The ability to communicate effectively verbally and in writing with internal and external people is vital to the success of any business.与内部和外部人员进行有效的口头和书面沟通的能力对任何企业的成功都至关重要。
Explain the importance of negotiation in a business environment. Think about the reasons for negotiation and how can it benefit your situation within business? What consequences could there be without negotiation? Give me 2 examples where negotiation or lack of negotiation has had an impact on a situation at work
When negotiating, it is important to have an effective relationship. This is important because the more effective it is; the work is more enjoyable when businesses have a good relationship. Also, people are more likely to go along with changes that businesses want to implement, and they will be more innovative and creative. Finally, when having the effective relationship, businesses are more likely to make deals and benefit from economies of scale.
Also negotiating is important because it allows a smooth running of the organisation and business efficiency. This is good for businesses because it won’t cause any problems between the two companies. Deals can run smoothly and getting the deal done will be a swift and quick process.
Sometimes we need to negotiate. Explain the features of different ways to negotiate.
Disruptive (competitive approach) – also known as “claiming value,” “zero-sum,” or “win-lose” bargaining, is a competitive negotiation strategy that is used to decide how to distribute a fixed resource, such as money.
Integrative (collaborative approach) – This is also what is known as “interest-based bargaining,” “win-win bargaining”. This is a negotiation strategy, in which parties collaborate to find a “win-win” solution to their dispute. This strategy focuses on developing mutually to beneficial agreements based on the interests of the disputants.
What are the ‘components’ of negotiation tactics? Think of how each of these ways to negotiate may have their advantages or uses in negotiating?谈判策略的“组成部分”是什么？想想这些谈判方式在谈判中可能有哪些优势或用途？
Preparation – This is looking at the timescale and the resources. You will have to collect facts and data. Most importantly it looks at the organisation policies and procedures and the legal and ethical requirements.
Negotiation Styles – The most popular way to divide the typical negotiation is: Competing (or Aggressive), Collaborating (or Cooperative), Avoiding, Compromise, accommodating (Conceding). Most negotiators have one or two preferred negotiation styles.
Negotiation Behaviours – This is all about the awareness of someone’s body language, their effective listening and questioning skills.
Exchanging information – This is looking at the focus that they have, the goals that will be set for themselves over a period of time and they will look at proposals.
Bargaining – This is achieving mutual agreement with someone over a period of time. To get to that point you need to look into their problems and solve them for them.
2.1 Explain the different types of presentation and their requirements. Think about the different ways you could present information and what reason the information is being communicated.解释不同类型的演示及其要求。想想你可以用什么不同的方式来呈现信息，以及信息被传达的原因。
Informative presentation –This presentation type uses descriptions, demonstrations and uses definitions to explain a matter or a subject. However, they sometimes place the audience where they can understand. An informative speech makes a tricky topic easy to understand as it offers a different point of view. This is a brief presentation which gets straight to the point.
Instructional presentation – The general usage of this is to have an instructional approach that is structured, sequenced and led by teachers. This will have clear learning objectives where the presenter will want the audience to understand and follow.
Inspirational presentation –The main purpose of this is to inspire and uplift the audience. This will have more of a story telling point of view from the presenter which will have a use of vivid language and will have an emotional connection with the audience.
Persuasive presentation –This is a specific type of speech where the speaker has a goal to convince the audience to accept their point of view. This is where at the start of the presentation the presenter will talk about the problem and then throughout the power point talk about how he/they can solve the problem.
Decision making presentation – This is a presentation when you suggest a lot of ideas for the audience, which gives them a variety of different points to look at. It is a presentation of persuasive arguments which will tell the audience the good and bad things about the product they are offering.
2.2 Explain how different resources can be used to develop a presentation.解释如何使用不同的资源来制作演示文稿。
Use of software packages – This is important because this is all about the creation of the whole presentation. With this you will have the creation of: text, images, graphs, charts, tables and linking to internet pages. All of these are vital for a presentation.
Use of speaker notes and cue cards – These are put in place to help the speaker can put down their key points down so they can refer back to their PowerPoint. This will act like an additional bit of information to the speaker to help them.
