International Studies Essay范文:What is the role of the USA and China in Africa?

发布时间:2022-02-18 14:08:32 论文编辑:cinq888

International Studies Essay范文-美国和中国在非洲扮演什么角色?本文是一篇国际研究专业的留学生Essay写作范文,主要内容是讲述2007年2月6日,布什总统命令国防部在2008年10月前建立美国非洲司令部(AFRICOM),作为美国第六大地理统一作战司令部,然而,与其他司令部专注于战争不同,这一新结构获得了鲜明的非军事使命:“加强我们为非洲人民带来和平与安全的努力,促进我们共同目标的发展,促进非洲的卫生、教育、民主和经济增长”,加强与非洲国家的双边和多边安全合作,创造新的机会来支持他们的能力。一些人担心长期的可持续性,回忆起美国过去活动的循环性质,而其他美国分析人士则担心中国、印度和其他非洲国家的角色越来越受到关注,并担心非洲大陆在21世纪的一些新权力斗争中的两极分化。下面就一起来参考一下这篇优秀的留学生International Studies Essay范文。

Essay范文

Introduction 简介
On February 6th, 2007, President George W. Bush ordered the department of defence to establish the U.S. Africa Command (AFRICOM) by October 2008 as the sixth-largest geographic unified combatant command in the United States, however, unlike other commands focus on war, this new structure obtained distinct non-military mission: "strengthen our efforts to the African people bring peace and security, promote the development of our common goals, health, education, democracy, and economic growth in Africa", strengthen bilateral and multilateral security cooperation with African countries, creating new opportunities to support their ability (Pham, 2008). Some are concerned about long-term sustainability recalling the circular nature of past U.S. activities, and other U.S. analysts are worried about the increased focus on the role of China, India and other countries in Africa, and worry about the polarisation of the continent in some new 21st-century power struggle (Pham, 2009).
Compared with western financial aid, China has provided billions of dollars in loans to African countries with no strings attached while disputes over China's exploitation of Africa's resources have often overshadowed Beijing's continued support for the continent, many African leaders have welcomed China's economic assistance and begun to see China as a more reliable partner than the west (Mlambo, 2019).
与西方金融援助相比,中国向非洲国家提供了数十亿美元的无条件贷款,而有关中国开采非洲资源的争端往往掩盖了北京对非洲大陆的持续支持,许多非洲领导人欢迎中国的经济援助,并开始将中国视为比西方更可靠的合作伙伴。
This paper will examine the key differences that the Chinese government and its fellow investors versus the west, the United States of America in particular, for the sake of our research. We will be looking at Africa as a big continent and use facts such as policies, words from countries' leaders, figures and collected data to demonstrate the issue both separately for China and the U.S. and together as a comparison.
为了我们的研究,本文将考察中国政府及其投资者与西方,尤其是美国的主要差异。我们将把非洲视为一个大大陆,利用政策、各国领导人的言论、数字和收集的数据等事实,分别为中国和美国展示这个问题,并将其作为一个比较。
The results appear that China is having a much better strategy toward the development of African countries while making a profit with all other western countries.
结果显示,中国对非洲国家的发展有着更好的战略,同时与所有其他西方国家一起获利。
China's relation with Africa 中国与非洲的关系
Developing countries have technical difficulties in dealing with their natural resources, Nigeria is Africa's largest oil producer, producing an estimated 2.5 million barrels a day; however, most of the companies in the oil-rich Niger delta are foreign multinationals. China's increased economic and political involvement in Africa is arguably the most significant development on the continent since the end of the cold war as Sino-African trade reached U.S. $55.5 billion in 2006 and U.S. $74 billion in 2007 (Taylor, 2009). This says a lot about the focus that Chinese government is promoting: doing business in Africa by exchanging products from China to Africa while importing natural resources from Africa countries back to China. By contrast, critics claim that Africa mainly exports oil and other raw materials to China in exchange for cheap Chinese manufactured goods, in an exchange strikingly similar to colonial times (Taylor, 2009).
发展中国家在处理其自然资源方面存在技术困难,尼日利亚是非洲最大的石油生产国,日产量估计为250万桶;然而,盛产石油的尼日尔三角洲的大多数公司都是外国跨国公司。随着中非贸易在2006年达到555亿美元,2007年达到740亿美元,中国对非洲的经济和政治参与的增加可以说是自冷战结束以来非洲大陆最重要的发展。这充分说明了中国政府正在推动的重点:在非洲做生意,从中国向非洲交换产品,同时从非洲国家向中国进口自然资源。相比之下,批评人士声称,非洲主要向中国出口石油和其他原材料,以换取廉价的中国制成品,这种交换方式与殖民时代极为相似。

