留学生MBA作业-外国直接投资在IT市场面临的挑战与机遇。本文是一篇MBA留学生作业写作范文，主要内容是讲述作为一家领先的国际IT公司，埃森哲面临着来自发展中经济体的IT新兴市场跨国公司（IT EMM）的崛起带来的巨大挑战和机遇，尤其是来自印度的跨国公司。这篇作业提出近年来，由于当地和全球有利的经济和市场条件，印度取得了长足的进步。IT EMM的扩张和收购在很大程度上是由进入新市场、创新、投入等的潜力以及发展中国家日益增长的经济实力推动的。通过这种方式，一个曾经掌握在美国或欧洲公司手中的行业，现在已经转移到了印度。以下就是这篇留学生MBA作业写作范文，供参考。
Executive summary 执行摘要
As a leading international IT firm, Accenture faces massive challenges and opportunities from the rise of IT Emerging-Market Multinationals (IT EMMs) based in developing economies, particularly from India, which have made quite a headway in recent years due to favourable economic and market conditions both locally and globally. The expansions and acquisitions by IT EMMs is largely driven by the potential for access to new markets, innovation, inputs etc. and the growing economic power of developing countries. In this way, an industry that used to be in the hands of American or European companies, has now moved to India.
This report analyses the costs and benefits that drive EMMs to internationalise, and examines the impact that the rise of IT EMMs will have on Accenture. Indian IT EMMs are the primary focus of this report as they pose the biggest challenge to the Dublin based firm.
本篇MBA作业分析了推动EMM国际化的成本和收益，并考察了IT EMM的兴起将对埃森哲产生的影响。印度IT EMM是本报告的主要关注点，因为它们对这家总部位于都柏林的公司构成了最大的挑战。
In the past, FDI conventionally flowed from advanced economies to emerging markets, but this trend is changing quickly (Cost, 2014). Previously, high valued-added activities such as designing high-tech components, marketing & distribution methods were based in Advanced-Economies with assembly in Emerging-Economies, but companies from developing countries are increasingly becoming important global players by investing or acquiring businesses worldwide thereby representing a shift in economic power (The Economist, 2008; Sauvant, 2009). Such is the case of Indian MNC’s which have predominantly focused their acquisitions on high-tech, knowledge-intensive industries such as information technology services (Sauvant, Maschek and McAllister, 2009; Cost, 2014).
Accenture (Appendix A), a leading IT consulting firm based in Dublin, Ireland, faces both potential risks and opportunities from such companies with the biggest threat coming from rising Indian IT firms such as Wipro, Infosys and Tata Consultancy Services (TCS) that have led to the development of a massive technology outsourcing industry (Accenture Annual Report 2016). In addition to other Indian software firms, these emerging-market giants have come into the limelight of the global IT industry by engaging in several prominent foreign acquisitions (Khanna and Palepu, 2006; Sauvant, Maschek and McAllister, 2009). This report looks at the drivers and benefits that motivate IT EMMS to engage in FDI, the challenges they face in establishing their global activities, and the implications that the rise of these companies have for Accenture.
FDI Drivers and Enablers for IT EMMs IT EMM的外国直接投资驱动因素和推动者
Today, IT EMMs are choosing to internationalize (Appendix B) largely due to factors which include the liberalization of home markets (Singh, 2012), rapid developments in transport, communication and information technologies that enable a systematic coordination of international operations of parent firms and their foreign affiliates to easily produce, transfer and offer services, products and production processes across several countries (Sauvant, 2009; Accenture Policy & Corporate Affairs, 2008). Foreign operations provide access to large and diverse talent pools to set up global work teams where different departments can collaborate throughout the company, and simplify employee mobilization to different locations and roles to share cultural and technical experiences across the organization. Additionally, the difficulties of operating in emerging markets make IT EMM managers more adaptable and resilient to face the global markets. FDI also enables IT EMMs to pool their technologies from different markets to provide depth and focus on resolving a single strategic issue.
如今，IT EMM之所以选择国际化，主要是因为国内市场的自由化，运输、通信和信息技术的快速发展，使母公司及其外国子公司的国际业务能够系统地协调，以方便地生产、转让和提供服务，几个国家的产品和生产流程。海外业务提供了大量多样的人才库，以建立全球工作团队，不同部门可以在整个公司进行合作，并简化员工调动到不同地点和角色的过程，从而在整个组织中共享文化和技术经验。此外，在新兴市场运营的困难使IT EMM经理在面对全球市场时更具适应性和弹性。外国直接投资还使IT EMM能够汇集来自不同市场的技术，以提供深度并专注于解决单一战略问题。
In India, for instance, the lack of interest from private sector companies to adopt IT for improvement and productivity, domestic market saturation with dried up growth opportunities, and the offshoring trend by advanced-economy MNCs to reduce costs motivated Indian IT firms to look outward. Since IT firm’s also offer products and services of a niche category, a successful oversees expansion can lead to global leadership status in the sector.
