留学生coursework写作:Example History Coursework

发布时间:2022-04-20 09:25:13 论文编辑:zeqian1013

本文是留学生入学coursework范例,题目是“Example History Coursework(例子历史课程)”,温斯顿·伦纳德·斯宾塞·丘吉尔于1874年11月30日出生在布伦海姆宫,1965年1月24日在伦敦去世,享年90岁。他的一生被巨大的逆境、深刻的争议和最高的成就所感动。正是这种生活让他声名远扬,这一点毋庸置疑。

Winston Churchill in opposition and government, 1929 – 1945. How important was Churchill’s personal style of management to the success of the war time coalition government?1929 - 1945年反对党和政府中的温斯顿·丘吉尔。丘吉尔的个人管理风格对战时联合政府的成功有多重要?

Winston Leonard Spencer Churchill was born at Blenheim Palace on November 30th, 1874 and died aged ninety in London on January 24, 1965. It is submitted that he lived a life that was touched by great adversity, profound controversy and supreme achievement. It was a life that brought him enduring world renown, that much is indisputable.

The period under review in this short paper was undoubtedly the most important of Churchill’s life. 1929 began with Churchill serving as Chancellor of the Exchequer (during the period of this office he had controversially returned Britain to the Gold Standard in 1925 and taken a strong line against the General Strike in 1926). However, with the defeat of the Conservative Government in May of 1929 Churchill lost office. Labour, led by Ramsay MacDonald, took the leadership of a hung Parliament. When MacDonald subsequently formed the so-called National Government in 1931 Churchill was not invited to join the Cabinet because he had acquired a reputation as a right-wing extremist.

这篇短文所回顾的时期无疑是丘吉尔一生中最重要的时期。1929年开始,丘吉尔担任财政大臣(在此期间,他在1925年颇有争议地使英国回归金本位制,并对1926年的总罢工采取强硬立场)。然而,随着保守党政府在1929年5月的失败,丘吉尔下台。由拉姆齐·麦克唐纳领导的工党赢得了无多数议会的领导权。当麦克唐纳随后在1931年组建所谓的国民政府时,丘吉尔没有被邀请加入内阁,因为他获得了右翼极端分子的名声。

 

留学生入学coursework范例

Churchill became a leading advocate of British rearmament after the Nazi Party, led by Hitler, took power in Germany in 1933. A stern critic of Neville Chamberlain, Churchill attacked the policy of appeasement pursued by the new Conservative government. In 1939 he prophetically argued that Britain and France should strike a military alliance with the Soviet Union. It is possible to draw the conclusion that Churchill’s stance during this period, which was proven right, was important in underpinning and lending credibility and compelling force to the robust approach he later took to the management of the country at war.

Churchill was appointed First Lord of the Admiralty on the outbreak of the Second World War and in April 1940 he was made chairman of the Military Coordinating Committee just prior to the invasion and occupation of Norway by German forces. This development threw Chamberlain’s dealings with Hitler into sharp focus and the Labour Party forced a vote of censure against him.

Chamberlain resigned and on 10th May, 1940, George VI appointed Churchill as Prime Minister. Churchill proceeded to form a coalition government and shrewdly appointed leading lights of the Labour Party such as Ernest Bevin, Clement Attlee, Stafford Cripps and Hugh Dalton to influential positions. He made Anthony Eden, a fellow long-time opponent of Chamberlain, his Secretary of State for War. Later, Eden became Foreign Secretary replacing Lord Halifax. It is submitted that Churchill’s ability to match the right man to the right office was an essential component in his managerial success. Churchill also cultivated a warm and enduring personal relationship with Franklin D. Roosevelt – a crucial achievement which led to a healthy and cooperative trade in vital war supplies. The British Prime Minister certainly understood the importance of the United Kingdom’s association with America and its centrality to his macro-management of the war was another key ingredient in Churchill’s success.

张伯伦辞职,1940年5月10日,乔治六世任命丘吉尔为首相。邱吉尔随后组建了联合政府,并精明地任命工党领袖欧内斯特·贝文、克莱门特·艾德礼、斯塔福德·克里普斯和休·道尔顿担任有影响力的职位。他任命张伯伦的长期反对者安东尼·艾登为战争国务大臣。后来,伊甸接替哈利法克斯勋爵成为外交大臣。据说,丘吉尔使合适的人担任合适的职位的能力是他在管理上取得成功的一个重要组成部分。丘吉尔还与富兰克林·d·罗斯福建立了一种温暖而持久的个人关系——这是一项至关重要的成就,导致了至关重要的战争物资贸易的健康和合作。英国首相当然明白英国与美国的关系的重要性,它对他的宏观战争管理的中心地位是丘吉尔成功的另一个关键因素。

Although Churchill provided cogent leadership the war did not go well for Britain and he had to face a motion of no confidence in Parliament after a series of military defeats. However, he maintained the support of most members of the House of Commons and won by a landslide 475 votes to 25.

