留学生作业Book Review写作参考-《引领变革文化》书评。克尔·富兰（MichaelFullan）的《引领变革文化》（Leading in a culture of change）是一本关于变革动力以及领导力在管理和应对变革过程中的作用的小而有力的书。
托兰托大学安大略教育研究所所长迈克尔·富兰是教育改革方面的国际权威。富兰引用罗伯特·斯坦伯格（Robert Steinberg）的话作为开场白：“智慧的本质似乎在于知道何时快速思考和行动，以及何时缓慢思考和行动”（第十页）。富兰不仅关心决策，而且关心做出正确决策的时机。他认为，良好的领导能力不是天生的，而是一个人必须通过掌握五项核心能力来学习领导——道德目标、理解变化过程、关系建设、知识建设和连贯性建设。富兰用一整章的篇幅介绍了每一种能力，并通过一系列坚实而富有煽动性的公共教育和私营企业案例来阐述每一个概念。这使本书成为行政团队研讨会或学校董事会的有用工具。它将激发关于使命和目的以及一个健康的组织可以变得更好的环境的出色讨论。他还阐述了所有有效领导者都具备的三个个人特征（精力、热情和希望）。下面就一起来参考一下这篇Book Review的全部内容。
Leading in a culture of change by Michael Fullan is a small but powerful book on the dynamics of change and the role of leadership in managing and coping with the change process.
Michael Fullan, the dean of the Ontario Institute for Studies in Education at the University of Toranto is an international authority on educational reforms .Fullan opens by quoting Robert Steinberg: “The essence of intelligence would seem to be in knowing when to think and act quickly, and knowing when to think and act slowly” (p. x). Fullan is concerned with not only the decision, but the timing involved in making the correct decision. He argues that good leadership is not inborn rather one must learn to lead by mastering five core competencies- moral purpose, understanding change process, relationship building, knowledge building and coherence building. Fullan devotes an entire chapter to each competency and illustrates each concept with a solid and provocative collection of public education and private corporation cases. This makes the book a useful tool for an administrative team workshop or school board. It would stimulate excellent discussion on mission and purpose and the climate in which a healthy organization can change for the better. He also articulates three personal characteristics (energy, enthusiasm, hope) that all effective leaders possess.
This book offers a realistic perspective to those who are at the beginning of their leadership career and should be inspiring to those who have attained their peaks. The ambiguities of change forces in the schools are more easily understood after considering Fullan’s insights into organizational change and leadership. He neither oversimplifies the mission of the school administrator nor makes the work appear impossible.
Fullan offers advice for leaders to help them rise above the challenges of the new technology, a changing market place and the crises in the public scenario. He argues that leadership today requires the ability to mobilize constituents to do important but difficult work under conditions of constant change.
Fullan demonstrates that successful leaders in education and business have much in common. He took an equal number of change case studies in education and in business and examined leaders behavior and mindsets.
The first chapter, “A Remarkable Convergence”, conveys the theme of the book. The author advises that “change cannot be managed. It can be understood and perhaps led, but it cannot be controlled.” This chapter is devoted to the discussion of effective leadership, stating within the first page “this is not the book about super leaders. Charismatic leaders inadvertently often do more harm than good because, at best, they provide episodic improvement followed by frustrated or despondent dependency. Superhuman leaders also do us another disservice: they are role models who can never be emulated by large numbers” (p. 1). The author weaves the business world and the educational world together as learning organizations, stating that if they fail to evolve together they will fail to survive. He suggests five themes for successful leadership: moral purpose, understanding change, developing relationships, knowledge building and coherence making.
Fullan argues that “when the goal is sustainable change in a knowledge society, business and education leaders increasingly have more in common. Like the business leader, the principal of the future – the Cultural Change Principal – must be tuned to the big picture, a sophisticated conceptual thinker who transforms the organization through people and teams”
In chapter 2, “Moral Purpose”, Fullan argues that all five components are strongly connected with each other. Moral purpose is seen as both an end and means. In education, every “leader”, whether an administrator or teacher must see an important end, making a difference in the lives of students. He continues by stating that, “if you don’t treat others fairly, you will be a leader without followers” (p. 13). Fullan describes two excellent examples of moral purpose. The Monsanto Company’s remarkable transformation, under its new CEO, Robert Shapiro, started with a series of “town hall meetings” discussing the unsustainable problems of hunger facing humanity. That discussions lead to ten thousand of Monsanto’s employees becoming involved feeding the world. The second example is the national Literacy and Numeracy strategy, the nation wide initiative to improve both the literacy and numeracy of Great Britain’s twenty thousand schools in which Fullan has been an active participant. The author clearly makes his point; social consciousness and the concept of being a good citizen apply internally as well as externally whether in the business or educational system.
