Chapter 1 Task Description
1.1 Background of the Interpreting Task
The online meeting was held at 19:30 on August 7th,2021 as scheduled.The twoforeign students who are from College of International Education in JiamusiUniversity invited a police officer of the Exit-Entry Administration of Jiamusi PublicSecurity Bureau to give a speech,providing information about the prevention oftelecommunications and network fraud.The two foreign students,Shahriar andSeydou,come from Bangladesh and Zambia respectively.They showed great interestin the prevention of telecommunications and network fraud partly because one of theirfriends had fallen victim to such a crime about half a year before.But unfortunately,they have just learned some survival Chinese and topics like telecommunications andnetwork fraud are definitely beyond their understanding.So,through therecommendation of a friend of theirs and the author’s,they decided to entrust theauthor with the task of doing Chinese-English consecutive interpreting for them.Ashas been said earlier,the meeting was to be held online due to the Covid-19 pandemicand other factors,so instead of interpreting on site,the interpreter only needed tointerpret the speech given by the Chinese police officer online through an applicationcalled Tencent Meeting.
The theme of the meeting is Prevention of Telecommunications and NetworkFraud,which requires the author to possess a great deal of extra-linguistic knowledge,for example,the different types of online fraud like“click farming”and“networkloan”,etc.The author must also know how they operate and the possible ways toavoid falling victims to such fraud.
1.2 Significance of the Interpreting Task
First of all,in recent years,with the rapid development of Internet,new types ofnetwork fraud crime have spread like a virus and have become a major threat to thesecurity of people’s property and the most representative type is telecommunicationsand network fraud.As for foreign students,many fraudsters take advantage of the factthat they are alone,which often means they are helpless and that they are unfamiliarwith the local environment,which means that they don’t know who to go to for helpand how to seek such help,swindling them by fraudulent schemes,which has inflictedhuge losses on many students in both money and time.So this conference is of greatpractical significance and will truly meet the need of the clients.
Secondly,with the outbreak of the Covid-19 pandemic in the whole world,online interpreting becomes an indispensable part in the interpreting industry.Therefore,through the analysis of her own online interpreting,the author hopes thatthis report can offer some insights and reference to other interpreters in addition toproviding some useful materials for interpreter training.
Thirdly,since this conference is entitled Prevention of Telecommunications andNetwork Fraud,the author really needs to overcome some cultural and linguisticobstacles between the two languages,which must be conducive to enriching theauthor’s personal interpreting experience.
Chapter 2 The Three Stages of the Interpreting Practice
2.1 Pre-interpreting Preparation
It is known that the phase of preparation before the interpretation plays a big rolein producing a good amount of target language output.In this phase,the authormainly focuses on the background information of the speaker as well as the materialcollection so as to complete the task smoothly.
2.1.1 Background Information of the Speaker
The author got the interpreting task about five days before the scheduled date forthe online meeting.Through contact with the two foreign students,the author got theWeC hat number of the speaker,Li Lingyue,a police officer who has been working inthe Exit-Entry Administration of Jiamusi Public Security Bureau for three years.Inher work,Miss Li makes free contacts with foreign students and therefore has got toknow many different kinds of problems these students encounter in their life in China,including receiving suspicious phone calls and messages containing phishing links.
Through WeC hat communication with her,the author learned that Miss Li oncegave a lecture about preventing telecommunications and network fraud on theafternoon of June 2,2021 in Jiamusi University,which was arranged by JiamusiPublic Security Bureau.Based on this information,the author searched online andfound the corresponding report on the WeC hat account of Jiamusi Exit-EntryAdministration Bureau,which the author will use as a parallel text in her preparationfor the interpreting task.The author’s clients,the two foreign students,didn’t attendthe lecture at that time.But they showed great interest in this and they were eager toknow various forms of the anti-fraud campaign in China.Therefore,they got thecontact number of Miss Li and asked her to give an online speech for them.
