本文是留学生入学coursework代写范例，题目是“Zara's Approach To Sustainability（Zara的可持续发展之路）”，本报告的目的是确定Zara作为一个时尚品牌的可持续发展的方法，看看他们目前如何解决问题以及他们未来的目标。从这份报告的调查结果来看，Zara非常清楚他们需要更可持续的生产，并且正在为此努力。他们也在为帮助改变整个服装行业做出自己的贡献，关注工人权利、公平的生活工资和良好的工作条件。他们正在与领导组织合作，分享信息并审核与他们合作的工厂，确保工厂的工人受到良好的待遇。他们的生产越来越具有可持续性，生产环保的生产线，使用可持续的纤维，并致力于在他们的设施中只使用可再生能源。总而言之，尽管这种商业模式并非理想的可持续发展，但它们正朝着实现联合国的许多可持续发展目标迈进。
The purpose of this report is to identify Zara's approach to sustainability as a fashion brand, looking at how they are currently addressing issues as well as their future goals. From the findings in this report it shows that Zara are very aware of their need to produce more sustainably and are working hard towards doing so. They are also doing their part in helping change the garment industry as a whole, with a focus on workers rights, fair living wages and good working conditions. They are working with leading organizations, sharing information and auditing the factories which they work with, ensuring that the workers in the factories are treated well. Their production is increasingly becoming more sustainable, creating eco-friendly lines, using sustainable fibres aswell as working towards using only renewable energy in their facilities. In conclusion, although the business model is not ideally sustainable, they are on track to meet a lot of the UN's sustainable development goals.
In this report we look at Zara's approach to sustainable fashion; sustainable fashion means taking into account the environmental and socio-economic factors when producing clothes, shoes and accessories, but it also includes sustainable patterns of consumption and use, therefore requires a shift in consumers' attitude and behaviours. The main responsibility of fashion retailers is to change the way that they produce, distribute and market their brand. The UN have set goals to ensure that everyone enjoys peace and prosperity aswell as to end poverty and protect the planet, they have set a target of 2030 for these goals to be met. The 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) have been designed to ensure that these targets are met, many of the SDGs relate directly to the fashion industry. (United Nations, n.d.)
Approach to sustainability可持续性的方法
Zara work with a system which allows them to know where and how all of their products have been cut, dyed, washed and manufactured, helping to guarantee that their production chain respects workers' labour conditions, the environment and product safety levels; helping contribute to the UN SDGs, including SDG 8 (decent work and economic growth) and SDG 12 (responsible consumption and production). Their products and raw materials are sourced across 43 different countries with the main countries being Spain, Portugal, Turkey and Morocco, with around 57% being sourced close to their headquarters in Arteixo, Spain. (Inditex, n.d.)
They also collaborate with leading organizations such as IndustriALL Global Union, ILO, UN Global Compact, Ethical Trading Initiative, ACT, Accord on Fire and Building Safety in Bangladesh, Better Than Cash Alliance who are working on tackling issues in the garment industry (Inditex, 2018)
Zara have 10 factories on their grounds which manufacture their most fashionable products, other items are sent to external factories around the world. (Hanbury, Mary, 2018) Manufacturing most of their products locally helps reduce carbon footprint, and therefore helps contribute to SDG 13, which stresses to take urgent action to combat climate change and its impacts.
They are continually looking for ways to build upon what they have already achieved since signing the UN's Global Compact in 2001, which included developing and using more responsibly and sustainably produced fabrics, making their stores more ecofriendly, recycling packaging and using green alternatives for its packaging materials. They also launched an in-store recycling donation program and a clothing range directly focused on sustainability, the 'Join Life' collection, which will account for 20% of Zara's range by the end of 2019. Zara are also committed to the use and support of sustainable cotton production, their wool-based fibres never come from primary or high ecologically relevant forests.
自2001年签署《联合国全球契约》(UN’s Global Compact)以来，它们一直在寻找途径，在已有成果的基础上进一步发展。《全球契约》包括开发和使用更负责任、更可持续的生产面料，使门店更加环保，回收包装，以及使用绿色替代包装材料。他们还推出了店内回收捐赠计划，以及直接关注可持续发展的服装系列“加入生活”(Join Life)，到2019年底，该系列将占到Zara服装系列的20%。Zara还致力于使用和支持可持续的棉花生产，他们的羊毛纤维从不来自初级或高度生态相关的森林。
Zara's sustainability roadmap
To remove all hazardous chemicals from their supply chain
Not use any fibres from endangered forests
They will use 100% sustainable cellulosic fibres to create responsible viscose.
Completely stop the usage of ALL single use plastics, adopting the use of green-only packaging.
By the end of 2025
All collections will be created out of 100% sustainable cottons and linens and 100% recycled polyester, collaborating with partners and investing in technology to produce greener fashion products (SDG 12 - Ensure sustainable consumption and production patterns)
Zero landfill waste from their facilities, inc HQ, logistics Centres, stores and factories. (SDG 15 – Life on Land) and 80% renewable energy use for its HQ, distribution centres and stores (SDG 7 – Affordable and Green Energy)
Another of Zara's commitments for 2025 is to 'close the loop', meaning creating a life cycle for their products so resources are used efficiently and nothing goes to waste, helping move towards a circular economic model. Including making it easier for customers to drop off their unwanted/used garments, giving them a second life or recycling them. (Inditex, n.d.) (SDG 9 - Think of innovative ways to repurpose old material)
Zara have already implemented the digital technology needed to help move towards a circular economy enabling them to trace their products all the way back to the first step in the production chain and throughout the process ending at the customer (Digital supply chain). Full visibility of the supply chain can then help prevent fraud, improve workers' rights and conditions, stop the use of forced labour and also show where waste can be eliminated.
