本文是历史专业Essay范例，题目是“The Scientific Revolution of the 17th Century（17世纪的科学革命）”，17世纪的毕业典礼因其重大的变革而闻名，被称为“科学革命”。在整个那个时代，欧洲人对科学方法的修改是显而易见的。“革命”一词是指除了社会动荡时期以外的混乱时期，即有关世界变化的概念在很大程度上和完全是一个新的时代，让位于学术思想。因此，这个表达相当准确地表明了16世纪以后科学社会中发生的事件。中世纪的实验哲学在科学革命中被抛弃，为伽利略、牛顿和笛卡尔提出的新方法铺平了道路。实验对于科学方法的重要性得到了重申。它暗示了上帝对科学的卓越地位，在很多情况下，科学本身(而不是哲学)的探索都是无效的，并在其表达上得到了验证。
The seventeenth-century commencement is famous and called the "scientific revolution" because of the significant transformations. The modifications are evident in the methodology by Europeans to science throughout that era. The term revolution indicates a time of disorder besides a period of a social disturbance where notions that concern the changes in the world largely and entirely a new time that gives way to academic thought. The expression, therefore, indicates quite accurately the events that occurred in the scientific society that succeeding the sixteenth century. The medieval experimental philosophy saw abandoning during the scientific revolution, paving the way to new approaches suggested by Galileo, Newton, and Descartes. The significance of experimentation to the scientific method got reaffirmation. It alludes to God's prominence to science, which in many cases, had invalidation as well as the search of science itself (rather than philosophy) and got validation on its expressions.
The transformation to the medieval notion happened because of various reasons.
At first, there was an excellent collaboration between the seventeenth-century scientist and philosophers. The partnership was together with members of the astronomical and mathematical groups to effect progress in every sector (Butterfield, 1960).
Secondly, the scientists noted the lack of medieval experimental procedures for their activities and needed to try other approaches.
Thirdly, Academics got admittance to European legacy as the Central Eastern scientific thinking they would employ as a beginning argument (through invalidating or constructing on the propositions).
Fourthly, the British Royal Society aided in the authentication of science as a sector by offering an outlet for the publication of scientists' work.
The transformations indicate a step towards Enlightenment thinking, which a revolutionary is for the period. Evaluation of the condition of science before the scientific revolution and the assessment of the differences in the experimental methods used by diverse "scientists" in the seventeenth century, as well as the progress made during the scientific revolution, impacted the scientific approach used in that period. It will offer insights on how radical the innovations of the seventeenth century influenced that era.
Philosophy and revolution before science哲学和革命先于科学
At the start of the scientific revolution, only a few of Europe's academics and at the end of the sixteenth century regarded themselves as scientists. "Natural philosopher" expressions had a lot of academic influence; hence, many of the studies on scientific theory did conduct evaluations on the scientific realm as per se. The conducting is on a philosophy basis where logical means such as pragmatism, as well as teleology, had promotion broadly (Butterfield, 1960). Empiricism, together with teleology in the 17th century, happened as fragments of medieval thinking, which philosophers like William of Ockham utilized. Empiricism is a theory that ascertains that truth encompasses exclusively of what physically proficiencies (Cohen, 1994). On the other hand, teleology is the concept that phenomena occur because they have a function that is because God requires them to do so. Primarily, this refuted the importance of hypothesis writing and detail collecting, which are a vital portion of chemistry in addition to biology at the commencing of the seventeenth century.