Use of audience hand-outs – When handing out to the audience, this is normally when the speak will hand out a copy of the PowerPoint slides. This also acts again as additional information for the speaker.
Use of boards and flip charts – This is a good way to interact with the audience because once the presentation is over the speaker can have immediate feedback which will help the speaker out.
Develop a presentation – When developing a presentation, you will use all of the resources listed above. (Software packages, speaker notes and cards, audience hand-outs and boards and flip charts). This will help develop these stages by initial proposal, drafts, edits and final agreed presentation.
2.3 Explain the different methods of giving a presentation or conveying information. Include what you may use for each of the following.解释介绍或传达信息的不同方法。包括您可能用于以下各项的内容。
Face to face – When doing a face to face presentation it is where a presenter and the audience is in a physical location. This could either be a seated presentation or a standing one. When presenting the presenter can use one of 3 things. These include: using a computer screen, PA system or a flip chart or board.
Webinar – This is a remote presentation which is an internet based online workshop. This is mainly a voice and a video chat. You will have the presenter and you will have the audience which can listen when they have logged into it online. There will be a set time when the audience has to be logged in by.
Video Conferencing – This is almost like a face to face presentation. However, this is a remote presentation where it will be a two-way video via webcam to go through the presentation and then questions can get asked
2.4 Explain the best practice in delivering presentations. (Some of this section you may have answered in unit 9, revisit your work for unit 9 and check. If you feel you have answered this already state this next to the specific criteria).解释演讲的最佳实践。（您可能已经在第九单元中回答了本节的一些内容，请重新查看第九单元的工作并进行检查。如果您觉得已经回答了，请在具体标准旁边说明）。
There are 4 ways in which to ensure you can produce a good presentation. These include:有4种方法可以确保你能做一个好的演示。其中包括
Preparation and organising 准备和组织
Practice delivery and timings 练习交付和时间安排
Effective communication 有效沟通
When planning you need to insure that you focus everything on the audience. When focusing on the audience you need to provide them with good quality information and to use a good choice of: text, graphs and slide transitions and timings. When preparing and organising the main thing you can do is to write out in note form your key points. This will make the presentation easier as you can always refer back to the important parts in your PowerPoint and you don’t need to try and remember everything. Also creating and printing out handout for the audience will make it easier for them to understand. When practicing and delivering it is always good to read a script when going through each slide of the presentation so you can provide the audience with the best information as possible. Finally, effective communication is vital when presenting. This is because you need to make sure you have a loud clear voice, you talk at a steady pace, the volume of your voice is loud enough for everyone to hear, body language and posture is standing up straight and using hand gestures.
2.5 Explain how to collect and use feedback on a presentation. Think about this simplistically. What can you do at the end of a presentation to get feedback on whether the information has been effectively delivered?解释如何收集和使用演示反馈。简单地考虑一下。在演讲结束时，你能做些什么来获得关于信息是否有效传递的反馈？
When collecting feedback on a presentation it is important that you take all of the information in. When collecting it, you can collect it in a number of different ways. These include: evaluation sheets, verbal feedback, surveys, activities and tasks. All of these are useful to use because people will give them their honest opinion so you can get the best feedback possible. It is important to use feedback on a presentation; this is because it’s for your personal benefit. Not only is this a good way to get your strengths of the presentation back, but it also benefits you so you can work on the areas which need improving.
3.1 Explain the characteristics of bespoke documents. Bespoke documents are documents or materials made specifically for that use, company, or subject / information. Characteristics are things such as; corporate/professional image.解释定制文档的特点。定制文档是专门为该用途、公司或主题/信息而制作的文档或材料。特征包括：；企业/职业形象。
Bespoke documents can come in a variety of different ways. Some of these include: Handbooks, questionnaires, spreadsheets, databases, slideshows and presentations. These are important because it puts a professional image on your company, which will attract new potential customers or will keep your current customers interested. However, the most important aspect of these is the way that all of the above maintain the reputation of the organisation which will keep the business on track and on target of their goals.
