The assignment brings out the discussion over the organisational behaviour in life experience of team work in organisation or in classroom activities.
Organisational behaviour in a team work plays a vital role and it is the topic has been discussed for a very long time and now nearly everyone knows about its concepts. Simply the organisations won’t perform but the one person or many people. When it comes to organisations there should be a team work and perform individuals can’t perform whatever they want in an organization they have to form a team and perform individually as well as teams. So when forming a team, organizational behaviour influence’s toward its success.
Organizational Behaviours is the key aspect to maintain and enhance interaction levels amongst people in the organizations. Other attributes like leadership, motivation, decision making, openness to discuss problems, challenge-initiative is all in the base concept of Organizational behaviour to help the business achieve its strategic and in some business objectives. The proper definition of organizational behaviour with its understanding and management has resulted in development of few key offshoots to the concept of Organizational behaviours
In my view a personality behaviour means how can we describe a person, how this person differences from the others behaviour, how we can measure the characteristics and differences. Psychometrics is also the most important related to the assessment and measurement of the personality, aptitude, intelligence. It is like the unique character of the individual and measure and understands the differences between the individuals. I think the term itself indicates the properties of behaviour which are both enduring and set the individual apart from others. These properties concern the individual’s typical ways of coping with life.
I am going to explain a few words about the group because it will explain the importance of individual in the group. The group may spend a lot of time on the each stage, but some groups never reaching the final stages because the personality and levels of dominance of each member may play a large part in the failure or success of the group and its ability to progress through the different stages, the time goes by changes occur, such as new members joining the group or old members leaving the group may re-enter the cycle and begin the development of the process all over again.
In this assignment i am going to use the Leadership theory and Motivation Maslow’s theory. These theories are best suitable for my opinions or views that are raised in my experience and i like those theories a lot so the two theories are chosen. Let me start with those theories
Leadership theory 领导力理论
A simple definition of leadership is that leadership is the art of motivating a group of people to act towards achieving a common goal.
Leadership is one of the most hotly debated topics in management studies, social psychology and organisational psychology (Pfeiffer 1993). Despite the depth and breadth of debate concerning leadership effectiveness, it remains an elusive construct. As a result, researchers and practitioners have not reached a consensus on a true and concise definition that represents an accurate depiction of effective leadership in all situations and possibilities.
The leadership is one of the effective concepts and well defined as:
“Treat people with politeness, respect and dignity and in doing so create a strong role model for others to follow. Building a reputation of fairness gives you a buffer against the times when the policy is wrong or you behave badly” Gratton (2000:206)
According to Nathan F. Iannone, leadership can be defined as the art of influencing, directing, guiding, and controlling others in such a way as to obtain their willing obedience, confidence, respect and loyal cooperation in accomplishment of an objective.
Leadership is about the future and about how do I ‘tap into’ the group orientation (into what everybody shares).
According to Jago (1982) the quality and the qualified, good leaders are not born instead they are made with the influenza ion of the training and the self-assessment, developing skills by improvising others.
The natural people ability is also evaluated as a measure of ‘walk their talk’. The fascination of the leadership is much higher in terms of the charismatic leader. The leadership based on this charismatic model is really being focused towards the vision and also the ability and the talents are naturally born and also termed as gift. The natural leader adapts the tapping of their inner resources and also natural leaders are more often generalist (Stonefield, 1992:3).
The leadership theory based on this contingency model states that there is no particular model of leadership which suits as appropriate in all times of situation. The variables are the basic elements and the preliminary components which determine the success rather than the leadership style which we intend to follow or insist. The leadership has a quality in order to follow the vital roles and also in order to perform the action depending and assessing the situation through various means (Cherry, 2010).
The trait approach to personality is one of the major theoretical areas in the study of personality. The trait theory suggests that individual personalities are composed broad dispositions. Consider how you would describe the personality of a close friend. Chances are that you would list a number of traits, such as outgoing, kind and even-tempered. A trait can be thought of as a relatively stable characteristic that causes individuals to behave in certain ways. Unlike many other theories of personality, such as psychoanalytic or humanistic theories, the trait approach to personality is focused on differences between individuals. The combination and interaction of various traits forms a personality that is unique to each individual. Trait theory is focused on identifying and measuring these individual personality characteristics.
According to Offer Mann, Hanges and Day (2001) much of the discourse on the internal characteristics of leadership over recent years has focused on values and ethics. They argue that disillusionment and a lack of confidence in political leadership have been generated by the particular values that political leaders use to motivate their actions. As a result, Offermann, Hanges and Day (2001) claim that the world is more aware of the importance that values play in leadership effectiveness and success. In addition, it has been shown that particular types of leaders attract different followers depending on their value types (Ehrhart & Klein 2001). McShane (2001) argues that in order to motivate, influence, be liked and respected, a leader’s values need to align themselves with those of their employees and to reflect integrity, honesty, compassion and assertiveness.
