Critically Evaluate Trade Union Strategies to increase the influence of collective bargaining with Multi National Corporations as a means of regulating terms and conditions of employment 严格评估工会战略，以提高与跨国公司的劳资谈判的影响力，以此作为规范雇佣条款和条件的手段
To reply the question above, firstly we should know what are trade unions? The answer to that is, A trade union (British ) or labor union (American) is an organization of labourers who have bonded together to achieve same goals such as better working conditions. The labour union, through its leadership, bargain with the multinationals on behalf of trade union members and negotiates worker contracts (collective bargaining) with employers. This may include the negotiation of pay, work rules, complaint procedures, rules governing hiring, firing and promotion of workers, benefits, workplace safety and policies. The agreement negotiated by the trade union leaders are binding on the rank and file members and the employer and in some cases on other non-member workers. (First published by George Allen and Unwin Ltd (London) in 1952, and subject of reprints – Foreword by Arthur Deakin)
Discovered in Europe, trade unions became famous in many countries during the Industrial Revolution, when the lack of skill necessary to perform most jobs shifted employment bargaining power almost completely to the employers’ side, causing many workers to be mistreated and underpaid. Labour union organizations may be consist of individual workers, professionals, past workers, or the unemployed. The most common, but by no means only, purpose of these organizations is “maintaining or improving the conditions of their employment”. Published by Batch worth Press (London) in 1949
In last 300 years, many trade unions has developed in different form, influenced be different political parties for their objectives which include Provision of benefits to members, Collective bargaining
Trade unions put many efforts in collective bargaining with multinational organizations. Now what collective bargaining is? Collective bargaining is a process between employers and workers to reach a decision regarding the rights and duties of workers at work. Collective bargaining aims to reach a collective agreement which usually sets out issues such as employees pay, working hours, training, health and safety, and rights to participate in workplace or company affairs. During the bargaining process, employees are typically represented by a trade union. The union may negotiate with a one employer (who is typically representing a company’s shareholders) or may negotiate with a federation of businesses, depending on the country, to reach an industry wide agreement. Buidens, Wayne, and others. “Collective Gaining: A Bargaining Alternative.” Phi Delta Kappan 63 (1981): 244-245
A collective agreement work as a labor contract between an employer and one or more unions. Collective bargaining is a process of negotiation between members of a labour union and employers (generally represented by management, in some countries by an employers’ organization) in respect of the terms and conditions of employment of employees, such as wages, hours of work, working conditions and grievance-procedures, and about the rights and responsibilities of trade unions. The parties often refer to the result of the negotiation as a collective bargaining.
Answering the question Trade Union Strategies to increase the influence of collective bargaining with Multi National Corporations as a means of regulating terms and conditions of employment
Moving further we have to evaluate trade union strategies to increase the influence of collective bargaining by enlarging maturity of collective bargaining implies larger of the rational wayâ€¦ This reasonable procedure involves the employee, employer, and union settling on the basis of facts rather than name-calling, table pounding, and emotionalism (Sloane, Witney, 203-204). Therefore, in order to make collective bargaining more rational certain procedure are taken in to action. Edward Peters has written a guide to better negotiating titled Strategy and Tactics in Labor Talks. In this book he suggest good wayss for obtaining a more rational negotation. The first important step toward better bargaining is to realize the essential purpose of talks and importance of talks. In a bargaining conflict, there are three main activities in which each party is involved: (1) attempt to impress each other, the workers, and public opinion by advocating the merits of their current positions; (2) indicate bonding to each other; and (3) explore the prospectus, in terms of each other’s maximum and minimum expectancies, of a settlement without an economic contest, or, at worst, a contest of minimum duration (Peters, Edward, 41). Peters says that cosmopolitan bargainers often underestimate the importance of good preparation and presentation of their position because they feel that these are just window dressing for the harsh realities of economic strength (Peters, 42). It is true that economic strength is important, but a position reinforced by logic and reason can often exert a crucial influence (Peters, 42). Another step toward better talks is preparation and the setting of realistic goals. Peters states that the pragmatic or impracticality of a collective bargaining goal is a matter of foresight, not something to be determined by hindsight (Peters, 60). An example of this that pertains to management is that sometimes there are items that a labour union cannot and will not grant. If management does not prepare enough and makes the assumption that the union can and will negotiate on any proposal submitted by management, they risk the possibility of strikes. There are many other issues overwhich trade unions may agreee to lose a plant in an economic contest rather than endanger itself with a big group (Peters, 60). If the administrations set more realistic goals then the results may not be that harmful. In order to set realistic goals, a criteria for realistic goals must be established. Most conveyour, according to Peters, would agree that a realistic goal, to be attained without an economic contest, must be based on the following minimum considerations: (1) has the other party the ability to grant the issue? The employer must be able to grant the issue without any serious damage to operations. The union must be able to grant the issue without issue without serious internal injury, or any danger to an organization, or losing out to a rival union; also wi thout seriously impairing its external relationships in the labor movement, or with other employers; are you warranted, by your strength, in setting such a goal? (3) Is your goal within the bargaining expectancy of the other party? This last point may be disregarded only if you are ready to wage an economic contest for your minimum goal (Peters, 61-62). These criteria should be fully examined before setting any goal or pressing any issue in a labor negotiation. Priorities must be established and ranked in order of impact and importance (Richardson, Reed C., 128). Even though setting realistic goals help in talks, a course of action must be pursued in order to obtain those goals. Prestige plays an essential role in talks. Reputation is an intangible quality in the sense that it is a symbol-a symbol of the potential and actual strengths of the parties in all of their relationships. Prestige reflects itself in the relationship of the parties to each other and especially to the employee in the plant. A union’s basic strength lies in the support of its own membership (Peters, 85-86). Other factors that affect during talks are sign language, fringe issues, and negotiable factors. However, the most important tactics take place before the actual talks. Conveyour who approach the bargaining bench without sufficient factual information to handle the growing complexities of labor relationsâ€¦operate at a distinct disadvantage (Sloane, Witney, 213). Most larger unions and almost all major corporations today have their own research departments to gather data and conduct surveys. Only if both parties research and establish a framework for talks can they successfully obtain results within their range of acceptability. With this in mind, collective bargaining can mature to its desired rationality in the management-labor relationship.
