本文是教育专业的留学生Essay代写范例，题目是“The Role of Parents in Schooling（家长在学校教育中的作用）”。学校与家长的关系是相辅相成的关系，House是学校最重要的组成部分（学生）的源泉。 学校处理学生的教育，家长对孩子的等级负责，因为他们通过各种知识丰富了孩子的文化生活，有助于孩子聪明的发展，家庭鼓励孩子，增加孩子的智力。 教学的动机，并负责提供适当的条件。
The relationship between the school and parents mutually complementary relationship, House is the source of the most important components of the school (students). School dealing with students with education, parents are responsible for the level grades for their children, because they enrich the lives of their children cultural, by means of various knowledge and contributing to the development of intelligent child, and family encourage the child and increase the motivation to teach, and responsible for providing the appropriate conditions.
How do schools engage parents?学校如何吸引家长？
(Hanke, 2006) Pointed out that lack of parent involvement is due to lack of helpful information to parents. Email, phone, letters, newsletters, personal contacts and informational fliers can be made by schools to reach out to parents.
(Hanke, 2006) 指出缺乏家长参与是由于缺乏对家长有用的信息。 学校可以制作电子邮件、电话、信件、通讯、个人联系方式和信息传单，以便与家长联系。
If schools communicate with parents regularly and consistently using the various means, the gap between school and parental involvement will be reduced. Student’s expectations andachievement will increase if families show high levels of interest (National PTA, 1998). Six different areas of parental involvement are identified by Epstein and associate(1997): parenting, communicating, volunteering, learning at home, decision making, and collaborating with the community.
Two types of communication exist(Tracy, 2000, cited in The Pacific Resources for Education and Learning, 2006). Thesetwo types include one-way(transmittal) and two-way communication. In one-way communication, the school disseminates information to parents on how they can help their children at home. Examples of this type of communication are newsletters and informational fliers. The two-way communication is considered much more interactive and perceived as a partnership between the school and families.
Examples include surveys and questionnaires structured to collect: information data pertaining to students (The National Center for Family Literacy, 2003; The Pacific Resources for Education and Learning, 2006; Lordeman, 1977). (Reenay and Vivian, 2007) explained that even thought the invention of new technologies has made it easier for schools to reach out to parents through (emails, cell phones and internet websites), the use of traditional methods in communication has been found to be an effective way for schools to communicate with parents, but this has been limited in use by schools because of time constraints. In addition, it has been assessed that the frequent use of mass communications (newsletters, calendars, letters and handbooks) by schools educators has not been effective in changing student behaviors.
However, as Jonson(1999) reported, many parents do not communicate with their children’s schools due to a vast number of reasons. Despite the fact that technology is a tool providing new channels for communication, studies have shown that & parents and teachers find difficulty in using them or lack access to them (Weifeng .J, 2007; Blanchard, 1997).
Preparing teachers to work with families. (New skills fornew schools, 1997).
The important of involved parents父母参与的重要性
Extensive research has shown that student achievement increase when parents get involved (Harris et al, 1987). Increased achievement in test result, decrease in dropout rate, improved attendance and student behavior, improved parent teacher (Gillum, 1977; Rich, Vandien & Mallox, 1980).
广泛的研究表明，当父母参与时，学生的成绩会提高（Harris 等，1987）。 提高考试成绩，降低辍学率，提高出勤率和学生行为，提高家长教师水平（Gillum, 1977; Rich, Vandien & Mallox, 1980）。
Increase in academic a achievement, better classroom behavior and conduct, greater self-esteem, increased motivation and attitude towards school, low rate of absenteeism, increased school satisfaction, and increased school climate (Balli, Wedman & Demo, 1997; Bryan & Sullivan-Burnstein, 1998; Griffith, 1996; Russel& Reece, 2000). Epstein and her colleagues also emphasized the duty of the school in helping families establish home environments that will support children, design effective forms of home-school communication about student’s progress and school programs, and provide training and schedules that allow parents to get involved. Parents must be involved in the school decision-making process, governance, and advocacy through PTA/PTO, school councils committees, and other parent organizations. Schools have the responsibilities to work in partnership with businesses, agencies and other groups to coordinate resources, and provide services to the school and the community (Epstein, Coates, Salinas, Sanders & Simon, 1997; US Department of Education, 1997).
The benefits of parental involvement父母参与的好处
Parental involvement leads to greater self-satisfaction, self-direction and control, social adjustment, and competence, more supportive relationship, positive peer relations to clearance, successful marriages, and less delinquent behaviors (Desforges & Abouchaar, 2003 & Gillum, 1977; Rich, Vandien & Mallox, 1979; Comer, 1980).
父母的参与导致更大的自我满足、自我指导和控制、社会适应和能力、更多的支持性关系、积极的同伴关系、成功的婚姻和更少的犯罪行为（Desforges & Abouchaar, 2003 & Gillum, 1977; Rich , Vandien & Mallox, 1979; Comer, 1980)。
Level of home-school communication家校沟通水平
In their research on school, family and community partnership, Epstein and Associates (1997) developed six types of parental involvement frameworks to help educators develop more comprehensive programs for school, family, and community partnership.