The contingency leadership is one of the effective leadership techniques and also has an ability to act as a vital tool in establishing the focus on variables in an environment in order to determine the situations which really opt for our behaviour in any kind of situation. The leadership theory based on this contingency model states that there is no particular model of leadership which suits as appropriate in all times of situation. The variables are the basic elements and the preliminary components which determine the success rather than the leadership style which we intend to follow or insist. The leadership has a quality in order to follow the vital roles and also in order to perform the action depending and assessing the situation through various means (Cherry, 2010).
My definition of Leadership is being able to: inspire others, motivate, set a vision, communicate, respect others, and lead by example. A leader must have an honest understanding of who they are, what they know, and what they are capable of. To be successful person you have to convince your followers, not yourself or your superiors. In my opinion this can build confidence in your followers in their faith in you to be able to lead.
Different person require different styles of leadership. For example, a company I was working requires more supervision than an experienced employee. A person who lacks motivation requires a different approach than anyone with a high degree of motivation. You must know your people! The fundamental starting point is having a good understanding of human nature, such as needs, emotions, and motivation. You must come to know your employees’ be, know, and do attributes.
Communication is the exchange and flow of information and ideas from one person to another person; it involves a sender transmitting an idea, information, or feeling to a receive. What and how you communicate either builds or harms the relationship between you and your employees.
Situations are different from all time. Leader is an individual who can use different leadership styles based on the situations .decide the best course of action and the leadership style needed for each situation. For example, you may need to confront an employee for inappropriate behaviour, but if the confrontation is too late or too early, too harsh or too weak, then the results may prove ineffective.
Also note that the situation normally has a greater effect on a leader’s action than his or her traits. This is because while traits may have an impressive stability over a period of time, they have little consistency across situations (Mischel, 1968). This is why a number of leadership scholars think the Process Theory of Leadership is a more accurate than the Trait Theory of Leadership.
Every organisation is subdivided into two different categories such as formal and informal. The organisation when seen as external spectator it appears to be formal with its will defined mission statement, policies and procedure and organisation structure charts, but this is just the tip of the great iceberg floating underneath in the form of informal organisation which a manger has to face. This informal organisation includes informal leaders which have no formal authority given by organisation but they have their influence on many employees, to maintain good relation with such informal leaders as sometimes they can help in getting things done. Internally organisation is subdivided into many groups based on their nature of job, their ethnicity, their culture, their language having their own norms and sentiments managers need to identify such groups and make consistent effort to maintain peace in groups by serving the role of mediator, for smooth running of organisation. Organisation consist of another route of power which can be said as counter organisation, that can be seen in the form of labour unions which are formed to keep check on organisation and make sure that profit hungry organisation don’t exploit them. Such counter organisations are needed to be handled with great care. It can be said informal organisations are formed by the people of organisation to satisfaction of their cultural needs and a sense of personal identity and personal belonging. It also provides means to highlight deficiencies in the formal organisation such as excess time taken to complete a task.
MASLOW THOERY OF MOTIVATION 马斯洛动机理论
Motivation is a fundamental driving force behind people behaviour and performance. When the research was done to explain different aspects of motivation from an organisational behavioural perspective many theories or models used to describe the topic of motivation basically it is described as the extent to which persistent effort is directed towards a goal. It is very important to know about different types of motivation theories and their implementation in a group or organisation. These motivation theories specify the kinds of needs people has and condition in which they would want to exemplify these needs. Motivation can be internal or external. Example of external motivation is Deadlines. The fear of losing a contract or of not finishing a job on time you started is an example of internal motivation. Both internal and external motivation can be equally powerful.
Why i am using this Maslow’s theory to reflect on my behaviour in group situations. This theory comes under content theories of motivation. There is significant relationship between behaviour and motivation particularly between group and individuals. Motivations of group have a serious impact on individual behaviour likewise the motivation of an individual can have serious impact on group.
Abraham Maslow theory was proposed by Dr. Abraham Maslow in 1943, this theory is general overview of human motivation. His theory strikes a distinctive sense of balance between biological and social needs that integrates many motivational concepts. According to Maslow individual needs are set in a hierarchy, and everyone must satisfy their basic needs before they can satisfy their higher needs. The hierarchy is many times portrayed, as a pyramid beginning with physiological needs at the bottom and self-actualization at the top of this pyramid. The needs at the lower level are the most basic. These basic needs must be satisfy well before an individual can become concern with the higher needs like physiological needs, safety needs, security needs, social needs, law and affection, esteem needs. These needs must be satisfied before a person can act unselfishly. He called these needs “deficiency needs.” As long as we are motivated to satisfy these craving, people are moving toward growth, self-actualization, satisfying needs is healthy, which preventing gratification makes us sick or act evilly.
