Chapter One Introduction
1.1 Background of the Translation Project
The translation material selected for this report could be traced back to theproject experience of the translator in Shanghai Venture Language Services Co.,Ltd.,one of translation bases collaborated with the School of Foreign Languages,ShanghaiUniversity during the period of practice from July to October in 2021.The object ofthe translation task is the book titled The Legend of the Red Clan collectivelycompiled by multiple authors.The original text can be identified as a biography ofPresident Xi Jinping,which falls into the following five chapters including TheTempering of Youth,Tempering in the Political Arena,The New style of the NewLeader,The First Year and Tight schedule,with the purpose of providing a panoramicview of Xi Jinping’s family background,birth,schooling,career,personalachievements in politics and his philosophy of governance as well.It is rich in topicsand is of great importance as historical records of political person.The translation ofthe book,The Legend of the Red Clan can provide foreign readers with somereferences.
Because of the massive workloads of translation,the project is assigned toseveral translators to collaboratively complete this translation task under the guidanceand supervision of the project manager.The translator is responsible for thetranslation of the part of the second chapter of this book,with a total number of21,000 words.This part assigned to the translator is composed of two sections entitledThe Recollections about Xi Jinping from His Colleagues in Zhengding and TheFriendship with Jia Dashan respectively,giving a vivid picture of Xi Jinping’s uniquepersonal charms and outstanding governing capability.
1.2 Significance of the Project
In the context of“speaking Chinese story well”,the introduction to great peopleand great events is a significant form to spread Chinese culture and help shapeChinese image.As biography involves important plots,life experiences and evenhistorical background information related to the protagonist,the translation ofbiography contributes to the promotion of cultural spread and communications andshaping of national image as well.Besides,the translation of biography gives people aglimpse of President Xi Jinping’s life experience and improves foreigner’sunderstanding to China.
In terms of the translation study,this translation project makes the translator gaina deeper understanding of the characteristics of such literary text as biography.Moreover,the process of solving translation problems improves translator’s ability tocombine the theory and practice.Additionally,this translation project can providesome reference and help for those who are going to engage in the translation activitywith the same kind of text type.
Chapter Two Text Analysis and Translation Principle
2.1 Features of the Source Text
The original text of the book,The Legend of the Red Clan is an anthologyco-authored by dozens of writers with a flood of valuable history records,aiming atpresenting a real image of Xi Jinping for people to learn.It elaborates on theimportant periods of Xi Jinping such as his birth,schooling,years of educated-youth,political career,personal achievements and philosophy of state governance.
Generally speaking,the topics centered on Xi Jinping are rich and abundantplots,facts and information are contained in the book.Proper nouns andculture-loaded words exist in the narration of plots,conveying detailed and even keyinformation about experiences of protagonist.
In terms of literary category,the book entitled The Legend of the Red Clanbelongs to biographical literature,which can be divided into the range of non-fictionliterature.As the integration of history and literature,it is characteristic withauthenticity and literariness,which can be proved by the facts and informationrecorded in the source text and the use of sentences with figures of speech andsentences with four-character words.“Biographical literature is designed todocument non-fiction person,which determines the accuracy of expression andrecords of important plots and even key details of the protagonist’s experiences.
2.2 A Brief Introduction to Reiss’s Text Typology
Type typology was coined by Katharina Reiss,one of representative persons offunction school,in her book as Volume 12 in the series Hueber Hochschulreiheunder the title Möglichkeiten und Grenzen derÜbersetzungskritik.Kategorien undKriterien für eine sachgerechte Beurteilung vonÜbersetzungen published in 1971.She is the trailblazer in putting forward that it is the text,rather than the word orsentence that should be viewed as the level at which communication is achieved andat which equivalence must be sought.(Munday,2016)According to Reiss(2014:17),“the purpose of translation in normal case is to transfer the text of the original into asecond language without abridgment,expansion or any particular spin,representingthe source text with corresponding text in the target language.”“In this kind ofnormal situation it is the type of text which decides the approach for the translator;the type of text is the primary factor influencing the translator’s choice of a propertranslation method.”(Reiss,2014:17)To make an objective and clear classificationof types of text,Reiss(2014)divided the types of text into the following threecategories:informative text,expressive text and operative text on the basis of suchthree functions of language as representing,expressing and appealing proposed byGerman psychologist and linguist Karl Bühler.“Bühler establishes a new model oflanguage study by describing the relationship between language and contentsrepresented by it.Reiss borrowed the conclusion implied by the concept of linguisticfunction(i.e.,in the category of function,“type determines form”)to develop hertypology.That is,translation type(function)determines strategy.”(Zhu,2004:7)The main characteristics of each text type can be summarized as follows.Chapter Three Case Study.......................12
3.1 Fidelity and Acceptance at the Lexical Level..................................12
3.1.1 Proper Noun................................12
3.1.2 Culture-loaded Word.........................14
Chapter Four Conclusion.............................41
4.1 Major Gains............................41
Chapter Three Case Study
3.1 Fidelity and Acceptance at the Lexical Level
Lexical translation constitutes the foundation throughout the whole translationprocess,which will exert a great impact on the quality of the whole text.Because theexistence of a large number of proper nouns and culture-loaded words represents oneof prominent features of the original text and also lays barriers for the translationactivity,this part mainly talks about the translation methods and techniques of them.
3.1.1 Proper Noun
“Proper noun refers to the fixed names designed to represent persons,countries,places,institutions,trademarks,films,newspapers and magazines,history events andcultural schools.”(Li,2014:58)In the narration of life experiences of President XiJinping,a deluge of proper nouns are unavoidable to be involved in to describe thedetailed facts and even key information.The faithful transmission of the informationrepresented by them plays a big role in the whole translation process.Massive propernouns related to the titles of officials and government institutions exist in the originaltext as a result of the political status factor of protagonist involved in the text.
Chapter Four Conclusion
4.1 Major Gains
Even if translation is emotionally draining and physically exhausting,thetranslator has benefited a lot throughout the translation process.Firstly,the translatoracquires a deeper understanding towards the style features and writing ways ofbiography.Biography is documentary and literary.It is abundant in information,compact in structure and natural in style.The use of run-on sentences,sentences witha string of four-character words and sentences with figures of speech requires thatthe translator should transfer the information of the original text on the basis of agood comprehension of the original text and then choose appropriate translationstrategies and methods.
Secondly,this translation project indicates the significance of knowledgestorage and life long learning for translator in the course of translation.In the actualtranslation process,the translator acquires abundant knowledge in the field ofpolitics,history,custom and culture related to the protagonist,President Xi Jinpingin order to convey the information of the text without distorting the information ofthe original text.The accumulation of knowledge in various fields is also conductiveto the subsequent translation activities for translator.It also requires the translatorenrich and accumulate her knowledge in various fields in daily translation activities.