进一步，我们必须评估工会的策略，通过扩大劳资谈判的成熟度来增加劳资谈判的影响力，这意味着更大的理性方式。这种合理的程序涉及员工、雇主和工会基于事实而不是点名、敲桌子和情绪主义来解决问题。因此，为了使劳资谈判更加合理，采取了一定的程序。爱德华·彼得斯撰写了一本名为《劳工谈判中的战略和战术》的更好谈判指南。在这本书中，他提出了获得更理性否定的好方法。更好谈判的第一个重要步骤是实现谈判的基本目的和谈判的重要性。在讨价还价的冲突中，有三个主要的活动，每一方都参与其中：（1）试图通过宣传他们当前职位的优点来打动对方、工人和公众舆论；（2） 表示彼此结合；以及（3）根据彼此的最大和最小期望，探讨在没有经济竞争的情况下，或者最坏情况下，在最短期限的竞争下达成和解的招股说明书。彼得斯表示，世界性的讨价还价者往往低估了做好准备和陈述自己立场的重要性，因为他们觉得这些只是对经济实力严峻现实的粉饰。经济实力固然重要，但逻辑和理性强化的地位往往会产生关键影响（Peters，42）。朝着更好的谈判迈出的另一步是准备和设定现实的目标。彼得斯表示，劳资谈判目标的实用性或不实用性是一个前瞻性问题，而不是事后诸葛亮才能决定的问题。与管理有关的一个例子是，有时工会不能也不会批准某些项目。如果管理层没有做好充分的准备，并假设工会能够并将就管理层提交的任何提案进行谈判，他们就有可能罢工。还有许多其他问题，工会可能会同意在经济竞争中失去一家工厂，而不是与一个大集团一起危及自身。如果政府设定了更现实的目标，那么结果可能不会那么有害。为了设定现实的目标，必须建立现实目标的标准。根据彼得斯的说法，大多数传达者都同意，在没有经济竞争的情况下实现一个现实的目标，必须基于以下最低限度的考虑：（1）另一方是否有能力批准该问题？雇主必须能够在不严重损害运营的情况下批准该问题。工会必须能够在没有严重的内部伤害、对组织造成任何危险或输给竞争对手的工会的情况下，毫无争议地批准该问题；也不会严重损害其在劳工运动中或与其他雇主的外部关系；以你的实力，你有理由设定这样的目标吗？（3） 你的目标是否在对方预期的谈判范围内？只有当你准备为你的最低目标进行经济竞争时，最后一点才可能被忽视。在劳动谈判中设定任何目标或提出任何问题之前，应充分检查这些标准。必须按照影响和重要性的顺序确定优先级并进行排序。尽管设定现实的目标有助于谈判，但为了实现这些目标，必须采取行动。声望在会谈中起着至关重要的作用。声誉是一种无形的品质，因为它是一种象征，象征着双方在所有关系中的潜力和实际实力。威望体现在双方之间的关系中，尤其是对工厂员工的关系。一个工会的基本力量在于其自身成员的支持。影响会谈的其他因素包括手语、边缘问题和可协商因素。然而，最重要的策略发生在实际会谈之前。在没有足够的事实信息来处理日益复杂的劳资关系的情况下，向谈判席传达信息的人处于明显的劣势（Sloane，Witney，213）。如今，大多数大型工会和几乎所有大公司都有自己的研究部门来收集数据和进行调查。只有双方研究并建立一个谈判框架，他们才能成功地获得在其可接受范围内的结果。考虑到这一点，劳资谈判可以在劳资关系中成熟到其期望的合理性。
By carefully reading the above matter we can say that cooperation plays an important and crucial role for the relationship between management and its employees and their trade union representatives and though it is not surprising that internationalization of management through the multinational cooperation’s and had adverse impact on the relationship and trade union strategies. There are several dimensions and concern of the trade union with respect to the multinational cooperation’s. There are number of advantages acquiring to the firms as their multinational nature. To counteract the strength of these multinational, trade union organizations have developed new institutional structures and strategic thrust. Trade union strengthing, legal regulation and cross national cooperative strategies are explored as they occur at every level of trade union movement. And the central role of these trade unions strategies is to the development of trade union bargaining capabilities.