Essay范文

Picture 1. China's Assistance to Burundi Agricultural  中国对布隆迪农业援助

In my opinion, this is not true because, in colonial times, the west would rather sell their products to African at a higher price, so that African would never have a chance to use their money on something else such as school, technology development, industrialisation, etc. Above (Picture 1) is when China's agricultural expert assisting Burundi farmers and teaching them how to upgrade their irrigation system.
在我看来,这是不正确的,因为在殖民时代,西方宁愿以更高的价格向非洲人出售他们的产品,这样非洲人就永远不会有机会把钱用在其他事情上,比如学校、技术开发、工业化,上图(图1)是中国农业专家帮助布隆迪农民并教他们如何升级灌溉系统。
Not surprisingly, the Chinese government was quick to counter this view. For example, Chinese premier Wen Jiabao said that "China was the victim of colonial aggression. The Chinese nation knows too well the suffering caused by colonial rule and the need to fight colonialism" (Mohan, 2008). I agree with this point because I was grown in China as a child, my parents shared their true-life story about colonisation back when the West was raping the Old Chinese empire land starting from 1854. At that period, colonisation was not like a corporation, instead it's basically using the area as much as they want and building a brand new political system, therefore Hongkong for example, was in chaos earlier this year (2019) because they are having the excuse of the prior colonist - the United Kingdom is better than People's Republic of China, so should be brought back to control, which is fatuous. The Chinese nation is also aware of the pain caused by colonial rule and the need to fight against colonialism, "China was colonised by western powers and supported the anti-colonial movement in Africa with a long history" proves that China does not want to control Africa's economic and political system (Mohan, 2008).
毫不奇怪,中国政府很快就反驳了这一观点。例如,中国总理温家宝说,“中国是殖民侵略的受害者。中华民族非常清楚殖民统治造成的苦难和打击殖民主义的必要性”。我同意这一点,因为我小时候在中国长大,我的父母分享了他们关于殖民地的真实生活故事,当时西方从1854年开始强奸旧中华帝国的土地。在那个时期,殖民地不像是一个公司,而是基本上按照他们的意愿使用该地区,并建立一个全新的政治制度,因此,以香港为例,今年早些时候陷入混乱,因为他们有前殖民者的借口——英国比中华人民共和国好,所以应该重新控制,这是愚蠢的。中华民族也意识到殖民统治带来的痛苦和反对殖民主义的必要性,“中国被西方列强殖民并支持非洲历史悠久的反殖民运动”证明了中国不想控制非洲的经济和政治制度。
With China's state-owned enterprises (SOEs), private investment's role and its significance entrepreneurial activities need to be explored, conventional wisdom believes that the Chinese government is rapidly expanding its investment in Africa with a strong incentive and guidance force behind the positive and guiding roles, thus, since 2005, the private sector, rather than the government, more and more becoming the engine of economic exchanges between China and Africa (Gu, 2009).
随着中国的国有企业(SOE),私人投资的作用及其对创业活动的重要性需要探索,传统智慧认为,中国政府正在迅速扩大对非洲的投资,在积极和引导作用的背后有着强大的激励和引导力,因此,自2005年以来,私营部门,而不是政府,越来越成为中非经济交流的引擎。