3.2 Explain the factors to be taken into account in creating and presenting bespoke documents, consider aspects such as image, legislation, Available resources, Ease of use (e.g. is it realistic to get a choir in to demonstrate the meaning of a crescendo)? Quality of resource.解释在创建和呈现定制文件时要考虑的因素，考虑图像、立法、可用资源、易用性等方面（例如，让合唱团来展示渐强的含义是否现实）？资源质量。
The factors that need to be considered when creating a bespoke document include:创建定制文档时需要考虑的因素包
Corporate factors- This is mainly focusing on the brand of the company. This focuses on the professional image of the company, but also focuses on the use of text that will be used within the document.企业因素——这主要集中在公司的品牌上。这关注的是公司的专业形象，但也关注将在文档中使用的文本的使用。
Available resources- This is looking at what kind of software you are going to use and why. This is very important because you will need to look into all the costings and the staff and look at how the presentation will function and work when the work gets put into place.可用资源-这是看你要使用什么样的软件以及为什么。这一点非常重要，因为你需要了解所有的成本和员工，并了解工作到位后演示将如何运作。
Ease of use- This is looking at mainly the layout that you use and the styles that you use. This is important because you want to make sure that it is right for your audience. Your main concern is the file format because you want to make sure it is easy to be understood by the audience.易用性-这主要是看你使用的布局和你使用的样式。这很重要，因为你想确保它适合你的观众。你主要关心的是文件格式，因为你想确保它易于被观众理解。
Other considerations- With this you need to think of anything else which could help you. For example, you would need to proofread everything that you have done to make sure that it reads well and reads right. You also would want to get some feedback from users so you can make any alterations which is necessary.其他考虑因素-有了这些，你需要考虑其他可以帮助你的事情。例如，你需要校对你所做的每一件事，以确保它读得好、读得对。你还想从用户那里得到一些反馈，这样你就可以做出任何必要的修改。
Factors to be taken into account in presenting a bespoke document- The factors that need to be taken into consideration is the: spelling, grammar, quality of final document, and it meets the specification and organisational standards. Once this has all been completed there will be an approval of the final document.
3.3 / 3.5 – Explain the legal requirements and procedures for gathering information for bespoke documents. Think here about information you may wish to create, if it contains data and statements then what should you ensue prior to using such information? Do you need to gain approval; explain how you do this?解释收集定制文件信息的法律要求和程序。在这里想想你可能希望创建的信息，如果它包含数据和语句，那么在使用这些信息之前，你应该遵循什么？你需要获得批准吗；解释一下你是怎么做到的？
The legal requirements include:法律要求包括
Data Protection Act 1998 《1998年数据保护法》
Copyright Designs and Patents Act 1988 1988年《外观设计和专利法》
Common law duty of confidentiality 普通法的保密义务
Remit and limits of research 汇款和研究范围
Recording sources 记录来源
Procedures for gathering the information for bespoke documents is all about having the correct information and having the requirements that is necessary. You need to make sure that you research all of the legal requirements and make sure that the consultation and approval of the information is gathered.
There are many different methods when gaining this approval. One of the most common ones are having face-to-face meetings or even having a phone calls on this.
