Commerce Essay范文:The Unethical Business Practices of Shell

发布时间:2022-02-11 14:54:57 论文编辑:cinq888

Commerce Essay范文-壳牌不道德的商业行为,本文是一篇留学生Commerce Essay写作范文,主要内容是讲述由于竞争和成功的压力迫使组织忽视其行为和决策的伦理和道德方面,组织的不道德行为经常增加。为了给股东带来最大价值并获得利润,壳牌最终贿赂了尼日利亚官员,使他们的货物和设备更容易进口,以逃避关税,延长合同和降低税收等。因此,本篇Commerce Essay根据《道德规范》对壳牌的不道德行为进行调查和审查,并建议壳牌在实践中更加道德。以下是Commerce Essay范文的全部内容,供参考。

英国essay代写

Unethical practices by organizations are frequently increasing as the pressure to compete and succeed compels them to ignore the ethical and moral aspects of their practices and decision-making. In order to maximize value for its shareholders and gain profitability, Shell ended up bribing the Nigerian officials to make it easier to import their goods and equipment, in order to avoid customs duties, extend contracts and lower tax etc. Therefore this report investigates and scrutinizes Shell’s unethical practices in context to it’s the moral code of ethics and recommends Shell to be more ethical in their practice.
Introduction 简介
As globalization increases many organizations indulge in unethical practices to achieve growth and profit maximization. Consequently, the examples of such companies include L’Oreal, Nike, Wal-Mart, Shell etc. Shell, is a global group of energy and petrochemical companies. They have their headquarters situated in Hague, the Netherlands. The parent company of the Shell group is Royal Dutch Shell plc, which is incorporated in England and Wales. Shell’s operated in more than 90 countries and has an approximate of 93000 employees. Their production mainly consists of forty eight percent of natural gas and around 3.3million barrels of gas and oil is produced per day. Shell has established forty three service stations worldwide. According to a survey conducted in 2010, they’ve sold an estimated 145 billion litres of fuel. The Company has two main streams, upstream – which explores for and extracts crude oil and natural gas and Downstream – which refines supplies, trades and ships crude worldwide, manufactures and markets a range of products, and produces petrochemicals for industrial customers. According to their financial report of 2010, with the capital invested of $30.6 billion and $1 billion in Investment in research and development, they had an income of $20.5billion with revenue of $368.1 billion (Shell, 2010).
随着全球化的加剧,许多组织沉迷于不道德的做法,以实现增长和利润最大化。因此,这类公司的例子包括欧莱雅、耐克、沃尔玛、壳牌等。壳牌是一家全球性的能源和石化公司集团。他们的总部设在荷兰海牙。壳牌集团的母公司是在英格兰和威尔士注册成立的荷兰皇家壳牌有限公司。壳牌在90多个国家开展业务,约有93000名员工。它们的产量主要由48%的天然气组成,每天生产约330万桶天然气和石油。壳牌在全球建立了43个加油站。根据2010年进行的一项调查,他们已售出约1450亿升燃油。该公司有两条主要业务:上游(勘探和开采原油和天然气)和下游(在全球范围内提炼、交易和运输原油),制造和销售一系列产品,并为工业客户生产石化产品。根据他们2010年的财务报告,资本投资为306亿美元,研发投资为10亿美元,他们的收入为205亿美元,收入为3681亿美元。
Historical Background 历史背景
Shell was born during days of the oil boom and started out in the shadow of John D. Rockefeller’s Standard oil monopoly. Royal Dutch/Shell was the result of a merger in 1907 between the British-based Shell Transport and Trading Company, which pioneered the use of seagoing oil tankers and the Royal Dutch Petroleum Company, which made its fortune developing new oil fields in Borneo and Sumatra. Marcus Samuel was an enterprising fellow who decided to greet ships returning to England from India, Japan, Africa, and the Middle East and offer to buy any trinkets and curious that sailors had collected abroad. In the 1890s, the French Rothchild family decided to go into business exploiting the oil fields opening up in Baku in Russia. Needing a partner to help them transport and sell the oil, they turned to Marcus Samuel the younger. After a brief trip to the Caucasus, Marcus Samuel decided that the only way to take on the near monopoly grip that Standard Oil held was to radically reduce oil transportation costs. During that time kerosene was transported in crates of tin containers. Loading the fuel into these relatively small containers, crating them, and loading them onto ship as time consuming, expensive and inefficient, Samuel argued. It would be much preferable to just pipe the oil into a tanker ship. In 1907, Sir Marcus Samuel and Henri Deterding merged the Shell Transport and Trading Company with the Royal Dutch Petroleum Company to create Royal Dutch/Shell. The company is owned forty percent by the Shell Transport and Trading Company and sixty percent by the Royal Dutch Petroleum (History of Business, 2010).