Despite huge populations and rapid economic growth, aggregate consumption spending is still low in Indian markets, thereby causing ambitious IT firms to leverage newly liberalized Indian regulations to make substantial foreign acquisitions (Accenture Policy & Corporate Affairs, 2008). Access to foreign markets opens up a new range of resources, capital and suppliers for IT EMMs that can result in significant expansion opportunities and provides protection from obstacles at home such as adverse economic shifts, government regulations and supply issues (Khanna and Palepu, 2006). A broad customer base spreads company risks and provides a balanced portfolio in both advanced and developing economies (Khanna and Palepu, 2006).
Shifting some R&D capabilities overseas allows IT EMMs to access established innovation centres, and absorb knowledge which can be consolidated with their managerial skills, and finances to constantly innovate and maximize growth. For instance, Tata Group, the parent company of TCS, cooperates with leading international research centres in Europe and the UK to expand and refine its operations (Accenture Policy & Corporate Affairs, 2008; Tata Annual report, 2016).
Having strong technological capabilities does not provide enough competitive strength by themselves. Forming worldwide strategic alliances with established industry players is important to gain practical market and technical capabilities, successfully introduce new products and services to different markets, and advance internal developments. New and unknown EMMs can quickly gain trust in the market and consequently win large IT orders. Vigorous internationalization, and acquisitions also offer closer proximity to customers to better understand their needs and preferences, tailor software products and services accordingly, and help avoid trade barriers such as tariffs and quotas that make exports less competitive (Accenture Policy & Corporate Affairs, 2008).
Indian IT EMMs, for instance, benefit from several cost advantages at home such as inexpensive finance from local state banks, abundance of cheap talent such as engineers and technical graduates, and minimal government regulations (The Economist, 20008; Sauvant, Maschek and McAllister, 2009). Additionally, support from the local government includes tax exempted technological parks that provide IT EMMs with direct telecommunication access to customers worldwide. This positively impacts their international competitiveness, increases profits and enables them to move up the value-chain by offering solutions to niche segments (Tschang 2001). Also, some IT EMMS like TCS and Wipro are family-owned or controlled which allows for instant decision making regarding important matters.
例如，印度IT EMM受益于国内的几个成本优势，如当地国有银行的廉价融资、工程师和技术毕业生等大量廉价人才以及最低限度的政府监管。此外，当地政府的支持包括免税技术园区，为IT EMM提供与全球客户的直接电信接入。这对他们的国际竞争力产生了积极影响，增加了利润，并使他们能够通过向利基市场提供解决方案来提升价值链。此外，一些IT EMMS，如TCS和Wipro，是家族所有或控制的，可以对重要事项进行即时决策。
FDI Challenges for IT EMMs IT EMM面临的外国直接投资挑战
Entering new markets poses several challenges such as being subject to control by large states and regional trade blocs, lack of host country market-knowledge, weak management talent and competing in a world economy with established industry leaders like Accenture. A massive investment in complex technology infrastructures and experienced human resources to manage regional and global operations, and the ability to deal with their associated challenges and risks is also required. Failure to do so can result in substantial losses (Sauvant, 2009). Foreign operations can also become distant from the head office, complicating management and control, and slowing the decision process.
Even though firms like TCS, Infosys, and Wipro are well established at home, they are still largely unknown compared to Accenture and IBM in international markets, making it harder for them win major deals. Attracting management talent in advanced-economies is another key issue as EMMs find it difficult to offer compensation packages that are on par with Accenture.
Survival in foreign markets depends on the global economic scenario and GDP growth of advanced economies which provide a major share of revenues. High-profile clients rely on international economic conditions. A weak outlook can limit their spending and weaken growth for IT EMMs. There is also a higher risk from adverse currency movements. For instance, in FY16, the rupee depreciated against most major currencies due to lower growth prospects, and an overall negative economic environment in the developed nations (Mendonca, 2015). Unfavourable tariff agreements between the home and host countries can result in higher costs for IT EMMs which may be passed on to consumers, thereby reducing their attractiveness and lowering sales revenues. A further challenge is the constant evolution of the client’s business models resulting from new disruptive digital technologies. This demands substantial resources to keep up with the change and leads to intense competition from an increasing number of small niche players entering the market, in addition to pure consulting-focused companies.