In chapter three “Understanding Change,” Fullan states that the purpose of this book is to understand change in order to lead it better. . . .the goal is to develop a greater feel for leading complex change, and to develop a mind-set and action set that are constantly cultivated and refined.” Page 34 of this book states that, “change can be led, and leadership does make a difference”. He suggests that having innovative ideas and understanding the change process is not the same thing. Indeed, the case can be made that those firmly committed to their own ideas are not necessarily good change agents because being a change agent involves getting commitment from others who might not like one’s ideas. Fullan quotes Kotter`s eight step process for initiating top down transformation (1996, p. 21)
Establishing a Sense of Urgency 建立紧迫感
Creating a Guiding Coalition 创建指导联盟
Developing a Vision and Strategy 制定愿景和战略
Communicating the Change Vision 传达变革愿景
Empowering Broad-Based Action 授权基础广泛的行动
Generating Short-Term Wins 创造短期胜利
Consolidating Gains and Producing More Change 巩固成果并产生更多变化
Anchoring New Approaches in the Culture 在文化中确立新方法
Further he quotes Beer, Eisenstat, and Spectors observations (1990) about drawing about bottom-up ideas and energies
Mobilize commitment to change through joint diagnosis(with people in the organization) of business problem 通过（与组织中的人员）对业务问题的联合诊断，调动对变革的承诺
Develop a shared vision of how to organize and manage for competitiveness 就如何组织和管理以提高竞争力制定共同愿景
Foster concerns for the new vision, competence to enact it, and cohesion to move it along 培养对新愿景的关注、制定新愿景的能力和推动新愿景的凝聚力
Spread revitalization to all departments without pushing it from the top 将振兴工作推广到所有部门，而不是从最高层推动
Institutionalize revitalization through formal policies, systems and structure 通过正式的政策、制度和结构使振兴制度化
Monitor and adjust strategies in response to problems in the revitalization process 监测和调整战略，以应对振兴过程中的问题
Then Fullan shares Hamel’s advice (2000) to lead the revolution 然后，富兰分享了哈默尔的建议，领导革命
Step 1: Build a point of view 第一步：建立一个观点
Step 2: Write a manifesto 第二步：写一份宣言
Step 3: Create a coalition 第三步：创建联盟
Step 4: Pick your targets and pick your moments 第四步：选择目标和时刻
Step 5: Co-opt and neutralize 第五步：选择和中和
Step 6: Find a translator 第六步：找到翻译
Step 7: Win small win early, win often 第七步：小赢早赢，常赢
Step 8: Isolate, infiltrate, integrate 第八步：隔离、渗透、整合
He offers the following guidelines for understanding change:
The goal is not to innovate the most. Innovating selectively with coherence is better.
Having the best ideas is not enough. Leaders’ help others assess and find collective meaning and commitment to new ways.
Appreciate the implementation dip. Leaders can’t avoid the inevitable early difficulties of trying something new. They should know, for example, that no mater how much they plan for the change, the first six months or so of implementation will be bumpy.
Redefine resistance. Successful leaders don’t mind when naysayers rock the boat. In fact, doubters sometimes have important points. Leaders look for ways to address those concerns.
Reculturing is the name of the game. Much change is structural and superficial. Transforming culture – changing what people in the organization value and how they work together to accomplish it – leads to deep, lasting change.
Never a checklist, always complexity. There is no step-by-step shortcut to transformation; it involves the hard, day-to-day work of reculturing.
The Cultural Change Principal knows the difference between being an expert in a given content innovation and being an expert in managing the process of change. This principal does not make the mistake of assuming that the best ideas will carry the day. Instead, the Cultural Change Principal provides opportunities for people to visit sites that are using new ideas, invites questions and even dissent, and expects the change process to proceed in fits and starts during the first few months of implementation. Nevertheless, such a principal forges ahead and expects progress within a year because he or she has nurtured the conditions that yield results sooner rather than later.
The title of chapter four, “Relationship, Relationship, Relationship,” is self explanatory. Success of any venture depends upon the people involved in the change process. Leaders must be skillful relationship builders with diverse people and groups. The single factor common to every successful change initiative is that relationships improve. If relationships improve, things get better. If they remain the same or get worse ground is lost. Effective leaders constantly foster purposeful interaction and problem solving. They are wary of easy consensus. Emotional intelligence is at the core of leaders who are continuously successful in a culture of change. Fullan makes an excellent point concerning change while discussing high stakes testing. We must resist the urge to focus on short term results by placing our emphasis on long-term results and the systemic improvements that will generate the lasting change we are seeking.
The chapter five is knowledge building. Leaders need to commit themselves to constantly generating and increasing knowledge inside and outside the organization. Effective leaders understand the value and role of knowledge creation; they make it a priority and set about establishing and reinforcing habits of knowledge exchange among organizational members. Fullan describes a number of strategies used in education, business, and the military for turning information into knowledge by engaging people in an orchestrated social process. The key skill here is to convert information to knowledge through purposeful social interactions.
In chapter six, “coherence building,” the author takes the reader on a journey of guiding people through their differences and enabling those differences to surface. He builds on the hypothesis that creative ideas and novel solutions are often generated when the status quo is disrupted. He discusses the frustration felt by many when a school district has a large number of “improvement programmes” operating at the same time. Fullan argues that we are in complex (rather than chaotic) times and that the central tendency of dynamic, complex systems is to constantly generate overload causing fragmentation, uncertainty and confusion. Effective leaders guide people through differences and enable differences to surface while creating coherence. They tolerate enough ambiguity to keep creative juices flowing, but seek coherence along the way. They ensure strategies are in place to keep people focused and moving in a purposeful direction.