壳牌公司诞生于石油繁荣时期,在约翰·D·洛克菲勒的标准石油垄断的阴影下起步。荷兰皇家石油公司(Royal Dutch/Shell)是总部位于英国的壳牌运输和贸易公司(Shell Transport and Trading Company)与荷兰皇家石油公司(Royal Dutch Petroleum Company)于1907年合并的结果,后者率先使用海上油轮,后者在婆罗洲和苏门答腊开发新油田时发财。马库斯·塞缪尔(Marcus Samuel)是一位有进取心的人,他决定迎接从印度、日本、非洲和中东返回英国的船只,并提出购买水手在国外收集的任何小饰品和好奇心。19世纪90年代,法国罗斯柴尔德家族决定在俄罗斯巴库开发油田。由于需要一个合作伙伴帮助他们运输和销售石油,他们求助于年轻的马库斯·塞缪尔。马库斯·塞缪尔(Marcus Samuel)在短暂的高加索之行后决定,要想摆脱标准石油公司(Standard Oil)近乎垄断的局面,唯一的办法就是大幅降低石油运输成本。在那段时间里,煤油是用罐装的板条箱运输的。塞缪尔辩称,将燃料装入这些相对较小的容器,将其装入板条箱,然后将其装载到船上,既费时、昂贵又低效。最好是直接用管道将石油输送到油轮上。1907年,马库斯·塞缪尔爵士(Sir Marcus Samuel)和亨利·迪丁(Henri Deterding)将壳牌运输和贸易公司与荷兰皇家石油公司(Royal Dutch Petroleum Company)合并,创建了荷兰皇家/壳牌(Royal Dutch/Shell)。该公司40%的股份由壳牌运输和贸易公司持有,60%的股份由荷兰皇家石油公司持有。
In the 1980s, Shell sought to grow through acquisition. It bought out the remaining 30% shareholding in Shell Oil in 1985 to consolidate its American operations.
20世纪80年代,壳牌寻求通过收购实现增长。1985年,该公司收购了壳牌石油剩余30%的股份,以巩固其在美国的业务。
The 1980s saw the development of offshore exploration projects, which were in much more challenging conditions than had previously been attempted. The 1990s Shell saw the technology of biomass fuels and Gas to Liquids make giant leaps forward. Shell was criticized over the Brent Spar episode in 1995, which centered on its plans to dispose of the storage platform. The Group learned that public opinion had become much more sensitive to environmental issues. In the next decade, the Group worked much harder to open a dialogue with interested parties regarding its environmental impact and to develop good relations with the communities affected by its work.
20世纪80年代出现了海上勘探项目的发展,这些项目的条件比之前尝试的条件更具挑战性。20世纪90年代,壳牌见证了生物质燃料和天然气制液体技术的巨大飞跃。壳牌在1995年因布伦特斯巴事件受到批评,该事件的核心是其处置存储平台的计划。该组织了解到,公众舆论对环境问题变得更加敏感。在接下来的十年里,该小组更加努力地与有关各方就其环境影响展开对话,并与受其工作影响的社区发展良好关系。
Another problem to hit the Group arose from its presence in the Nigerian region of Ogoniland. The tribal minority in the Ogoni were aggrieved with the Nigerian government because they felt denied a proper share of federal revenues from the oil, and what they saw as other fundamental human rights. Their champion was the writer Ken Saro-Wiwa. The oil companies were targeted as “collaborators” with the corrupt government. Shell was accused of environmental despoliation. The story achieved international notoriety when Saro-Wiwa and eight of his colleagues were sentenced to death by hanging for their activities.
打击该组织的另一个问题是它在尼日利亚奥戈尼兰地区的存在。奥戈尼的部落少数民族对尼日利亚政府感到不满,因为他们觉得被剥夺了联邦石油收入的适当份额,以及他们认为的其他基本人权。他们的冠军是作家肯·萨罗·维瓦。这些石油公司被视为腐败政府的“合作者”。壳牌被指控破坏环境。当萨罗·维瓦和他的八名同事因其活动被判处绞刑时,这个故事在国际上声名狼藉。
Shell has since strived to follow a policy of demonstrating its community of interests and reciprocal good feeling with both the governments and the local populaces it deals with.