Gareth Morgan suggests that employees are people with complex needs that must be satisfied if they are to lead perform effectively in a work place. Employees perform best when they are motivated by task, which will earn them some reward that satisfies their personal needs. Abraham Maslow’s theory of motivation most widely famous as hierarchy of needs states that human needs when arranged in form of hierarchy, ascending from lowest to the highest, as soon as need at lower level gets completed, the need at next level servers to be a motivator. Maslow divided human needs into five main categories such as physiological which include basic needs for sustaining life like food, water, shelter and sleep.
According to Abraham Maslow there are five different levels in hierarchy of needs.
Self-actualizing Needs 自我实现需求
Self-actualizing Needs is the highest level of Maslow’s hierarchy of need. People are self-aware, concerned with personal growth, less concerned with the opinions of others and interested fulfilling their potential.
Esteem Needs 尊重需求
Esteem needs include the things that reflect on self-esteem, personal worth, social recognition and accomplishment.
Social Needs 社交需求
Social needs include belonging, love and affection. Maslow considered these needs to be less basic than physiological and security needs. Relationships such as friendships, love, romantic attachments and families help fulfil this need for companionship and acceptance, as doe’s involvement in social, community or religious groups.
Security Needs 安全需求
Security needs include safety and security. Security needs are important for survival, but they are not as demanding as the physiological needs. Examples of security needs include a desire for steady employment, health insurance, safe neighbourhoods and shelter from the environment.
Physiological Needs 生理需求
A physiological need is low needs. These include the most basic needs that are vital to survival, such as the need for water, air, food and sleep. Maslow believed that these needs are the most basic and instinctive needs in the hierarchy because all needs become secondary until these physiological needs are met.
Maslow was correct when he said that one need has to be fulfilled before we can move to the next one. Without sufficient amount sleep I wouldn’t be able to think of nothing but sleep. Also if I am hungry food will be the only thing on my mind. But because each day I satisfy these basic needs I am able to think about other things because these needs are no longer controlling my thoughts. Next priority is given to security which includes freedom from physical danger and other fears like losing job, property, food, or shelter. Since people are social animals they need to belong, to be accepted by others, hence acceptance third in the list of needs.
Once people satisfy their need to belong esteem needs emerge in the form of satisfactions as power, prestige, status and self-esteem and at last when all the other needs are satisfied need for self-actualization which is the desire to maximize one’s potential and achieve something. Applying this theory many organisations where suggested to motivate their employees by monetary gains or assuring security of their job. , Koontz, H, Weihrich (2008), Morgan (2006). There was a research conducted by Douglas T Hall and Khalil Nongame which studied needs of hierarchy involving a group of managers over a time span of five years. They found that there was no strong evidence of hierarchy, as managers get promoted in organisation their physiological needs tend to decrease, while on other hand needs for self-actualization tend to increase H, Koontz , H, Weihrich(2008). Upcoming flaws of Maslow’s theory the process theory of motivation stated, with the study of one’s decision making process and determining how individual behaviour is energised, directed and maintained. The major process theory of motivation includes expectancy theory, equity theory, goal setting theory and reinforcement theory.
In my classroom activities 在我的课堂活动中
I am relating this theory’s to my classroom activities in a group. When considered my experience in a group situation once while doing a group presentation in collage we all are five people. We had a 20 days’ time to presentation and from first day we all thought to meet at my place but no one turn up this happened many time every one say some other reason. It happened for all 19 day only 1 day left to submit the presentation than I thought to divide the task to my group members. Each one is assign a separate task and the task should complete before the particular schedule time. With this I emerge as leader that made me influenza ion as Leadership. Not only Leadership but also motivation In order to sleep tonight I have to complete my task of presentation before sleep. I need to satisfy my physiological need that is to sleep in time. I should complete the presentation before night
According to the trait theory the question arises of weather a leader is born or developed. There is no defined answer as many theorists have different answers to this. Understanding the concepts from above of motivation its rewards systems as to how useful it is for a leader to understand how it can be utilized in getting work done from people, decision making and its importance in growing more efficient, managing change and adapting quickly to it, understanding human perceptions and how they affect management, understanding the value of power in an organization without which a leader is nothing, politics and control and the other factors finally lead towards the understanding that leaders are developed. Many individuals may be born with the skill to be a leader this does not prove that he grows up to be an effective leader. However he can develop the ability to become one. Experience and the urge to learn can help one become an efficient leader. According to my understanding a person might be born with natural abilities to become a leader.
This assignment is very useful to assess my past behaviour to the present behaviour and ways to develop the behaviour and to assess the performance by using these theories in a group. These are the two oldest theories what I used because older principles are the basic for anything i.e. the applications should follows the basic principle. Only few people are reached the self-actualization concept in the Leadership theory and Maslow’s theory. I am very much willing to taste that step. So I am going to putting my effort in this way and also looking the ways to develop. In my opinion if the group activities are conducted from the child hood they will be a very useful to the individual to improve their personality, behaviour and from that the concept of Leadership and motivation skills will also improve for the betterment of the future.