在科学革命的初期和16世纪末，只有少数欧洲学者认为自己是科学家。“自然哲学家”的表述有很大的学术影响;因此，许多关于科学理论的研究确实对科学领域本身进行了评价。指导是在哲学的基础上，逻辑手段如实用主义，以及目的论得到了广泛的推广(Butterfield, 1960)。经验主义，连同17世纪的目的论，都是中世纪思想的碎片，像奥卡姆的威廉(William of Ockham)这样的哲学家就利用了这种思想。经验主义是一种理论，确定真理只包含什么物理熟练(科恩，1994年)。另一方面，目的论的概念是现象之所以发生，是因为它们有一个功能，因为上帝要求它们这样做。这首先驳斥了假设写作和细节收集的重要性，在17世纪初，这是化学和生物学的重要组成部分。
The beginning of the scientific revolution科学革命的开始
The Scientific Revolution 1500-1800 book by A.R Hall notes that a significant point diving scientific notion in the seventh century from that of ancient Greeks together with medieval Europeans (HALL, 1965). He cites that the initial group, which consists of Copernicus and da Vinci is more on responses of how can we validate that" and something it could to prove it. The vital part of understanding here is that both queries posed in the fifteenth century, as well as those of the seventeenth century, form part of a conclusive definition of today's experimental approach.
A. R Hall的《科学革命1500-1800》一书指出，7世纪的科学观念是由古希腊人和中世纪欧洲人共同形成的(Hall, 1965)。他引用哥白尼和达芬奇组成的最初小组更多的是关于我们如何验证这一点的回答，“以及一些可以证明这一点的东西。”理解这里的关键部分是，在15世纪和17世纪提出的两个质疑，构成了对今天的实验方法的决定性定义的一部分。
Significance of the scientific revolution科学革命的意义
In understanding the way the scientific revolution changes the mode in which the society observed the globe and the function of a person in the community, one needs to comprehend that the medieval perspective has rulings. The ruling is in the third century B.C.E., theologians, Aristotle, and Ptolemy (HALL, 1965). The great philosopher's ideas got recovering in the Middle Ages as Western Europe started trading with the East. The scientific revolution contributed to an excellent method of gaining understanding.
Two essential theorists, Francis Bacon of 1561- 1626, together with Rene Descartes (1596-1650), are accountable for crucial facets in the advancement of scientific practice. Francis Bacon, an English novelist, as well as a politician, supports that new wisdom needs to obtain via an inductive reasoning manner (Barnett, 2017). It is by use of particular instances to demonstrate a supposition from a universal fact of interpretation referred to as empiricism. The feudal standpoint of awareness founded on tradition gets a rejection from Bacon, and he instead believes that it is essential to collect information, observe, and draw conclusions. Hence, this methodology is the basis of the scientific way.
两位重要的理论家，弗朗西斯·培根(1561- 1626)和勒内·笛卡尔(1596-1650)，对科学实践的发展负有重要的责任。英国小说家、政治家弗朗西斯·培根(Francis Bacon)认为，新智慧需要通过归纳推理方式获得(Barnett, 2017)。它是通过使用特定的例子来证明一个假设，从一个普遍的事实的解释，称为经验主义。建立在传统基础上的意识的封建立场遭到了培根的反对，他认为收集信息、观察和得出结论是必要的。因此，这种方法论是科学方法的基础。
Rene Descartes, a philosopher from French and a mathematician similarly To Bacon, scorns the traditional science and breaks with the historical through writing the Discourse on the method (1637) in French and not in the rational dialectal of the middle centuries. Contrary to Bacon, his emphasis is on deductive thought. He believes that it is vital to disbelief everything that has uncertainties. Cogito ergo sum (I contemplate; therefore I am), a famous quotation by Descartes, proves his standpoint in his life and nothing else. He has belief in geometry that it is essential to apply deductive perception and logic to decide scientific laws principal to things.
The most prominent figure of the Scientific Revolution is Sir Isaac Newton. As an English man, in his work, "Principia Mathematica" (1687), he encompasses the notions of Copernicus the philosophies of Copernicus, Galileo, and Kepler into one method of mathematical rules to elaborate the systematic manner though, which the planets revolve around the sun (Henry, 2017). His main point is the law of universal gravitation thesis, which argues that each person in the world attracts any other body in precise mathematical associations. According to the regulation by newton, it mathematically substantiates that the earth, sun, planets, earth, and any other bodies move about the same elemental force of gravitation (Cohen, 1994). The evidence illustrates that the world operates through rules that have an explanation through mathematics and that a religious elucidation is not the only way of understanding the forces of nature.