自那以后,壳牌一直在努力遵循一项政策,以展示其利益共同体,以及与政府和当地民众打交道的互惠好感。
The 1990s were notable for Shell for the development of the LNG gas business. Improved transportation and rising demand made this area of the Group’s activities increasingly important and are expected to continue to do so in the first decades of the twenty-first century (Shell, 2010).
20世纪90年代,壳牌在液化天然气业务方面的发展尤为引人注目。交通状况的改善和需求的增加使得该集团在这一领域的活动变得越来越重要,预计将在21世纪的头几十年继续如此。
Report Preview 报表预览
This report examines various unethical practices of Shell. Firstly, it investigates upon the historical background of Shell. Moreover, we have related Shell’s immoral issues to the ethical theories. Along with these principles we also suggest some recommendations which could be reasonably essential for Shell to operate in a better and efficient manner. Finally, the report concludes with importance on ethics, corporate social responsibility and with our suggestion on its unethical action.
本报告调查了壳牌公司的各种不道德行为。首先,考察了壳牌的历史背景。此外,我们还将壳牌的不道德问题与伦理理论联系起来。除了这些原则之外,我们还提出了一些建议,这些建议对于壳牌更好、更高效地运营是合理必要的。最后,报告总结了道德、企业社会责任的重要性,以及我们对其不道德行为的建议。
Shells Unethical practices: 不道德行为:
In 2010, Shell was accused of bribery practice with Nigerian officials in order to gain profit. Shell bribed Nigerian officials to make it easier for them to import goods and equipment, get lower taxes and avoid the customs. Shell said that it paid 2 million U.S Dollars to its Nigerian Workers in its deep water Bonga Project. Shell actually knew that part of the money will go to Nigerian officials whom will make shell avoid the customs process. This will give shell an obvious competitive advantage in the market. Shell actually gained $14million profit from this bribery of the Bonga project. Shell will pay $48.1 million dollars in order to settle probes by the U.S Justice Department and Securities and Exchange Commission.
2010年,壳牌被指控与尼日利亚官员一起行贿以获取利润。壳牌公司贿赂尼日利亚官员,让他们更容易进口货物和设备,降低税收,避免海关检查。壳牌表示,它在深水邦加项目中向尼日利亚工人支付了200万美元。壳牌实际上知道,部分资金将流向尼日利亚官员,他们将使壳牌避免海关程序。这将使壳牌在市场上拥有明显的竞争优势。壳牌实际上从邦加项目的贿赂中获得了1400万美元的利润。壳牌将支付4810万美元,以解决美国司法部和证券交易委员会的调查。
In January 2004, “fraudulent overstatement of proven hydrocarbon reserves by Shell in Form F20 returns filed with the U.S. Securities & Exchange Commission”(John Donovan,2007). Shell has given misleading and wrong statements about its reserves. It paid a $120 million fine for this claims settlement.
2004年1月,“壳牌在向美国证券交易委员会提交的F20表格申报表中欺诈性夸大已探明的碳氢化合物储量”。壳牌对其储量做出了误导性和错误的陈述。它为这次理赔支付了1.2亿美元的罚款。
One of the famous unethical practices by Shell was causing the high levels of pollution in Nigeria.40% of shells oil spills worldwide was in Nigeria. The oil spill also caused water contamination. It caused oil pollution in the Ogoniland region for the past 40 years or so. The pipelines were built in front of the people’s houses and in their farmlands. They suffered oil leaks through the pipelines. This has totally destroyed the environment over there. It killed the aquatic life; killing many fishes. Also enveloped the land with oil. This has been really devastating for the Ogoni people, economically and healthy, since their economy depends mainly on fishing and farming. People suffered respiratory diseases such as bronchial asthma; and cancer. Lots of vegetation is dying, especially Mangrove swamps, due to wastes of oil in the Niger River. The reason Shell has been successful in doing these unethical practices in Nigeria is because they used to bribe the Nigerian officials frequently to ease the process.