Essay范文

Figure 1. Chinese loans to Africa (Mlambo, 2019).  中国对非洲的贷款

By looking at figure 1 and 2, we note that the trend of Chinese loans to Africa was rising at a very high percentage every year, and stays around 10 billion U.S. dollars for the recent years. While we see potential benefits in increased trade with China, increasing resource flows may also strengthen authoritarian states and exacerbate conflict according to Padraig Carmody from Trinity College Dublin, but is yet to be confirmed (Moseley, 2004).
通过查看图1和图2,我们注意到中国对非洲的贷款每年都以非常高的百分比增长,近年来一直保持在100亿美元左右。都柏林三一学院(Trinity College Dublin)的帕德雷格·卡莫迪表示,虽然我们看到了与中国贸易增加的潜在好处,但不断增加的资源流动也可能加强专制国家,加剧冲突,但这一点尚未得到证实。
United State's relation with Africa 美国与非洲的关系
The impression in Africa are poor, lack of water is full of desert areas, actually otherwise, these places exists in parts of North Africa, most areas are land with high rain that is fertile and scarce soil in South Africa, that is widespread like our country's land in Australia. Most of the world's jewellery comes from that region as well, with so many precious resources, Africa is still so poor, is the reason is that Africans are too lazy? Or the international aid should be blamed .
非洲给人的印象很差,缺水的地方到处都是沙漠地区,实际上不然,这些地方存在于北非的部分地区,大部分地区都是雨水充沛的土地,在南非是肥沃而稀缺的土壤,就像我们国家在澳大利亚的土地一样广泛。世界上大多数珠宝也来自该地区,拥有如此多的宝贵资源,非洲仍然如此贫穷,原因是非洲人太懒吗?或者国际援助应该受到指责。

Essay范文

Map 1. Climate and Vegetation of Africa 非洲的气候和植被

Worldwide, much assistance from developed countries depends on economic and political conditions favourable to donors, including their security interests. From the perspective of recipient countries, this "collateral assistance" is a particularly inefficient form of development assistance because it does not help them grow their economies by creating new businesses and jobs; instead, most of the benefits remain in donor countries (Moseley, 2004). Bundling aid is also inefficient because goods and services bought from donors can often be obtained at lower prices from local producers or world markets (Moseley, 2004). The aid to Africa caused the people in the northern region becoming more languorous. These humanitarian organisations also distribute free materials also soon become a excuse to wait for a meal every day. Moreover, in some opaque areas, the materials handed out after layers of detention are being taken advantaged from the influential local people, and then sold by these people at a higher price, resulting in the local pricing to be very unstable, and many people who can work hard often suffer bankruptcy.
在世界范围内,发达国家的许多援助取决于有利于捐助者的经济和政治条件,包括它们的安全利益。从受援国的角度来看,这种“附带援助”是一种效率特别低的发展援助形式,因为它不能通过创造新的企业和就业机会来帮助它们发展经济;相反,大部分福利仍在捐助国。捆绑援助的效率也很低,因为从捐助者那里购买的商品和服务往往可以以较低的价格从当地生产商或世界市场获得。对非洲的援助使北部地区的人民变得更加无精打采。这些人道主义组织还分发免费材料,这也很快成为每天等待吃饭的借口。此外,在一些不透明的地区,层层拘留后发放的材料被当地有影响力的人利用,然后由这些人以更高的价格出售,导致当地价格非常不稳定,许多能够努力工作的人经常破产。
The U.S. State Department has proudly repeated the words of former Commerce Secretary Ron Brown:
美国国务院自豪地重复了前商务部长罗恩·布朗的话:       
"the United States will no longer cede African markets to former colonial powers" (Campbell, 2008).
“美国将不再把非洲市场割让给前殖民列强”