3.4 Explain techniques to create bespoke business documents. Explain how you have created some of your documents, show screen shots if you wish to help you describe how you created these.解释创建定制业务文档的技巧。解释你是如何创建一些文档的，如果你想帮助你描述这些文档是如何创建的，请显示屏幕截图。
When creating a bespoke document there are many different techniques you need to consider. These include:在创建定制文档时，您需要考虑许多不同的技术。其中包括
Research- When doing this, you need to think about the: Source of information that you are requiring about, planning all of the research that needs to be done, conducting research and with the findings, organising and recording research data collected.研究——在做这件事的时候，你需要考虑：你需要的信息来源，计划所有需要做的研究，进行研究和研究结果，组织和记录收集的研究数据。
Providing design options- With this, knowledge and application of legislation and regulations is key for a bespoke document. You need to have efficient use of software applications and resources. You need appropriate document type and document size and style so it is easier for people to read and look through. This is the same with having accurate data input and image size and quality. The format that you use, will need to be appropriate for the users.提供设计选项-因此，了解和应用法律法规是定制文件的关键。您需要高效地使用软件应用程序和资源。您需要合适的文档类型、文档大小和样式，以便人们更容易阅读和浏览。这与具有精确的数据输入以及图像大小和质量是相同的。您使用的格式需要适合用户。
Approval of document- This is the final requirements that need to be done before being finished. A few of the things you need to do include: Checking and proofreading skills, editing skills, consultation, feedback and final approval.文件批准——这是在完成之前需要完成的最终要求。你需要做的一些事情包括：检查和校对技能、编辑技能、咨询、反馈和最终批准。
4.1 Explain the typical stages of information system development. Think here about any information system you could store information. Think about what you would need to consider if creating or developing an information system. Aspects you need to think about are: Systems may be manual or electronic, access, security, features of the system eg: How is information going to be analysed / retrieved, It’s strengths / weaknesses, how can you check its reliability? Once the system has been developed how will it be handed over to be operational? How will problem solving be executed?解释信息系统开发的典型阶段。在这里想想你可以存储信息的任何信息系统。思考在创建或开发信息系统时需要考虑的问题。你需要考虑的方面是：系统可能是手动的或电子的，访问，安全性，系统的功能，例如：如何分析/检索信息，它的优点/缺点，你如何检查它的可靠性？一旦系统开发完成，它将如何移交运行？如何解决问题？
There are two main information stages. These include:主要有两个信息阶段。其中包括
Manual- this covers all of the: card index; filing systems and categorisations 手册-这涵盖了所有的：卡片索引；归档系统和分类
Electronic- This covers all of the: office support systems, customer support systems, data processing systems and decision support systems 电子-这涵盖了所有：办公室支持系统、客户支持系统、数据处理系统和决策支持系统
The typical stages of information system development include:信息系统开发的典型阶段包括
Analysis- This is the stage when the users and the IT specialists work together to collect all of the business requirements. With the requirements, both will have to work on the design and will have to discuss to one another about what tasks need to be done. The user and the IT specialist signs the joint application design to formalise the business requirements.分析-这是用户和IT专家共同收集所有业务需求的阶段。根据需求，双方都必须进行设计，并相互讨论需要完成哪些任务。用户和IT专家签署联合应用程序设计，以正式确定业务需求。
Feasibility study- This is the stage when the information analysist makes a study and will look at the strengths and weaknesses. This will determine the potential of success as it will show if there is any need of developing the: Staff, equipment, materials, time and the cost.可行性研究——这是信息分析人员进行研究并审视优势和劣势的阶段。这将决定成功的潜力，因为它将表明是否需要开发：人员、设备、材料、时间和成本。
Design- This is the stage where all the system requirements are created. This will look at the: Input, output, storage, processing, system control, backup and recovery.设计-这是创建所有系统需求的阶段。这将着眼于：输入、输出、存储、处理、系统控制、备份和恢复。
Development and Testing – This is the stage where the organisation will develop it to identify the needs of the user. When the organisation has found these wants and needs then they will test it to fit for purpose.开发和测试——这是组织开发以确定用户需求的阶段。当组织发现这些愿望和需求时，他们将对其进行测试，以符合目的。
Deployment- This is the stage when the product is finished with the project team which then gets passed to the operations team. The operations team would then look at if it is possible to increase the efficiency of the production.部署-这是项目团队完成产品的阶段，然后将产品传递给运营团队。然后，运营团队将研究是否有可能提高生产效率。
Evaluation- This is the stage of the analysis and the testing. This is key for the organisation because they cab then look at the cost and benefits against the original specification because you will get feedback from the users/stakeholders so you can review it.评估-这是分析和测试的阶段。这对组织来说是关键，因为他们会对照原始规范来考虑成本和收益，因为你会从用户/利益相关者那里得到反馈，这样你就可以对其进行审查。
Maintenance- This is the final stage when you monitor it. This is so that if any problems arise you will then be able to fix the problem. If there are any problems, then gives you time to change and customise to fit the user’s needs.维护-这是您监控它的最后阶段。这样，如果出现任何问题，您就可以解决问题。如果有任何问题，那么给你时间进行更改和定制，以满足用户的需求。