壳牌著名的不道德行为之一是造成尼日利亚的高污染水平。全球40%的壳牌石油泄漏发生在尼日利亚。石油泄漏还造成了水污染。在过去40年左右的时间里,它在奥戈尼兰地区造成了石油污染。管道建在人民的房屋前和农田里。他们的输油管漏油。这完全破坏了那里的环境。它杀死了水生生物;杀了很多鱼。也用石油包围了这片土地。这对奥戈尼人的经济和健康来说确实是毁灭性的,因为他们的经济主要依赖于渔业和农业。人们患有呼吸道疾病,如支气管哮喘;还有癌症。由于尼日尔河的石油浪费,许多植被正在死亡,尤其是红树林沼泽。壳牌之所以能在尼日利亚成功地实施这些不道德的做法,是因为他们经常贿赂尼日利亚官员,以简化程序。           
Royal Dutch Shell Blames oil spills on sabotage to its equipment ( Chima Williams,2009). This explains how rude and unethically they take responsibility for their awful actions.
  荷兰皇家壳牌公司将漏油归咎于对其设备的蓄意破坏。这就解释了他们为自己的可怕行为承担责任是多么粗鲁和不道德。
According to the Covalence ethical ranking in 2008, saw Shell in the 510 position out of 541 multinational companies. “Covalence’ s ethical quotation system is a reputation index based on quantifying qualitative data” and “It is a barometer of how multinationals are perceived in the ethical field”(John Donovan 2009). The covalence ethical ranking is based on important issues such as Human rights policy, Waste Management, Labor standards and product social utility.
根据2008年的共价伦理排名,壳牌在541家跨国公司中排名510位。“Covalence的道德报价系统是一个基于量化定性数据的声誉指数”和“它是跨国公司在道德领域如何被认知的晴雨表”。共价伦理排名基于人权政策、废物管理、劳动标准和产品社会效用等重要问题。
A research done by Management and Excellence in 2005 sees Shell as the number 1 most ethical oil company in the world. But by the end of 2011, Shell’s position is expected to deteriorate much due to the bribery scandal it suffered for the last few months.
2005年,管理与卓越公司(Management and Excellence)进行了一项研究,认为壳牌是世界上最道德的石油公司之一。但到2011年底,由于过去几个月遭受的贿赂丑闻,壳牌的地位预计将大大恶化。
Conoco Phillips 康菲石油公司
Conoco Phillips is a Non-government owned American oil and Gas Corporation. It’s the 3rd largest of the oil majors worldwide. It works in all different aspects in oil and natural gas industry such as Midstream, Petrochemicals, and Refining and Marketing. The company was formed as a result of a merger between Conoco and Philips in 2002. Its major competitors are Shell, British Petroleum and Exxon Mobil. Conoco Philips is one of the few Oil companies that suffer unethical issues. According to Conoco Philips, “Our mission is to do more than to deliver energy”. It has a long term commitment to achieve the top ethical standards and create a culture that encourages honesty and responsibility in everything they do. Conoco Philips values the importance of corporate transparency and ethics as they are a major drive for consumers and stakeholders’ confidence. A proof of ConocoPhillips’s environmental concern is that it spent $80 million dollars to develop new technologies for unconventional and alternative energy sources.
康菲石油公司是一家非政府所有的美国石油和天然气公司。它是全球第三大石油巨头。它适用于石油和天然气行业的所有不同方面,如中游、石化、炼油和营销。该公司是2002年康菲石油公司和飞利浦公司合并后成立的。其主要竞争对手是壳牌、英国石油和埃克森美孚。康菲石油公司是少数遭受不道德问题困扰的石油公司之一。据康菲石油(Conoco Philips)称,“我们的使命不仅仅是提供能源”。它长期致力于达到最高道德标准,创造一种鼓励诚实和责任感的文化。康菲公司重视企业透明度和道德规范的重要性,因为它们是消费者和利益相关者信心的主要驱动力。康菲石油公司对环境问题的担忧的一个证明是,它花费了8000万美元来开发非常规和替代能源的新技术。
ConocoPhillips is a member of the U.S Climate Action Partnership, which is a group of businesses, major corporations and environmental organization with a goal to pressure the U.S Government to reduce the greenhouse gas emissions. ConocoPhillips spent around $150 million dollars 2007 on research and development of alternative energy sources and new technologies- which is almost a 50% increase compared to the $80 million dollar spent in 2006.