However, the Nations humanitarian organisations have found that directly sending public money or food is useless does not help African people for reproduction, and some people as long as there is money being given would refuse to do any work. In some places, if not paying attention, seeds for planting as aid will be eaten by the local people, for these cases, many countries have begun to give up assistance gradually, the United States has publicly announced will not make any form of support anymore. But surprisingly, people in some parts of Africa are still so happy that it seems like dancing to sleep after eating every day is the most primitive kind of happiness. China's strategic strengthening of relations with Africa over the past two decades has prompted the U.S. to rethink its approach to the continent. At the end of 2014, the United States pledged $14 billion to help African industries such as aviation, banking and clean energy (Mlambo, 2019). This shows a slight transition of United States' relationship with African countries, as China went into the market, the U.S. is letting go of some of the aid for grabbing the ongoing underdevelopment of Africa, instead turned into more profitable and stable trades.
然而,联合国人道主义组织发现,直接向非洲人民提供公共资金或食物是没有用的,这无助于非洲人民的生殖,而且一些人只要有钱,就会拒绝做任何工作。在一些地方,如果不注意,作为援助种植的种子将被当地人吃掉,对于这些情况,许多国家已经开始逐渐放弃援助,美国已经公开宣布不再提供任何形式的支持。但令人惊讶的是,非洲一些地区的人们仍然非常快乐,似乎每天饭后跳舞睡觉是最原始的一种快乐。过去20年中,中国在战略上加强了与非洲的关系,这促使美国重新思考其对非洲大陆的态度。2014年底,美国承诺提供140亿美元帮助航空、银行和清洁能源等非洲产业。这表明美国与非洲国家的关系发生了轻微的转变,随着中国进入市场,美国正在放弃一些援助,以抓住非洲目前的不发达状况,转而转向更有利可图、更稳定的贸易。
China versus the United States in Africa 中国与美国在非洲的对抗
China is undoubtedly an exciting case in the development economics: it not only through 40 years of market reform for more than 700 million people out of poverty, but also realised from low-income countries to high income countries such as the historic leap, and transformed itself from a recipient countries into one of the significant providers of funding for global development.
中国无疑是发展经济学中一个激动人心的案例:它不仅通过40年的市场改革为7亿多人脱贫,而且实现了从低收入国家到高收入国家的历史性跨越,并从受援国转变为全球发展资金的重要提供者之一。
However, the explosive growth of China's economy is not achieved by external assistance, and China still insists on the central position of relying mainly on domestic resources to develop the national economy while continuing to provide foreign aid. As China has gradually become the world's leading economies as well as a large number of Chinese enterprises "going out", China is not only in theory for the foreign aid that is essential to the economic development of questioning the underlying assumptions, and is also in practicing as the mainstream of the international development theory of the core challenges for official development assistance.
但是,中国经济的爆炸性增长并不是靠外部援助实现的,中国仍然坚持以国内资源为主发展国民经济,同时继续对外援助的中心地位。随着中国逐渐成为世界领先经济体以及大批中国企业“走出去”,中国不仅在理论上对对外援助这一对经济发展至关重要的基本假设提出质疑,同时也是在实践中作为国际发展理论主流的官方发展援助面临的核心挑战。
Figure 2. China United States trade with Africa (as of 2013) (Mlambo, 2019). 中美对非贸易(截至2013年)
While the United States insists on attaching conditions to its investments in Africa, China is only interested in mutually beneficial business with no conditions attached, which is China's advantage over the United States. In 2013, trade in goods between China and Africa was $200 billion, compared with $85 billion between the United States and Africa (Mlambo, 2019). Therefore, the illustration in Figure 2 supports the view that trade between China and Africa has increased significantly compared with that between the United States.
虽然美国坚持对其在非洲的投资附加条件,但中国只对不附加条件的互利业务感兴趣,这是中国对美国的优势。2013年,中国和非洲之间的商品贸易额为2000亿美元,而美国和非洲之间的贸易额为850亿美元。因此,图2中的说明支持这样一种观点,即中国和非洲之间的贸易比美国之间的贸易显著增加。