4.2 Analyse the benefits and limitations of different information systems. Here you’re looking to compare and consider differences between a manual and electronic system in terms of Reliability of data, security or loss of data, efficiency / speed, integration of information systems (systems corresponding and feeding information between each other). Reporting of information from the system, ease of amendments, space of information retention and access.分析不同信息系统的优点和局限性。在这里，您希望比较和考虑手动系统和电子系统在数据可靠性、数据安全性或丢失、效率/速度、信息系统集成（系统之间的对应和馈送信息）方面的差异。报告来自系统的信息，便于修改，信息保留和访问空间。
Both Manual and Electronic system have their benefits and their limitations. 手册和电子系统都有其优点和局限性
Manual benefits- capital investment; everyone has experience of using manual systems; relevance to user; reduce information overload; data entry errors; lower risk of data loss; simplicity 人工效益——资本投资；每个人都有使用手动系统的经验；与用户的相关性；减少信息过载；数据输入错误；降低数据丢失的风险；简单
Manual limitations- time; efficiency; physical space requirements; file naming conventions; archiving requirements; degradation of physical records 手动限制-时间；效率物理空间要求；文件命名约定；归档要求；物理记录的退化
Electronic benefits- storage capacity; time, simultaneous multiple access to records; combination of other data; presentation of information; business efficiency, integration of multiple systems.电子福利-存储容量；时间，同时多次访问记录；其他数据的组合；提供信息；业务效率，多系统集成。
Electronic Limitations- capital investment; up to-date software and technological change; data loss through technology failure and security threats; system upgrades; server storage space; file naming conventions; quality of data input; resistance to change; may require training; information overload; duplicate copies of records 电子限制-资本投资；最新的软件和技术变革；技术故障和安全威胁造成的数据丢失；系统升级；服务器存储空间；文件命名约定；数据输入的质量；抵制变革；可能需要培训；信息过载；记录的副本
4.3 Explain legal, security and confidentiality requirements for information systems I a business environment.解释信息系统的法律、安全和保密要求I商业环境。
What do the following mean Data Protection Act 1998, Freedom of information Act 2000, Copy design and patents Act 1988.
Explain also about security requirements of information systems. This will also include manual use and transportation of information, how could security be breached here and what can be done to reduce or eliminate the risk?
Data Protection Act states – how your personal information is used by organisations, businesses or the government.
Everyone responsible for using data and has to follow strict rules called ‘data protection principles’. They must make sure the information is:每个人都有责任使用数据，并必须遵守被称为“数据保护原则”的严格规则。他们必须确保信息
Used fairly and lawfully 公平合法使用
Used for limited, specifically stated purposes 用于有限的、明确规定的目的
Used in a way that is adequate, relevant and not excessive 以适当、相关且不过分的方式使用
Kept for no longer than is absolutely necessary 保存时间不超过绝对必要时间
Handled according to people’s data protection rights 根据人民的数据保护权利处理
Kept safe and secure 保持安全
Freedom of information Act 2000 states – An Act to make provision for the disclosure of information held by public authorities or by persons providing services for them and to amend the Data Protection Act 1998 and the Public Records Act 1958; and for connected purposes.
Copy design and patents Act 1988 states – An Act to restate the law of copyright, with amendments; to make fresh provision as to the rights of performers and others in performances; to confer a design right in original designs.
Security of systems need to be in place. To ensure information is secure organisations need to:系统的安全性需要到位。为确保信息安全，组织需要
Put all of these legislations in place to ensure the safety at work by the employer and also make sure that all of the employee’s vital information is stored somewhere where no one can gain access to.
4.4 Explain how to monitor the use and effectiveness of an information system.解释如何监控信息系统的使用和有效性
Think logically here. Imagine you created an information system and you want to check it is working as you had intended it to work. How can you collect data on an information system in use? What information would you need to find out so you are able to monitor and evaluate the effectiveness of the system?
First of all, you have to develop a plan that specifies objectives. You will then need to create a timescale for implementation and review and resource implementations. After this you would then get your feedback from others which will give you the implementation of: levels of usage and the timing of usage. This means you can gain early knowledge or any faults you would have with this system. After this, you would need to look into all of the legal and organisational requirements. Give any training necessary and make any other adaptations that are needed.