康菲石油公司是美国气候行动伙伴关系(U.S Climate Action Partnership)的成员,该伙伴关系由企业、大公司和环境组织组成,旨在向美国政府施压以减少温室气体排放。2007年,康菲石油公司在替代能源和新技术的研发上花费了约1.5亿美元,与2006年的8000万美元相比,增长了近50%。
Shell vs. ConocoPhillips 壳牌与康菲石油
Shell is the 2nd biggest company in the world in terms of revenue, which makes it more profitable than ConocoPhillips (16th). Actually, after the recent bribery issues about Shell, its position will eventually drop in the next few years. They will suffer from employee turnover, loss of company reputation and lots of other disadvantages which will not enable them to be more profitable like before. Whilst for ConocoPhillips, it’s very predictable that this company will get closer to Shell in terms of revenue and why not surpass it, due to its ethical practices! That’s why Shell should have good ethical policies like that of ConocoPhillips and actually adapt this policy and not violate it.
就收入而言,壳牌是世界第二大公司,这使得它比康菲石油更具盈利能力。事实上,在最近关于壳牌的贿赂问题之后,它的地位最终会在未来几年下降。他们将遭受员工流动、公司声誉损失和许多其他不利因素的影响,这些不利因素将使他们无法像以前那样获得更高的利润。而对于康菲石油公司来说,这家公司在收入方面将与壳牌公司更接近是可以预见的,而且由于其道德规范,为什么不超越它呢!这就是为什么壳牌公司应该像康菲石油公司那样制定良好的道德政策,并切实调整这一政策,而不是违反这一政策。
Recommendations and Facts 建议和事实
Recommendations建议

First of all if Shell wants to get back its reputation after the Nigeria bribery incident, they have to change their vision, not the written vision statement, in fact they have to change their insight toward the business they are doing and try to change their practices in a way that help and satisfy people instead of hurting them. They should keep in mind that business is not about gaining profit from whatever way, rather it is about gaining profit from providing services in a way that satisfies customers and if they act ethically eventually they will gain enough profit as they have satisfied people behind their back who support the company (Tempo, 2005).
首先,如果壳牌想在尼日利亚受贿事件后恢复其声誉,他们必须改变自己的愿景,而不是书面愿景声明,事实上,他们必须改变自己对所做业务的看法,并试图以帮助和满足人们而不是伤害他们的方式改变自己的做法。他们应该记住,业务不是通过任何方式获得利润,而是通过以满足客户的方式提供服务获得利润,如果他们行为合乎道德,最终他们将获得足够的利润,因为他们在背后满足了支持公司的人。
Shell should be considered guilty in this case and be fined for their unethical business practice. Furthermore, Nigerian government should be accountable and responsible for their action as well. The amount of fine that usually determined by courts should be either used for research purposes or as financial aid to help people around the globe. If they do so, Shell will force to do something that they escaped from and try to improve their instruments and facilities by doing research and development instead of trying to gain profit without thinking about safety and effects of their action on stakeholders (Tempo, 2005).
在本案中,壳牌应被视为有罪,并因其不道德的商业行为而被罚款。此外,尼日利亚政府也应该对他们的行动负责。通常由法院决定的罚款数额应用于研究目的,或作为帮助全球人民的经济援助。如果他们这样做,壳牌将迫使他们做一些他们逃避的事情,并通过研究和开发来改善他们的仪器和设施,而不是试图在不考虑其行动对利益相关者的安全性和影响的情况下获取利润。
More strict rules and regulations regarding the bribery issue and control of governments over their companies can lead to termination of bribery in long term. If Shell maintains a strict No Bribe policy, in long term bribe takers won’t ask for it anymore. Then even if they fail in their business they won’t blame themselves for paying bribes and they will know that there was something wrong with their facilities and services.