Churchill nevertheless faced persistent criticism for interfering in military matters (although it could be argued at every level that this was a natural and essential aspect of his brief) and he exhibited a tendency to turn to friends such as Professor Frederick Lindemann rather than his military commanders for counsel and advice. Churchill’s advisers were often infuriated by his tendency to conduct strategy by impulse and Alan Brooke, his Chief of Staff, famously complained that the Prime Minister had ten ideas every day, only one of which was good — and he did not know which one. In April 1941 Churchill was criticised for removing forces from the Desert War in an ill-fated attempt to defend Greece, but again it could be argued that this was a noble cause.

丘吉尔却面临持续的批评,因为干扰在军事问题上(虽然它可能会认为在每一个级别,这是一个自然和他短暂)的重要方面,他表现出一种趋势转向朋友如弗雷德里克·林德曼教授而不是他的谋略和军事指挥官的建议。丘吉尔的顾问们经常被他的冲动所激怒,他的幕僚长艾伦·布鲁克曾抱怨首相每天有十个想法,其中只有一个是好的,而他却不知道是哪一个。1941年4月,丘吉尔因从沙漠战争中撤出军队保卫希腊而遭到批评,但也有人认为这是一项崇高的事业。

Perhaps the greatest achievement of Churchill’s individual style of leadership was his ability to inspire the British people to draw deeper and deeper on their personal resources and sheer resilience. He was a uniquely gifted orator and used this managerial skill to make highly effective public broadcasts at key moments of the war. It could be argued that he was one of the first world leaders to exploit the mass media to full effect.

He appreciated the fact that it was important to keep his Allies close and worked effectively with President Roosevelt once America had entered the war. Churchill also worked well with Stalin after Hitler launched Operation Barbarossa in June, 1941, and his pragmatic style of management allowed him to do so in appreciation of the greater evil they faced, despite his hatred of communism and the fact that his personal relationship with the leader of the Soviet Union was always difficult.

他认识到,一旦美国参战,与盟国保持密切关系并与罗斯福总统有效合作是非常重要的。丘吉尔也曾与斯大林后6月希特勒发动“巴巴罗萨,1941年和他的务实的管理风格使他在升值,他们面临的更大的罪恶,尽管他仇恨的共产主义和他的个人关系与苏联的领导人总是困难的。

 

留学生入学coursework怎么写

It is perhaps prudent to strike a note of balance in this commentary. To that end it is worth bearing in mind that many of Churchill’s personal and managerial traits can be viewed as either strengths or weaknesses, depending on the perspective and agenda of the individual commentator. The best example from recent times is probably Margaret Thatcher, whose abrupt, confrontational style was either cherished or damned for precisely the same reasons depending on the stance of the evaluating party.

在这篇评论中保持平衡或许是一种谨慎的做法。为此,值得注意的是,丘吉尔的许多个人和管理特点可以被视为优点或缺点,这取决于个人评论员的观点和议程。近期最好的例子可能是玛格丽特•撒切尔(Margaret Thatcher),她的唐突、对抗性风格要么受到珍视,要么遭到谴责,原因完全相同,取决于评估方的立场。

Concluding comments总结评论

To address the question posed in the title directly, while the great man clearly had his flaws there is a consensus among reputed authorities that Churchill’s personal style of management was fundamental if not essential to the success of the war time coalition government. History suggests that he was perhaps a man for war, rather than peace, and that his personal style leant itself very much to the management of a state of hostility rather than more mundane affairs, but this does not detract from his towering stature as one of the leading politicians of the twentieth century. That is set in stone. It can always be argued that Churchill’s success was due in large part to the unique political environment of the day and other exogenous factors. He was certainly able to exploit the celebrated wartime spirit of unity and cooperation that existed in wartime Britain. However, that is a valuable management skill in itself and to seek to diminish Churchill’s own contribution by these means would be both niggardly in the opinion of this commentator and to deny the judgment of the foremost commentators of the age.

为了直接回答题目中提出的问题,虽然这位伟人显然有他的缺点,但权威人士一致认为,丘吉尔的个人管理风格对战时联合政府的成功即使不是必不可少的,也是至关重要的。历史表明,他可能是一个人的战争,而不是和平,他的个人风格倾斜本身非常敌对状态的管理,而不是世俗的事务,但这并不有损于他高大的身材,二十世纪的政治领袖之一。这是不可改变的。可以说,丘吉尔的成功很大程度上是由于当时独特的政治环境和其他外生因素。他当然能够利用战时英国存在的著名的团结与合作的战时精神。然而,这本身就是一种宝贵的管理技巧,通过这些手段来贬低丘吉尔自己的贡献,在这位评论家看来,既小气又否定了这个时代最重要的评论家的判断。

It seems appropriate to close this short commentary with one of Churchill’s many famous quotes. The following remark neatly illustrates the adept, enigmatic and elliptical style he brought to his interaction with fellow politicians and civil servants alike.“This is not the end. It is not even the beginning of the end. But it is, perhaps, the end of the beginning.”

用丘吉尔的一句名言来结束这篇简短的评论似乎是合适的。下面这句话巧妙地说明了他在与其他政治家和公务员的交往中所表现出的娴熟、神秘和含蓄的风格。“这不是结束。这甚至不是结束的开始。但这也许是开始的结束。”

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