外国市场的生存取决于全球经济形势和发达经济体的GDP增长，这些经济体在收入中占主要份额。知名客户依赖国际经济条件。疲软的前景可能会限制他们的支出，并削弱IT EMM的增长。不利的汇率变动也带来更高的风险。例如，在2016财年，由于增长前景较低，以及发达国家的整体负面经济环境，卢比对大多数主要货币贬值。母国和东道国之间的不利关税协议可能会导致IT EMM的成本增加，这些成本可能会转嫁给消费者，从而降低其吸引力并降低销售收入。另一个挑战是，由于新的颠覆性数字技术，客户的商业模式不断演变。这需要大量的资源来跟上变化，并导致越来越多的小型利基企业进入市场，以及纯粹专注于咨询的公司的激烈竞争。
Recent restrictive regulations and protectionist steps in key international markets have made it more difficult for IT EMMs, which employ most of their staff outside their home countries, to mobilize their skilled professionals. For instance, the U.S has increased the visa fees for H-1B and L1 categories that are used by IT EMMs to hire cheap technical staff from emerging markets. The U.K has also accepted proposals for amending Tier 2 visa category rules (Dalmia,2013).
关键国际市场最近的限制性法规和保护主义措施使it EMM更难调动其熟练的专业人员，因为它们的大部分员工都在本国以外。例如，美国提高了H-1B和L1类别的签证费，这些类别被IT EMM用来从新兴市场雇佣廉价的技术人员。英国也接受了修改二级签证类别规则的提议。
Moreover, the growing complexity of global IT regulatory compliance have increased regulatory costs and added pressure to the industry as a whole. These include industry specific regulations such as customer protection laws and rigorous data protection & privacy laws that require protecting personally identifiable information (PII) and sensitive personal data and information (SPDI) from access by unauthorized individuals, and place strict restrictions on any cross-border transmission of such personal data. Violation of these laws can result in liabilities and penalties (Shanker, 2011).
In today’s digital and connected world, cyber security issues have become more complicated, and therefore, increased exposure to threats and potential cyber-attacks that can result in reputational, legal and financial losses. Due to the rapidly evolving nature and complexity of these attacks, it is difficult for IT EMMs with limited resources and capabilities to defend themselves.
An assessment of the Positive and Negative Implications for Accenture 埃森哲的积极和消极影响评估
OFDI from emerging markets can strengthen the economic performance of Accenture’s home base. A positive economic outlook and GDP growth will boost Accenture’s sales and chances of future growth. In addition, joining forces with IT EMMs can provide new and cheap sources of useful technology, capital, skills, access to markets and low-cost development centres for its R&D operations and the ability to develop rapidly in areas that draws on these companies’ strengths such as traditional IT services of application development, infrastructure management, and business process outsourcing (BPO) (Sauvant, 2009; Bresnahan and Richards, 1998).
As 47% of Accenture’s revenue comes from outsourcing, partnering with IT EMMs enables Accenture to benefit from their local know-how, strengthen its presence in developing countries where demand for IT services has been rising and recruit a high number of low-cost, specialized talent. For instance, Accenture now employs nearly 1.5 lakh employees in India which give the Company cost advantages to take on key emerging-market competitors (Sinha, 2015). Partnerships also eliminate competition and give the Company competitive advantage over its advance-economy competitors. These factors in turn will enable Accenture to capitalize its prior relationships in advanced-economies, brand presence and reputation for quality to deal with western clients in the region, and match other local rivals for small and big offshoring projects.
The constant disruption of the IT industry requires Accenture to consistently keep pace. Revenues gained from partnering with IT EMMs can be used to innovate and invest in other areas such as the Company’s emerging, highly-demanded, high-margin digital service business, which includes analytics, content management, social media and cloud services; and can serve as a cushion should future demand and margins for traditional IT services fall (Mendonca, 2015).
Nevertheless, Accenture’s large outsourcing business puts it in direct competition with Indian outsourcers (Sen, 2014, Accenture Annual Report 2016). By lowering dependence on low-cost commoditized businesses and expanding worldwide operations, leading emerging-market IT firms now focus on specialized and lucrative tasks and compete aggressively for more high-margin consulting deals thereby increasing their share of the global outsourcing market. Instead of cooperating, some foreign IT EMMs may react competitively. This will lead to intense industry competition and disruption, loss of large outsourcing deals as clients prefer flexibility offered by EMMs, difficulty to hold on to large traditional outsourcing contracts all of which can impact Accenture’s customer retention rate.
