Chapter One INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the Study
English grammar is a series of language rules that are systematically summarized afterstudying the English language.Grammar learning is considered to be a shortcut to languageacquisition.Cheng and Zheng(2003)point out that for most English learners,it is necessary totruly master the knowledge of English grammar.What’s more,the relevant training of Englishlistening,speaking,reading and writing skills includes the investigation of grammar rules to acertain extent.Therefore,grammar learning is an important part of English learning and plays acrucial role in English learning.The National New Curriculum Standard for Senior High SchoolEnglish(2022)also points out that in language use,grammatical knowledge is the unity of form,meaning and usage,which can play a key role in language output and understanding.At the sametime,as an important part of English language knowledge,grammar knowledge permeates everylink of English skill training.Chen(2012)also holds the view that only by mastering grammarknowledge can students improve the“quality”of language output.
What’s more,English grammar will be examined in the college entrance examination.Inresponse to the national call for“quality-oriented education reform”,various regions havecarried out corresponding educational reforms,including examination methods.Grammaticalfill-in-the-blanks and error correction have been added in the college entrance examination.English composition grading standards are also related to grammar.Therefore,students’masteryof grammar directly affects their composition scores.In the college entrance examination,theacquisition of attributive clause is a key and difficult point.The reform of college entranceexamination has been continuously developed and improved.Gradually,the investigation of theattributive clause has also become flexible and diversified,which undoubtedly increases thedifficulty for students to learn attributive clause.
1.2 Purpose and Significance of the Study
1.2.1 Purpose of the Study
Under the guidance of the National New Curriculum Standard for Senior High SchoolEnglish,the learning of grammar knowledge in senior high school is to learn to understand anduse the new grammar knowledge in different contexts and further develop the awareness ofgrammar.The student-centered teaching has become one of the urgent problems in classroomteaching.In addition,the present situation of high school students’learning of English attributiveclause is not optimistic,which is mainly reflected in the students’failure to analyze thecomponents of main and attributive clause correctly,resulting in improper use of relativepronouns or adverbs.The author tries to design and implement inquiry-based English grammarteaching,hoping this learning mode can help students better learn grammar knowledge ofattributive clause.
Therefore,this study aims to answer the following three questions by setting the attributiveclause as an example.
(1)What are the design and implementation procedures of inquiry-based grammarteaching?
(2)What are the effects of inquiry learning mode on students’grammar knowledge level ofattributive clause?
(3)What are the effects of inquiry learning mode on students’attitudes and interests ingrammar learning?
Chapter Two LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Previous Research on Grammar and Grammar Teaching
2.1.1 Concept of Grammar
With the development of linguistic theory,the concept of grammar has changed over time.Different scholars have different views on the concept of grammar.Generally,English grammarcan be divided into theoretical grammar and practical grammar.
The concept of grammar proposed by some scholars can be called theoretical grammar.Inthe book,Second Language Teaching and Learning,Nunan(2001)points out that when wecommunicate in the English language with each other,grammar helps us use these languagesreasonably and correctly.We can use English words correctly through grammar.That is to say,grammar is made up of these rules and principles.Hamer(1987)points out that grammar is thevariation of words themselves and the way of words form sentences,including inflection and thechange in word order when two clauses are combined into one sentence,etc.In the book,Fundamental Concepts of Language Teaching,Stern(2002)points out that grammar is still asomewhat ambiguous term so far.It is defined as a branch of description language used toregroup these words into sentences.Penny(2009)points out that how does each word correctlyform semantic units.Platt et al(2000)point out that grammar is a description of languagestructures and the way language units are combined.It usually considers the meaning andfunction of these sentences in the whole language system.
2.2 Previous Research on Inquiry Learning
2.2.1 Studies on Inquiry Learning Abroad
“Inquiry”is a learning mode that has been thinking about and researching in pedagogysince ancient times.It can be dated back to the ancient Greek philosopher Socrates“Midwife”,but there is less than a century for the real inquiry into the tutorial to learn science.It emphasizesthe construction of knowledge by students themselves through continuous questioning,exploration and discussion.“Midwife”is regarded as a classic example of the development ofinquiry learning to emphasize learners’independent learning and independent inquiry ofknowledge.In the early 20th century,Dewey,a famous educator in the United States,was thefirst to put forward the application of inquiry learning mode in school science education.Dewey(1916)points out that effective teaching must arouse the minds of children.Teaching activitiesshould be based on students’own interests and experience.In addition,students should constructknowledge independently through inquiry,which can improve their problem-solving ability.Dewey also emphasizes that teaching activities should be organized based on children’s interestsand attention.Teachers need to guide students’learning interests and provide opportunities forreflection and communication.What’s more,teachers also should timely provide training andknowledge in the process of learning.