Digital supply chains use the internet and multiple technologies such as tagging and sensors (RFID), logistical and vehicle tracking software; surveillance technology using data analytics to understand these global systems. RFID tags give the ability to track and trace objects throughout the entire supply chain process and even perhaps even during use. (Leonards, 2019)
"Some retailers are going a step further, using woven RFID tags sewn onto the garments to provide visibility throughout the lifecycle, even after purchase by consumers." (Logistics Bureau, 2017) This is not good in terms of ethical production, however can help with marketing as they'll be able to gather valuable information through location tracking.
Benefits and risks of working towards a sustainable fashion model追求可持续发展的时尚模式的好处和风险
Thereare both benefits and risks to Zara when it comes to sustainable fashion. Benefits include developing an enhanced brand - people are becoming more aware of where and how their clothing is made; being a sustainable fashion brand has the ability to help gain better customer loyalty and trust as a result of this. It also promotes ethical and fair trade business models, showing that you care about the wider fashion industry rather than just your own business, including the treatment of workers that are manufacturing the clothing in poorer countries. Showing that you are focusing on sustainable fashion as a brand will also allow for good press, potentially further increasing your position in the fashion industry. However there are also some risks to this, Zara's business model is based on a high turnover rate, releasing more than 10,000 designs a year (Greg Petro - Forbes, 2012)
在可持续时尚方面，Zara既有好处也有风险。好处包括提升品牌——人们越来越清楚自己的服装是在哪里、如何制造的;因此，作为一个可持续发展的时尚品牌，有能力帮助获得更好的客户忠诚度和信任。它还促进道德和公平的贸易商业模式，表明你关心的是更广泛的时尚产业，而不仅仅是你自己的生意，包括贫穷国家生产服装工人的待遇。展示出你专注于可持续发展的时尚品牌，也会带来良好的媒体报道，有可能进一步提高你在时尚行业的地位。然而，这也有一些风险，Zara的商业模式是基于高周转率，每年发布超过10,000个设计(Greg Petro - Forbes, 2012)
So it is highly unsustainable, to become entirely sustainable, the whole business model would have to change, resulting in a loss of economic loss. There are some risks to not developing and promoting sustainable practice, these include receiving bad press, and a loss of market share as a result of that. Also UN/Government backlash, as you will not be helping towards the SDG goals which have been set out. This will then lead to compensation costs, legal challenges etc. aswell as greater scrutiny from organisations working towards sustainability.
CMI Code of conduct
Inditex are very open in the way they operate, they publicly share information about their supply chain, track their manufacture process and share the information with their stakeholder's aswell as ensuring all factories and suppliers they work with are audited. They also work with and share information with global organizations to help address issues in the garment industry. Tracking their supply chain has allowed them to identify priority areas to guarantee the wellbeing of the workers in their factories. Encouraging fair living wages, gender equality, safe and healthy work places etc. Constantly working towards and setting goals for further sustainability.
Conclusion and Recommendations结论和建议
Although Zara look to be on the right path to achieving a lot of the SDG goals, there are still ways that they can help towards a more sustainable and ethical fashion production Zara could further increase their sustainability by changing their model to produce high quality, timeless designs (Slow fashion), this is an environmentally friendly way as fewer new items are produced and clothes are worn for longer. Their business model is based on an incredibly high turnover rate which is very unsustainable. Promoting rapid consumption is harmful to people and to the planet. As a leader in global fashion, Zara should be focusing on setting the standard for sustainability. Instead of restocking new designs every 2 weeks (Lutz, 2012), it would be more sustainable to release 4 seasonal ranges throughout the year. Recycling and eco-friendly fashion ranges are not enough to counter the "throw-away culture".
It is also important to help change the way consumers shop, the 'ideal' fashion consumer would:
Buy second-hand clothing and textiles where possible, and buy fewer but longer lasting products.
Choose the products which are made with the least energy and toxic emissions and made by workers that are receiving a credible living wage with reasonable employment rights and conditions.
Consumers could also lease clothes that they know wouldn't be worn to the end of their natural life.
Wash clothes less often at lower temperatures and with eco-detergents. Hangdrying them and avoiding ironing when possible.
Instead of throwing away clothes, they can extend the life of the products through repairing them, Zara could offer a repairing service.
If deciding to dispose of products, make sure they are returned to Zara to contribute to their "closing the loop" policy.
In order to overcome the barriers which are affecting the adoption of these consumer behaviours it is important to increase consumer education. Marketing sustainable fashion would reduce material flow, if consumers were to pay a higher price for a product that would last twice as long, the industry could cut its material flow without making an economic loss. Introducing models such as repairing, remanufacturing would increase profit without increasing material flow.
Exporting clothing also in ways adds to the problem by legitimising fast fashion as it provides an outlet for recycled/second hand goods, and a marketing tool for retailers. Zara are already producing majority of their clothing locally which helps minimize carbon footprint however the con of producing locally means that you have less of a positive impact on working conditions in developing countries.
Making sure that factory workers are paid fair living wages helps support education and directly improves workers quality of life, contributing to several SDG goals such as SDG 1, SDG 2, SDG 3 and SDG 4. If all countries had a national living wage we would see less poverty and conflict and more happiness which is what the UN have set goals to achieve.
The development in technology could lead to new ways to freshen clothes without washing, therefore reducing CO2 emissions and hazardous chemical dyes which find their way into rivers and lakes through sewerage. New fibre recycling technology and low temperature detergents.