In chapter seven, “The Hare and The Tortoise,” Fullan refers to the Fontaine’s Fable of the hare and the tortoise. Developing leaders are more “tortoise-like than hare-like”. Three powerful lessons about leadership are identified: the vital and paradoxical need for slow knowing overtime, the importance of learning in context , and the need for leaders at all levels of the organization, in order to achieve wide spread internal commitment. Good leaders foster leadership at other levels. Leadership at other levels produces a steady stream of future leader for the system as a whole. Fullan concludes that leaders in a culture of change will be judged as effective or ineffective not simply by their results and who they are as leaders, but by the leadership they develop in others.
Fullan’s writing style is more familiar than authoritative with liberal amount of case histories from both the business world and the world of education. The theme of this book is that all of us can improve our leadership abilities simply by focusing on a small number of key dimensions. Fullan ties each chapter to the previous one re-emphasizing the previous chapter through reinforcement in the current one.
This book states that two things have occurred in recent times that have aided the discovery and pursuit of effective leadership. The first is that the knowledge base of what it takes to be an effective leader is getting broader and deeper, and with more insight. The second thing that happened is that there are many more examples of transformation in both business and education.
In reading this text and then reviewing it, I concluded that there were three basic premises that were utilized to accomplish the purpose of the book. I think that the first premise was found within the verbiage of the preface, which related that “this book is about how leaders can focus on certain key change themes that will allow them to lead effectively under messy conditions. This book is also about how leaders foster leadership in others, thereby making themselves dispensable in the long run” (p. x) The second premise is that “each and every leader, whether the CEO of a multinational corporation or a school principal, can become much more effective by focusing on a small number of core aspects of leadership and by developing a new mind-set about the leader’s responsibility to himself or herself and to those with whom he or she works” (p. 2). The premise this book uses to achieve its purpose is that it “delves into the complexities of leadership . . . It provides insights, strategies, and, ultimately, better theories of knowledge and action suited to leadership in complex times” (p. 10).
The book lists five components of leadership that were discussed and reviewed (in detail in separate chapters) to support the three premises that were utilized to achieve its purpose. These five components were: moral purpose (which means acting with the intentions of making a positive difference in the lives of employees, customers, and society as a whole), understanding the change process (I think this is self-explanatory), relationships (which means consummating relationships with diverse people and groups; effective leaders constantly foster interaction and problem solving, and are wary of easy consensus), knowledge creation and sharing (which represents a merging of the previous three components to arrive at something new to help or facilitate the change or an understanding of it), and coherence (which is eliminating the ambiguity associated with new knowledge created and shared – connecting the new knowledge to existing knowledge).
The book argues that by utilizing these five components, we have the correct checks and balances for “simultaneously letting go and reining in. When leaders act in the ways recommended, they will disturb the future ‘in a manner that approximates the desired outcomes,’ Leading in a Culture of Change integrates the most current ideas and theories on effective leadership to support and illustrate five core competencies for leading in complex times. Fullan links components of his leadership framework with concrete examples and cases used in education and business. Moreover it allows the reader to apply the methods gradually. I found the book easy to read and quite enlightening, reinforcing some of my personal beliefs concerning successful leadership styles in the culture of change. Leading in a culture of change deals with the complexities of leadership; it provides insights, strategies and better theories of knowledge and action suited to leadership in difficult times. This book is a call for action, equipping leaders with ideas and strategies for deep success. I found this book both enjoyable and enlightening. Each page offered positive in sight into leading the change process. I would recommend this book to all administrators, whether at the central office level or on the campus. It would be an excellent centerpiece for staff development revolving around the change process. Fullan does not lead the reader to believe that by following simple steps all will work out fine. Instead he offers a path to change with many positive examples of company’s and educational systems growing, developing, and maturing towards a common goal.
Book Review总结本书认为，通过利用这五个组成部分，我们有正确的制衡机制“同时放手和控制。当领导者按照建议的方式行事时，他们将以接近预期结果的方式干扰未来。在变革文化中领导将整合最新的有效领导理念和理论，以支持和说明在复杂时代领导的五种核心能力。富兰将其领导能力的组成部分链接到amework提供了教育和商业中使用的具体示例和案例。此外，它允许读者逐步应用这些方法。我发现这本书很容易阅读，也很有启发性，强化了我个人对变革文化中成功领导风格的一些看法。在变革文化中领导解决了领导的复杂性；它提供了适合困难时期领导的见解、策略和更好的知识和行动理论。这本书呼吁采取行动，为领导者提供深刻成功的想法和战略。我觉得这本书既有趣又有启发性。每一页都提供了积极的信息，引导变革进程。我将向所有管理员推荐这本书，无论是在中央办公室还是在校园。这将是围绕变革过程进行员工发展的一个极好的中心。富兰并没有让读者相信，通过遵循简单的步骤，一切都会好起来。相反，他提供了一条变革之路，提供了许多公司和教育系统朝着共同目标成长、发展和成熟的积极例子。本站提供Book Review写作指导服务，如有需要可咨询本平台。