Chapter One Introduction
1.1 Background of the Project
This translation project is the result of the international academic exchange betweenProfessor Zhang Guanzhi from Southwest University of Science and Technology andAssociate Professor Dafna Kariv,a Senior Lecturer at the College of Management AcademicStudies,Israel.They actively respond to the country’s advocacy,hoping to expand theinternational cooperation of innovation and entrepreneurship and promote the developmentof social entrepreneurship in China.
Social entrepreneurship plays an important role in promoting China’s economic growthand social development,such as solving the employment problem,narrowing the income gap,enhancing interpersonal trust,and stimulating entrepreneurial passion(Wu Aiqi,Jiao Hao,2008:19).Moreover,the Report at the 20th National Congress of the Communist Party ofChina(CPC)also pointed out that“innovation-driven development strategy”,“increasinginternational scientific and technological exchanges and cooperation”and“promotingentrepreneurship”.Therefore,it is necessary to provide Chinese entrepreneurs with morecomprehensive entrepreneurial theories,methods,shortcuts and more advancedentrepreneurial technologies(Yu Le,2017:1).
1.2 Significance of the Project
This translation project embraces three critical significance：
First,in the state’s initiative,more and more people are involved in entrepreneurship,inwhich entrepreneurial theory and experience and skills are indispensable(Yi Liya,2019:02).Entrepreneurs understand the entrepreneurial theory and experience skills can effectivelyreduce the risk of entrepreneurial failure.Creating the Social Venture is a systematic andprofessional book that caters to global trends in innovation and entrepreneurship.Includingentrepreneurship theory,case analysis,chart data and other content,it systematicallyexplains the knowledge of entrepreneurship,which is of high reading value and conducive toreaders’reading and understanding.
Second,the translation of Creating the Social Venture can enrich the theories of socialentrepreneurship and innovation in China,and provide domestic scholars and entrepreneurswith more thoughts on social entrepreneurship,so as to promote the sustainable developmentof economy in China.In addition,since there is no Chinese translation of this book,so thisproject will bring valuable information and knowledge of entrepreneurship to Chinesereaders,attract more ambitious people to join the trend of innovation and social venture andprovide them with effective guidance,which will contribute to China’s entrepreneurship andinvigorate China’s economy.
Chapter Two Translation Process
As the old saying goes“knowing the enemy and yourself,you can fight a hundredbattles and win them all.”This is especially true in translation.The translator should firsthave a full understanding of the original text,and then choose the corresponding translationstrategies according to the characteristics of different texts.Therefore,the translator willmake a detailed and in-depth analysis of the original text from several aspects,including theintroduction of the text types and characteristics of the original text,and the collection andarrangement of parallel texts,as well as her translation schedule.
2.1.1 Analysis of the Source Text
The Chapter 3 of Creating the Social Venture focuses on the social entrepreneurs,describing their unique characteristics,as well as the motivations and aspirations that triggersocial entrepreneurship.It also discusses the importance of the social entrepreneur’s visionand its role in guiding the launch and development of social ventures.Chapter 4 explores theways in which social entrepreneurs create value and use their vision for social value creationto garner support from other stakeholders,such as service recipients,donors,volunteers,employees,and the like.Each of them includes learning objectives,theoretical overview,case analysis and case questions,etc.
When all the preparatory work for translation is done properly,the translator begins totranslate.This section will show the translation tools used by translator and the translationdifficulties she encountered in translation process.Moreover,in order to ensure the authorityand professionalism of the translation,the translator also established the correspondingglossary.
2.2.1 Translation Tools
With the rapid development of economic globalization and science and technology,a lotof computer-aided translation software comes into being,which brings a lot of conveniencefor translators.In order to ensure the accuracy of the translation,the translator used manytranslation tools in the process of translation.
