本文是电子商务专业的留学生作业范例，题目是“E-Supply Chain Management（电子供应链管理）”。如今，供应链管理已成为一个非常重要的概念。 这个概念不再局限于购买产品的运营或活动，它已经改进为具有涉及客户服务管理和产业关系的战略观点。
Supply chain management has become a really important concept nowadays. This concept is no longer delimitated by the operations or the activities of purchasing products, it has improved to having a strategic view in which involves the customer service management and the industrial relationship.
The information technology has a vital part in redesigning the whole business process and can help to increase the productivity and operations. So, the use of Information technology in the supply chain process is getting really important in the corporate world. The implementation of information of technology in the Supply Chain facilitates the development and getting the knowledge about their customers, suppliers and the market demand.
There are some initiatives in the structure of Information of technology that can help reduce the time cycle and more procedures related to this. The distribution of information in the supply chain associates are possible by the Information of technology initiatives like:
-Using bar-coding in logistics
– Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) among branches
-Having Material Requirements Planning
-Having Enterprise Resources Planning (ERP)
Having an integrated system as Enterprise Resources Planning, most commonly known as ERP can allow you to have the lead of an overview of the whole logistic channel. This is basically the existence of a database all over the supply chain. Enterprise Resource Planning systems have the ability to combine all the different functions like production, logistic, sales, HR, accounting, etc.
Today technology is so advanced that Information of technology helps creating a strong supply chain in so many different ways. For example, one-way can be with the advanced equipment in the supply chain they can have the chance to build up the speed, quality and quantity of the information that can be transferred. If you stimulate the speed of information gathering and exchange, the information of technology can assure the opportunity to find important information for everyone who is involved.
今天技术如此先进，技术信息以许多不同的方式帮助创建强大的供应链。 例如，单向可以使用供应链中的先进设备，他们可以有机会提高可传输信息的速度、质量和数量。 如果你刺激信息收集和交换的速度，技术信息可以保证每个参与的人都有机会找到重要信息。
Another way in which the use of advanced information of technology in their supply chain can get an improved coordination and lower the transaction cost among the people who are involve. One example of this can be the way in which Dell´s supply chain is recognized for their capacity to make a great coordinating between different parties in an efficient way for the just-in-time assembly of their very own customized computers.
One more way of having an advanced supply chain is the improvement of interfirm integration among channel partners. Having technology can allow an integration on the supply chain in a upstream and also downstream integration in different areas like inventory, demand forecasting and the scheduling of the orders. This can be seen as an integrated flow of information among customers and provisioner to help balanced the supply and demand across the whole supply chain network. Another way in which this helps is that having a working supply chain allows you to have a great capacity to respond the changes in the market and also the customer request in short time. (Barros et al., 2015)
Hasan Kürşat GÜLEŞ said in his article back in 2012 that Information of Technoogy is an implementation which importance is increasingly becoming important in the collection, procession, preservation and transmission of data. Thus, IT is also an effective means for businesses as it offers businesses new ways to perform better than their rivals and gain competitive edge. (Hasan Kürşat GÜ et al., 2012). They also said that one of the most important things of information of technology applications in the supply chain is the process of making the plans and finding the right tools of optimization that can help to enable the visibility.
Hasan Kürşat GÜLEŞ 在 2012 年的文章中说，技术信息是一种实施，在数据的收集、处理、保存和传输中变得越来越重要。 因此，IT 对企业来说也是一种有效的手段，因为它为企业提供了新的方式来超越竞争对手并获得竞争优势。 （Hasan Kürşat GÜ 等人，2012 年）。 他们还表示，供应链中技术应用信息最重要的事情之一是制定计划并找到有助于实现可见性的正确优化工具的过程。
Technology nowadays can simplify and optimize any business process, this means that you can have a better control on your inventory, cost reduction and mostly a better look into your competition. One of the ways in which technology helps in the supply chain is by having a real time inventory data available anytime and anywhere. This can be possible by having Radio Frequency Identification, most commonly known as RFID. This chips (RFID) and the barcodes are placed in every single product in order to track inventory in the easiest possible way. According to article of Mihaela from 2014, using bar-coding can allow to identify and track products by simplifying the process in the logistic channel. These technologies do not offer the possibility of identifying time and place of good production or the expiration date. These problems can be solved by using RFID tags, you can obtain information of the goods stored or transportation without having physical contact with the products. (Mihaela Ș, 2014). This can help the effectiveness of the process and can easily detect if there’s a problem with any of the orders.
Information of technology in Supply Chain helps the performance in different ways. For example, having an integrated system can help achieve benefits through responding better to customer problems and requests. Another way information of technology helps the supply chain is by helping increase the sales volumes by reaching the customers directly with information of technology. Last one is that information of technology can help companies reduce their transactions costs.(Hasan Kürşat GÜ et al., 2012)
供应链中的技术信息以不同的方式帮助绩效。 例如，拥有一个集成系统可以通过更好地响应客户问题和请求来帮助实现收益。 技术信息帮助供应链的另一种方式是通过直接向客户提供技术信息来帮助增加销量。 最后一个是技术信息可以帮助公司降低交易成本。（Hasan Kürşat GÜ 等，2012）
Technology can also improve the communication with the customers, this communication is faster and more efficiently. The technology can give you actual and real-time access to track orders, location of specific parts worldwide or even to locate the nearest part for a customer. You can have instant feedback from your customers.
The application of technologies has changed the way all of the chain’s partners interact and how they integrate with one another. One example can be the Electronic Data Interchange most commonly known as EDI. The Electronic Data Interchange facilitate real time data interchanged among the parties that are related to the supply chain. This means that there is a conduct that carries the information related to price, quality, order, logistics and inventory levels. With systems based on information of technology, the business can constantly oversee the actual levels of stock and see when they need more stock. This way the stock needs can be transferred immediately to the supplier with a EVD.
The implementation of information of technology in the supply chain is one of the most important activities of a business. Thanks to the leading edge on data collection, procession and the distribution, it’s easier to unite all the components in the supply chain and improve the cost, time, quality and service by using the Information of technology. To be successful and have a good relation between chain partners it is necessary to have an appropriate channel of technology, this a help the supply chain and make it easier on minimum aspects that can make a great difference.
It is well known that technologies will continue to grow and have disruptive breaks of new technologies but the crucial thing here is that supply chains managers keep looking ways to use technologies in the most efficient way. Sometimes this means using the same technologies but in other ways or even getting out of the current techniques and creating new ones. This means that they will require especial attention to the people they involve in the process and how they apply these technologies.
众所周知，技术将继续发展，新技术会出现颠覆性的突破，但关键是供应链经理一直在寻找以最有效的方式使用技术的方法。 有时这意味着使用相同的技术，但以其他方式，甚至摆脱当前的技术并创造新的技术。 这意味着他们需要特别关注他们参与流程的人员以及他们如何应用这些技术。