关于贿赂问题的更严格的规则和条例以及政府对其公司的控制可以导致贿赂的长期终止。如果壳牌坚持严格的禁止贿赂政策,从长远来看,受贿者将不再要求贿赂。然后,即使他们的生意失败了,他们也不会因为行贿而责怪自己,他们会知道他们的设施和服务出了问题。
Facts 事实
The main reason that shell wanted to bribe Nigerian government was that they wanted to pay less taxes and easier import of their needed equipment, which eventually leads to higher profit. Thus they only looked for profit and to reach that, they choose bribery as an unethical practice. They shouldn’t do that because even if we don’t consider bribery as an unethical practice it was illegal and against law in Nigeria, however we know that bribery is an unethical practice indeed. The next thing is that bribery encourages corruption, and this action hurts the poor the most as they have to pay for something which is free and they get into trouble for paying the amount, because they cannot afford it. When a large company like Shell practices, in this case bribery, which is defiantly unethical, this act will spread to the whole society and affect the society in large (Tempo, 2005). Moreover when you start paying bribe for the first time it leads to demand for more bribes and work as a kind of temptation. So it is better never start it. Aid agencies trying to provide free services for those who need help and it is not morally accepted and expected from officials to try to make money from those services that supposed to be free. We believe and agree that Shell did something which is morally wrong and ethical person won’t advocate it, but there is a positive point in shells’ case. Shell accepted that they did and unethical and wrong action and admitted their mistake, they also agreed to pay $48m in criminal and civil fines. However shell had to admit their mistake but still we can consider it as a positive movement from shell and we can hope that Shell try to be an ethical company from now onwards, stop their unethical business practices and try to gain profit while following ethical business practices (Temp,2005).
壳牌想贿赂尼日利亚政府的主要原因是,他们想少交些税,更容易进口所需的设备,这最终会带来更高的利润。因此,他们只追求利润,为了达到这一目的,他们选择贿赂作为不道德的行为。他们不应该这样做,因为即使我们不认为贿赂是不道德的做法,在尼日利亚是违法的,但我们知道贿赂确实是不道德的行为。其次,贿赂会助长腐败,而这种行为对穷人的伤害最大,因为他们必须为免费的东西买单,而且他们会因为支付金额而陷入麻烦,因为他们负担不起。当像壳牌这样的大公司进行贿赂时,这种行为显然是不道德的,这种行为将蔓延到整个社会,并对整个社会产生影响。此外,当你第一次开始行贿时,它会导致对更多贿赂的要求,并成为一种诱惑。所以最好不要开始。援助机构试图为那些需要帮助的人提供免费服务,而官员试图从那些本应免费的服务中赚钱在道德上是不被接受和期望的。我们相信并同意壳牌公司所做的事情在道德上是错误的,有道德的人不会支持它,但壳牌公司的情况有一个积极的方面。壳牌承认他们的行为是不道德和错误的,并承认他们的错误,他们还同意支付4800万美元的刑事和民事罚款。然而,壳牌不得不承认他们的错误,但我们仍然可以认为这是一个积极的运动,从壳牌公司,我们可以希望壳牌试图从现在起成为一个道德公司,停止他们的不道德的商业惯例,并尝试获得利润,同时遵循道德业务实践。
Conclusion 结论
In conclusion, we all agree that bribery is an unethical business practice and it is not expected from large company such as Shell to practice such actions. It is not only the case that Shell paid bribe, the most important thing is that such actions, eventually leads to corruption of society which all of us believe to be destructive. Shell can follow Conoco Phillips and invest in research and development and try to improve its facilities, and by doing this they might earn less profit in the short term but they can be proud of themselves by being an ethical company and gaining more profit than their competitors in the long term as they will have new technologies and facilities in future because they invest in research and development today. Shell Should be accountable for what they did and be responsible for their unethical behavior and try to stop such acts in future if they want to build their reputation again as people and stakeholders won’t trust Shell as long as they continue being unethical. However if Shell really wants to be changed and get back its reputation they can do it by clarifying their vision among themselves and act ethically.
Commerce Essay范文总结,我们都同意贿赂是一种不道德的商业行为,像壳牌这样的大公司不应该采取这种行为。不仅仅是壳牌公司行贿,最重要的是,这种行为最终会导致我们都认为具有破坏性的社会腐败。壳牌可以效仿康菲石油公司,投资研发,并尝试改善其设施,通过这样做,他们可能在短期内获得较少的利润,但他们可以为自己感到自豪,因为他们是一家道德高尚的公司,在长期内获得比竞争对手更多的利润,因为他们将在未来拥有新的技术和设施,因为他们现在投资于研发。壳牌应该对他们的所作所为负责,对他们的不道德行为负责,如果他们想再次建立自己的声誉,那么他们应该在未来努力阻止这种行为,因为只要他们继续不道德,人们和利益相关者就不会信任壳牌。然而,如果壳牌真的想改变现状并恢复声誉,他们可以通过澄清自己的愿景并采取合乎道德的行动来做到这一点。本站提供各国各专业Essay写作指导服务,如有需要可咨询本平台。


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