在他们对学校、家庭和社区伙伴关系的研究中，Epstein 和 Associates (1997) 开发了六种类型的家长参与框架，以帮助教育工作者制定更全面的学校、家庭和社区伙伴关系计划。
Although this framework may be used by schools as a guide, it is important to note that each school must choose practices that will help achieve its goals and meet the needs of its students and families. The six types of parental involvement framework include parenting, communication, volunteering, learning at home, decision making, and collaborating with the community(National Network of Partnership school, 2000; Michigan Department of Education, 2001: NMSA Research Summary, 2006).
Barriers to effective parental involvement父母有效参与的障碍
It is believed by Lazar and Slostad (1999) that parents are willing to get involved in the education of their children, but the negative perceptions of parents persist because teacher education programs do not educate teachers to work with parents. Foster and Loven (1992) shared that the major explanation of this, according to researchers, is the fact that “very little attention is given to preparing teachers to work with parents and other adults” (Lazar, 1999, p.207).
Lazar 和Slostad (1999) 认为父母愿意参与孩子的教育，但父母的负面看法仍然存在，因为教师教育计划不教育教师与父母一起工作。 Foster 和 Loven (1992) 认为，对此的主要解释是，“很少关注让教师与父母和其他成年人一起工作的准备”（Lazar, 1999, p.207）。
Despite the importance attached to parental involvement, it is still being ignored in schools (The New Skills for Schools, 1997). According to (Lazar and Slostad, 1999) the way parents viewed their roles was shaped by the circumstances and norms of particular cultures and their beliefs about their own effectiveness as teachers or tutors, major barriers to parental involvement in schools include the school environment, school culture, time constraint, changing demographics and employment patterns, and the lack of teacher preparation in involving parents in their children’s schooling (New Skills for Schools, 1997; National PTA, 1997). Epstein found out that teachers had doubts whether they could motivate parents to become more involved even though they thought that parental involvement would improve student’s achievement. Teachers lack the attitudes, knowledge, skills, and strategies needed to collaborate with families leading & to a weak school-family partnership (De Acosta, 1996; Epstein & Dauber, 1992; Williams, 1992). A report by the U.S. Department of education (1997) indicated that 48 percent of principals who participated in a study believed lack of preparation by teachers to involve parents in the education of their children remains a weakness in teacher education programs (Bredekamp, 1996).
Overcoming Barriers to Parental Involvement克服父母参与的障碍
The U.S. Department of Education, 2004) illustrated that when school, family, or community-related barriers limit parents from becoming involved, the consequences might affect student’s academic achievement. Strategies for overcoming barriers to parental involvement in school include overcoming time and resource constraints, providing information and training to parents and school staff, restructuring schools to support family involvement, bridging school-family differences getting external supports for partnership, meeting families basic needs, providing flexible times and places for parents involvement, and helping staff communication with parents (The U.S. Department of education, 2004; Family Involvement in Children’s Education-October, 1997).
美国教育部（2004 年）说明，当学校、家庭或社区相关的障碍限制父母参与时，其后果可能会影响学生的学业成绩。 克服家长参与学校障碍的策略包括克服时间和资源限制，为家长和学校工作人员提供信息和培训，重组学校以支持家庭参与，缩小学校与家庭之间的差异，获得外部合作支持，满足家庭的基本需求，提供 家长参与的灵活时间和地点，并帮助员工与家长沟通（美国教育部，2004 年；家庭参与儿童教育——1997 年 10 月）。
(NSPRA, 2004) suggested ideas include creating a formal policy including specific goals for parents and teachers working together, identifying barriers that are specific to the school and its culture, assessing, evaluating and improving the current programs, and involving community at large. Schools must encourage parents to support their children’s learning by making them feel welcome in the school.
School should also involve parents in the process of attaining the goals related to student’s success (Jesse, 2009).
By bringing parents into the educational process schools provide the opportunity to enrich school programs. Effective approaches to parental involvement will build positive relationships and trust between the school and families, healthy child development, and safe school environment. Parental involvement programs should be developed to meet the unique needs of the school and the community (Russell & Reece, 2000).
通过让家长参与教育过程，学校提供了丰富学校课程的机会。 家长参与的有效方法将在学校和家庭、健康的儿童发展和安全的学校环境之间建立积极的关系和信任。 应制定家长参与计划以满足学校和社区的独特需求（Russell & Reece，2000）。
Regardless of ethnicity or minority group status, parents are concerned about their children’s education and are willing to take an active role in the educational process (Chavkin& Williams, 1993). However, parents need to be informed and guided by the school on parental involvement activities. Many professionals agree that it is the responsibility of the school to make the first move in reaching out to families to involve them in education (Harris, Kagay, & Ross, 1987; NCATE, 1994). Therefore, it is important that parents and guardians become aware of the significant contributions they can make to their children’s success by providing a stimulating environment and also supporting them at home during their early years, as well as secondary and tertiary years of schooling (Chavkin& Williams, 1993).
I see that it can be in Palestine do several things in order to strengthen the role of parents in school
life, encourage parents to visit the school and make it through meetings evening outside the scope of their work, educational opportunities for parents, such as how to use information technology, telecommunications, literacy, numeracy…. etc.
Work newsletters for parents, and communicate with parents via the Internet on the school site and the views of parents on various educational issues, and provide them with information about educational attainment for their children and the use of metouhods of appealing to parents and involve them in the development of educational plans.