The translator first used the computer-aided translation software Power Echo tocomplete the first draft of the translation.However,computer translation software is difficultto achieve accuracy and consistency for the names of people,places,institutions,companies or organizations,as well as specialized words or terms related to economics,finance andmanagement.Therefore,it is necessary for the translator to modify and polish the translationon the basis of computer-aided translation.In this process,she made use of the electronicdictionaries such as Online Chinese Dictionary,Youdao Dictionary,Cambridge Dictionary,Collins English-Chinese Dictionary,and paper dictionaries such as English-ChineseEconomic and Trade Dictionary,Modern Business English-Chinese Dictionary,OxfordDictionary of Economics,the Dictionary of World Place Names and so on.In addition,thetranslator also took the advantage of network resources,such as CNKI,Wikipedia,BaiduBaike,Google Search and other websites,to verify the uncertain professional words or terms.For really uncertain terms or long difficult sentences,the translator also sought help from herpeers and supervisor,and strive for the accuracy,readability and professionalism of thetranslation.
Chapter Three Theoretical Framework ................................ 11
3.1 The “Comprehension, Expression and Adaption” (CEA)Framework ................. 11
3.1.1 Comprehension ...................................... 11
3.1.2 Expression ............................. 12
Chapter Four Case Study .................................... 14
4.1 Comprehension .................................. 14
4.1.1 Internal Tools ......................................... 14
4.1.2 External Tools ............................. 17
Chapter Five Project Evaluation ................................... 31
5.1 Self-evaluation .................................... 31
5.2 Peer-evaluation ....................................... 32
5.3 Expert-evaluation ................................... 33
Chapter Five Project Evaluation
Before translation practice,the translator made a series of preparations,includingextensive reading of the whole book and intensive reading of the third and fourth chaptersthat the translator was responsible for translating,analyzing the author of the original text,text type and background information,searching and reading many parallel texts related tosocial entrepreneurship,and understanding the professional knowledge of this industry.Inthe translation process,the translator used the translation software Power Echo to translatethe original text for the first time and establish a glossary.Then,according to the originaltext,the translator modifies and proofreads the first draft sentence by sentence,so that thetranslation can accurately convey the information of the original text and achieve thepurpose of translation.
The translator makes a preliminary check on the finished translation with the main goalof accurate and smooth expression.The author self-calibration mainly from three aspects,one is to check the accuracy of the translation.Check the translation sentence by sentenceaccording to the original text to make sure that there is no missing content ormisunderstanding.Check the content,grammar and terminology for mistranslation andomission and correct them.Due to the inconvenience of proofreading on the computer screen,the translator printed the translation on paper and revised it word by word and sentence bysentence.The second is to check the fluency and coherence of the translation,mainlyimproving and modifying the language expression,including term consistency,normativeconsistency and functional check.The last is to polish the translation,mainly for thelanguage expression stiff,obscure,poor readability of the translation.Embellish the textfrom the perspective of the full text,and modify the obvious unsmooth or fundamentallyimpassable aspects of the writing expression,so as to achieve the purpose of smoothexpression and improve the quality of the translation.
Chapter Six Conclusion
6.1 Major Findings of the Translation
Translation is a creative work,not a mechanical repetitive work.Although this processis full of hardships,the translator not only accumulated practical experience and improvedher translation ability,but also learned more professional knowledge of socialentrepreneurship.The following valuable experience and lessons can provide references forother translators.
First,the understanding of the original text is undoubtedly the most important step,which is also the most overlooked step by many translators.Reviewing the translator’sprevious translation practice,her comprehension of translation materials always remains onthe surface.Most of the time,she simply scanned the original text,understood the generalmeaning of the text,and began to translate in a hurry.In the process of translation,whenencountering strange words or phrases,she only consulted one kind of dictionary and did notdo additional research,let alone read parallel texts and consult experts.In this translationpractice under the guidance of the CEA framework,the translator realized that understandingis the first step of translation and the most important step,also is the most prone to mistakes.Therefore,the translator must correctly understand all the details of the original text,including the meaning of every sentence,every word in the context or the whole writingbackground.The translators should be the most serious reader.