2.2 The Interpreting Process
Now that the author had decided to do this online interpreting task,she mustprepare herself for it,and learning to use the equipment is of the utmost importancebecause it is essential and vital to ensure the quality of the interpreter’s languageoutput.As had been required by the clients,the author prepared the computer,themicrophone,the software,and also tested the Internet environment and the recordingfunction of the software.On the day of interpreting,the author entered the online meeting room half an hour before the scheduled time to make sure all the devices areavailable and the software works well with moderate volume.When everything wasin place,the paper and a pen as well as the glossary sheets were also put in front ofthe author.
Since this is a remote meeting interpreting which was held through anapplication called Tencent Meeting,the clients and the speaker were also required toenter the meeting room fifteen minutes earlier.The purpose was to adjust the devicesof both sides to make sure all the equipment was in good condition,and nobackground noise would be recorded into the microphone.When everything wasready,there was firstly a simple conversation between the speaker and the two foreignstudents.Then the speaker would begin to give her speech and share her computerscreen where the major content of her slides in English could be seen by everyone atthe meeting.The whole conference lasted more than one hour.During the speech,thespeaker would stop from time to time allowing the interpreter to interpret her speech.And the speech was delivered at moderate speed with clear and accurate enunciation,but since it was a prepared speech,the information output was massive and intensive,which increased the difficulty of interpretation.For the fact that the two foreignstudents had high expectations on the activity and wished to be well informed abouthow to prevent telecom and online fraud,the interpreter should not break the pace ofthe conference in order to ensure the smoothly running of the meeting.
Chapter 3 Theoretical Framework:Schema Theory........................13
3.1 Origin and Development of Schema Theory.....................................13
3.2 Classification of Schemata....................................14
3.3 Application of Schema Theory to Information Reformulation.......................15
Chapter 4 Problem Analysis and Coping Strategies.........................17
4.1 Problems in Reformulating Information........................................17
4.1.1 Information Loss and Misinterpretation...............................17
4.1.2 Logical Confusion.........................................21
Chapter 4 Problem Analysis and Coping Strategies
4.1 Problems in Reformulating Information
Reformulation is regarded as an effective tactic in consecutive interpretation.Theprocess of reformulation mainly consists of two phases,namely comprehension andreproduction(Gile,1995).If the interpreter does not achieve sufficient reformulationin both two phases,communication gap is likely to occur between the audience andthe speaker.
Through the careful analysis of the CI recording and transcription,the authordivided the problems in reformulating information into three parts:information lossand misinterpretation,logical confusion as well as structural disorder.The followingthree sections are devoted to the analysis of them respectively.
First,the author would like to summarize the theoretic significance of schematheory.It is known that the process of reformulation in consecutive interpreting is alsoa process of interaction between the information heard by the interpreter and theprevious knowledge or schemata existing in his or her brain.The input informationactivates the related schemata,which make it possible for the brain to remember andunderstand the new information.This can be reflected in the consecutive interpreter’slistening comprehension and note-taking.And the process of output reformulationrequires interpreters to recall the existing information and read back notes so as torender it in the target language.Meantime,schemata work as a“guide”forinterpreters to select vocabulary and reorganize language.Under the guidance ofschemata,the reformulating process of consecutive interpreting can be carried outaccording to a certain framework to help interpreters reproduce in an orderly logic.Besides,the more schemata interpreters grasp,the less short-term memory load theywill bear.
Second,based on the above understanding of information reformulation andunder the guidance of schema theory,this report analyzes the problems occurred inthe author’s consecutive interpreting of the online meeting.Before the author learnsthe guiding significance of schema theory for reformulation in interpretation,hercomprehension of consecutive interpreting has always focused on the reliance ofshort-term memory or the mechanical reproduction of the source language with thehelp of notes.However,both the interpreter’s memory capacity and the time given arelimited.It is difficult for him or her to release psychological burden and presentlogical structures of notes clearly when large chunk of information is encountered inthe environment.Therefore,the interpreter must master a certain amount ofvocabulary,grammar and relevant background knowledge,and be able tosystematically summarize and organize them in the mind.He or she should also havethe awareness of activating such knowledge and information when necessary.In thisway the interpreter is able to achieve effective reformulation,avoiding a great manyproblems like information loss,misinterpretation,logical confusion and so on.