Chapter Three RESEARCH DESIGN.......................19
3.1 Research Questions....................19
3.2 Research Subjects.............................................19
3.3 Research Instruments........................20
Chapter Four RESULTS AND DISCUSSION...................................33
4.1 Designing Inquiry-based Grammar Instruction.............................33
4.1.1 Principles for Designing Inquiry-based Grammar Instruction...............................33
4.1.2 Procedures for Inquiry-based Grammar Instruction...........................34
Chapter Five CONCLUSION.........................................57
5.1 Major Findings.....................................57
5.2 Limitations of the Study...................................60
5.3 Pedagogical Implications........................................61
Chapter Four RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
4.1 Designing Inquiry-based Grammar Instruction
4.1.1 Principles for Designing Inquiry-based Grammar Instruction
As mentioned in Chapter Three,based on 5E inquiry learning mode,this study set up theexperimental procedures in the experiment class.There are five steps involved:1.Engagement;2.Exploration;3.Explanation;4.Elaboration;5.Evaluation.Combining the viewpoints of Nie(2003),Zhao(2017)and Li(2016)and the problems in the inquiry-based grammar teachingdesign,there are some teaching principles that should be followed in the inquiry-based grammarteaching.
Firstly,inquiry-based grammar teaching should follow the subjective principle.In thislearning mode,the teacher must first make clear who is the subject.The learning process ofstudents should be a process of perceiving grammar item,understanding the grammar item,mastering grammar knowledge of attributive clause,forming ability and improving quality underthe guidance of teachers.The subject of this process can only be students,while teachers are onlythe designers,organizers and guiders of the teaching process.Teachers should provide studentswith a reasonable grammar learning situation,and put forward grammar questions in line withstudents’cognitive level so that students can explore.It is worth noting that although students arethe main learners,it does not mean that teachers are less responsible.In the process of inquiry,students will not think in accordance with the teacher’s answer.Therefore,it is necessary forteachers not only to imagine the various questions that students may raise when preparing lessons,but also to design timely guidance in each link.
Secondly,inquiry-based grammar teaching should follow the problematic principle.Inquirylearning mode is developed around the questions related to the learning subject.In the process oflearning,when the original knowledge conflicts with the new knowledge,learners should learnto find problems and use the existing knowledge to explore and solve problems.The questionsshould be suitable for the students.Teachers should also control the difficulty of questions,so asnot to make students feel inferior or lose interests.Students can gradually improve their thinkingability to solve problems in the process of inquiry.
Chapter Five CONCLUSION
5.1 Major Findings
Based on“constructivism”theory and“discovery learning”theory,this study mainly usesquasi-experimental research method,supplemented by questionnaire and interview method toconduct a two-month study on the inquiry-based grammar teaching in senior high school.In thecontrol class,the traditional PPP grammar teaching mode is used for the teaching of attributiveclause,while in the experiment class,the inquiry learning mode is used for the teaching ofattributive clause.Based on the results of the questionnaire survey and the test results of theexperiment class and the control class,and the interviews with the students after the experiment,it is proving that compared with the traditional PPP grammar teaching mode,the application ofinquiry learning mode in the grammar teaching of senior high school is more beneficial tostudents.The author will summarize the following three aspects.
1)Inquiry-based grammar teaching is suitable for high school English grammar teaching.
In the traditional PPP grammar teaching mode,teachers usually present well-designedgrammar knowledge to students directly and students just be treated as knowledge vessel.If thetraditional grammar teaching is followed,students can only memorize grammar knowledge byrote,and they will not only lack interests in English learning,but also lack autonomy in Englishlearning.In addition,without systematic understanding and memory,students will forget quickly,which may lead to a lack of motivation for English learning and give up learning Englishgrammar.In this circumstance,English grammar learning has become boring,and students havelost interests in grammar learning.With the deepening of teaching reform,there are more andmore explorations of teaching modes,and more new teaching modes are applied to the grammar class.In inquiry learning mode,teachers’dominant position in class is replaced and students areprincipal parts in learning process.On this basis,the author attempts to design and implementinquiry-based grammar teaching.In the implementation process,5E inquiry learning mode wasutilized,which was mainly divided into 5 steps:1.Engagement;2.Exploration;3.Explanation;4.Elaboration;5.Evaluation.