科学革命中最杰出的人物是艾萨克·牛顿爵士。作为一个英国人，在他的著作《数学原理》(1687)中，他将哥白尼的概念、哥白尼、伽利略和开普勒的哲学思想包含在一种数学规则的方法中，来阐述行星围绕太阳公转的系统方式(Henry, 2017)。他的主要观点是万有引力定律，该定律认为，世界上的每个人都以精确的数学联系吸引着任何其他物体。根据牛顿的规则，它从数学上证实了地球、太阳、行星、地球和其他任何物体都是在相同的引力下运动的(Cohen, 1994)。证据表明，世界是通过规则运行的，这些规则可以通过数学来解释，宗教解释并不是理解自然力量的唯一途径
The standpoint of Aristotle backs the Ptolemaic view of stationary earth in the middle of the world. They say that the world structure has four elements, namely water, air, fire, and earth, where this outlook offers a collective logic methodology for Christian believers who put people at the epicenter of the universe (HALL, 1965). During the Renaissance, the traditional standpoint of science, the view, although widely accepted, started to receive questioning by diverse leaders like Florence's Medici family who maintained the inquiries of Galileo. Nicholas Copernicus shatters the standpoints of Aristotle and Ptolemy in his works "On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres," where he cites that the sun is the midpoint of the cosmos and that the globe together with the other planets revolves in circular paths. The ideas of Copernicus have a significant influence on other scholars in the science field. The Danish astronomer Tycho Brahe (1546-1601), for instance, sets the stage for the exploration of modern astronomy through building an observatory as well as a collection of statistics for more than twenty years on the planets and stars' location.
亚里士多德的观点支持托勒密的观点，认为地球在世界的中央是静止的。他们说世界结构有四种元素，即水、气、火和土，这种观点为基督教信徒提供了一种集体逻辑方法，他们把人放在宇宙的中心(HALL, 1965)。在文艺复兴时期，传统的科学观点，虽然被广泛接受，但开始受到不同领导人的质疑，比如佛罗伦萨的美第奇家族，他们继续对伽利略进行研究。尼古拉斯·哥白尼(Nicholas Copernicus)在他的著作《天体运动论》(On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres)中，打破了亚里士多德和托勒密的观点。他指出，太阳是宇宙的中点，地球和其他行星都在圆周轨道上旋转。哥白尼的思想对科学领域的其他学者产生了重大影响。例如，丹麦天文学家第谷·布拉赫(Tycho Brahe, 1546-1601)通过建立天文台和收集20多年来关于行星和恒星位置的统计数据，为现代天文学的探索奠定了基础。
Boyle, one of the greatest philosophers of the seventeenth century, continued using medieval technology together with the Galilean mechanism and Baconian induction in elaborating occurrences. Boyle has a belief that God makes instructions of motion as well as the corporeal command, which is the decrees of nature (Henry, 2017). It indicates that a phenomenon exists to serve a particular function within the stipulated order. Boyle uses this notion to clarify the way the geometrical structure of the molecules defines the biochemical features of the matter. Generally, the connection of Boyle's idea to teleology is not a peculiar one to the seventeenth century because Descartes' plea to an advanced creature is the foundation of exactness logic.
The Royal Society first curator of Experiments from 1662-1677, Hooke contemplates science as a method of enhancing society. The idea contradicted the medieval belief where science and philosophy existed for the sake of knowledge solely together with ideas tested (Henry, 2017). Hooke agrees with the notion of Bacon that the history of nature and the arts are the foundation of science. Hooke is also a leader in publicizing microscopy.
The scientific revolution-defining features lie to what degree scientific notion transformed in the era of only a century. The antiquity of the scientific revolution teaches that all the opinions of the seventeenth epoch logicians obligate a great significance in the setting of the advances they created by way of a whole hypothetical. The inventors understood more of the faculty rationality and free experimentation. For example, the genius philosophers, together with scientists like Descartes and Boyle, experienced a problem with non-scientific reasoning like teleology. The scientific century philosophers have built a great legacy in the success of the scientific revolution.