EMM rivals may also attempt to incorporate features of Accenture’s products and services as their own and steal local partnerships all over the world. To fend off strong competition, the Company will have to innovate rapidly in unfamiliar domains and possibly get rid of its low-end commoditized businesses to focus on high-margin technologies such as cloud computing (Bresnahan and Richards, 1998; Sauvant, 2009). Recent moves by some Indian companies to tap the global capital and talent markets have also further intensified the competition for talent recruitment. (Khanna and Palepu, 2006). IT EMMS may even poach talent from Accenture making it difficult for them to retain employees, and adversely affecting their operations (Accenture Annual Report 2016).
Rapid home-market growth has given IT EMMs the capacity and financial resources to make foreign investments and compete with Accenture. For instance, a boost in the Indian education system because of heavy government spending on elite institutions such as the Indian Institute of Technology and other engineering colleges provide an abundance of critical low cost-talent to Indian IT firms. This enables them to save costs, produce cheaper, high-quality IT services, and build sales organisations around the world. These cost savings can then be passed on to both local and international clients making them more attractive.
IT EMMS also make it harder for Accenture to operate in emerging markets by exploiting local market-knowledge about talent and capital. For instance, the inconsistent quality and scarcity of local IT talent in India makes it difficult for Accenture to recruit talent in the country. Local specialization gives Indian firms a competitive advantage in luring suitable talent. Poor physical infrastructure in emerging markets and local regulations which are more favourable towards local MNCs pose an additional challenge.
Wipro and TCS have gained more annual incremental revenues and profits than Accenture in India and are catching up globally. Furthermore, these EMMs have lower sales, general and administrative(SGA) expenses than Accenture, which pays higher salaries. This allows them to charge lower hourly consulting fees at both home and abroad, which decreases Accenture’s chances to win large bids in India, and may force the Company to drop prices in certain markets under pressure from clients, leading to a cannibalisation of its onshore business. Indian IT companies are also expanding and competing with Accenture in other emerging markets such as China. This expands their access to low-cost coders and programmers to deliver software solutions and services for applications to clients in advanced economies (Sen, 2014). Combined, these factors increase the cost gap between Accenture and Indian IT firms, and impacts their bottom lines in a way that makes Accenture less attractive to investors and clients.
Increased foreign ownership of UK and European companies and IT vendors is changing industry structures(Appendix C; Singh, 2012). Acquisitions of small consulting firms in advanced economies have allowed IT EMMs to consolidate several companies under one brand or vertically integrate to provide high-end turnkey hardware and software services making them attractive to buyers who prefer a single provider for integrated technology services (Khanna and Palepu, 2006, Accenture Annul report 2016). This has implications for Accenture as it will have to deal with new competitors with greater scale and R&D facilities in key markets. Acquisitions also make it easier for IT EMMs to cover more areas and compete with Accenture globally for large deals by offering lower prices and more choices for customers (Kleinman, 2007; Singh, 2012).
英国和欧洲公司和IT供应商的外国所有权增加正在改变行业结构。对发达经济体小型咨询公司的收购使IT EMM能够将多家公司合并为一个品牌，或进行垂直整合，以提供高端交钥匙硬件和软件服务，从而对喜欢单一技术服务提供商的买家具有吸引力。这对埃森哲产生了影响，因为它将不得不应对在关键市场拥有更大规模和研发设施的新竞争对手。收购还使it EMM更容易覆盖更多领域，并通过为客户提供更低的价格和更多的选择，在全球范围内与埃森哲竞争大额交易。
Lastly, several Indian IT firms have expertise in basic programming such as writing glitch-free software for old mainframe systems, a programming niche service where global firms like Accenture lag behind due to their move to more cutting-edge web-based technologies(Mendonca, 2015).
The rise of IT EMMs poses numerous threats and offers several opportunities for Accenture. The threats primarily include intensified competition for clients and talent globally while the opportunities represent new sources of capital, technology, skills and access to markets for Accenture to advance its development. The rise of IT EMMs also means that Accenture will have to assess all the associated potential costs and benefits, revaluate its position in the future and try to leverage this trend in the best way possible. Massive FDI investments by IT EMMs and their expanding presence in European markets means that Accenture will be hugely impacted in both the short and long run.
这篇MBA作业总结了IT EMM的兴起给埃森哲带来了许多威胁，也带来了一些机遇。这些威胁主要包括全球客户和人才竞争加剧，而这些机会代表了埃森哲推进发展的新的资金、技术、技能和市场准入来源。IT EMM的兴起也意味着埃森哲将不得不评估所有相关的潜在成本和收益，重新评估其未来的地位，并试图以最佳方式利用这一趋势。IT EMM的大规模外国直接投资及其在欧洲市场的扩张意味着埃森哲将在短期和长期受到巨大影响。本站提供各国MBA作业范文，MBA作业代写以及MBA作业辅导，如有需要可咨询本平台。