It was a fight of the Africans, by an Africans for the right to live. According to Mandela, what he intended was not the dominance of one individual group but fairness of all. His practices and leadership style are still an encouragement to many people until today.