Essay范文

Picture 2. Djibouti Train Pilot Run  吉布提列车试运行
Attitudes to China's fast-growing engagement in the continent have shifted from criticism and surprised and helpless reactions to co-operative pragmatism (Berger, 2007). A local resident who lives near the railway station in Djibouti warmly greeted the staff on the way to the trial operation of the locomotive (Picture 1). However, whether China's foreign aid supports the so-called "mainstream" development theory - the universality of the so-called "China model" - politicizes international development issues. There is a big difference between the way China provides foreign aid and development resources, or "Official Development Finance with Chinese characteristics" (ODF), and the OECD model advocated and practised by the OECD development assistance committee.
对中国在非洲大陆快速增长的参与的态度已经从批评、惊讶和无助的反应转变为合作实用主义。一位居住在吉布提火车站附近的当地居民在前往机车试运行的路上热情地迎接了工作人员(图1)。然而,中国的对外援助是否支持所谓的“主流”发展理论——即所谓“中国模式”的普遍性——将国际发展问题政治化。中国提供对外援助和发展资源的方式,或“中国特色的官方发展金融”(ODF),与经合组织发展援助委员会倡导和实践的经合组织模式之间存在很大差异。
Many African engineers emigrated to western countries: moe in the United States than in Africa, from 1985 to 1990, 60,000 African professionals migrated (Moseley, 2004). The reason may be due to the poor development and corrupting government and their over-dependency on aid. By half of the 300, 000 professionals, by 2005, 300, 000 to 500, 000 professionals, including 30, 000 PhD holders, had left, and more than 20, 000 professionals emigrated to the U.S. or Europe every year after (Moseley, 2004). China, on the other hand, is trying their best to save those professionals and build roads, school, facilities together for a better African continent, because once a country is capable of keeping its residents to stay, it then has the hope to develop and expand, China has been through poverty and seclusion, therefore is more capable of helping especially northern African countries to rise.
许多非洲工程师移民到西方国家:美国的教育部比非洲的多,从1985年到1990年,有6万名非洲专业人员移民。究其原因,可能是由于发展不善、政府腐败,以及他们对援助的过度依赖。到2005年,30万专业人士中有一半已经离开,其中30万至50万专业人士,包括3万名博士,此后每年都有超过2万名专业人士移民到美国或欧洲。另一方面,中国正在尽最大努力拯救这些专业人士,共同建设道路、学校和设施,以建设一个更美好的非洲大陆,因为一个国家一旦有能力留住其居民,就有希望发展和扩张,中国已经经历了贫困和与世隔绝,因此更能帮助北非国家崛起。
Conclusion 结论
When looking at Africa as a whole, it's not true that the whole continent lives in poverty and hunger and disease, but it does exist in some places. The key is to get rid of Aid bound as much as possible. Just to remind ourself that Aid bound (Bundling Aid) refers to the donor countries in the process of foreign Aid and service procurement, using administrative measures for the recipient to purchase donor countries' domestic product due to the imbalance in international economic development, so the same amount of aid budgets that can be bought in developed countries are far less than those that can be purchased in developing countries, thus creating this inequality.
It's the best to seek help from donor countries who are willing to trade with no traps and building a long term relationship that benefits both sides. China is an example which helped Africa in the right way that is different from the traditional OECD, yet formed its new strategy on assisting Africa countries in stepping out of poverty. Therefore China is not a colonial power, but an ally.
References 参考文献
Berger, B. and Wissenbach, U., 2007. EU-China-Africa trilateral development cooperation: common challenges and new directions.
Campbell, H., 2008. China in Africa: challenging US global hegemony. Third World Quarterly, 29(1), pp.89-105.
Gu, J., 2009. China's private enterprises in Africa and the implications for African development. The European Journal of Development Research, 21(4), pp.570-587.
Mlambo, V., 2019. Exploitation dressed in a suit, shining shoes, and carrying a suitcase full of dollars: What does China want in Africa?. Journal of Public Affairs, 19(1), p.e1892.
Mohan, G. and Power, M., 2008. New African choices? The politics of Chinese engagement. Review of African Political Economy, 35(115), pp.23-42.
Moseley, W.G. 2004. "Interpreting African Issues: Commentators, Scholars, Policymakers."
In: Moseley, W.G. (ed.). Taking Sides: Clashing Views on Controversial African Issues. Guilford, CT: McGraw-Hill/Dushkin. Pp. xiiixxi.
Pham, J.P., 2008. America's New Africa Command: Paradigm Shift or Step Backwards. Brown J. World Aff., 15, p.257.
Pham, J.P., 2009. Been there, already doing that: America's ongoing security engagement in Africa. Contemporary security policy, 30(1), pp.72-78.
Taylor, I., 2009. China's new role in Africa. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Publishers.

International Studies Essay范文总结:当我们把非洲作为一个整体来看待时,并不是说整个非洲大陆都生活在贫困、饥饿和疾病之中,但在某些地方确实存在这种情况。关键是尽可能摆脱援助束缚。只是提醒自己,受援助约束(捆绑援助)指的是捐助国在对外援助和服务采购过程中,由于国际经济发展的不平衡,利用行政手段为受援国购买捐助国的国内产品,因此,可以在发达国家购买的同等数量的援助预算远远低于可以在发展中国家购买的预算,从而造成了这种不平等。最好向捐助国寻求帮助,它们愿意在没有陷阱的情况下进行贸易,并建立对双方都有利的长期关系。中国是一个例子,它以不同于传统经合组织的正确方式帮助非洲,但却形成了帮助非洲国家摆脱贫困的新战略。因此,中国不是殖民地国家,而是盟友。

本站提供各国各专业Essay写作指导服务,如有需要可咨询本平台。


如果您有论文代写需求,可以通过下面的方式联系我们
点击联系客服