International Studies留学作业:Globalisation Affect on Xenophobic Attitudes

发布时间:2022-03-10 15:49:14 论文编辑:cinq888

International Studies留学作业-全球化对仇外态度的影响。本文是一篇国际研究方向的留学作业范文,主要内容是从“随着全球化促进了人员、思想和产品的跨国界自由流动,个人将更多地被视为全球公民,更不容易产生仇外态度。”这一论点进行讨论。留学作业提出虽然全球化促进了人员、思想和产品跨国界的自由流动,但也为个人提供了成为全球公民的机会。然而,尽管这篇文章将指出,这使他们不那么容易产生仇外态度,但全球化也产生了其他影响,这些影响可能只会引发仇外态度。本篇留学作业将探讨全球化对职场个人的影响,重点关注跨国公司如何增加对全球流动员工的需求,从而提高他们的文化智商。本文还将探讨在全球组织中工作的非全球流动员工,以及全球化对他们的影响。随着学者们越来越关注世界主义或全球公民,文化智商的重要性也将被讨论。最后,留学作业将探讨仇外心理以及全球化对仇外观点的影响。

留学作业

“As globalisation promotes a free-flow of people, ideas and products across national boundaries, individuals will be more identified as global citizens and less prone to xenophobic attitudes.” Discuss.
While globalisation promotes a free-flow of people, ideas, and products across national boundaries, it provides opportunities to individuals to become global citizens. However, while this essay will argue that this has made them less prone to xenophobic attitudes, globalisation has also had other impacts which may have only provoked xenophobic attitudes. This essay will examine the impact which globalisation has had on individuals in the workplace, focusing on how Multinational Corporations have increased the need for globally mobile employees, therefore increasing their cultural intelligence along the way. The essay will also explore employees working within global organisations who are not globally mobile, and the impact which globalisation has had on them. The importance of cultural intelligence will also be discussed alongside the growing focus of scholars on cosmopolitan or global citizens, and finally, the essay will examine xenophobia and the impact which globalisation has had upon xenophobic views.

Globalisation is the introduction and growth of products, people, information, and money across borders and is an important impact on the shape of national identities and relationships (Ariely, 2011).  Arnett (2002) argues that globalisation is not just a historical process but is also a change in mind-set of citizens around the world and has positively and sometimes negatively redefined national identity and culture. In effect, globalisation defines the world in which we live, and has changed the way in which citizens identify themselves (Ariely, 2011 & Arnett, 2002). However, some researchers have argued that in the process globalisation has undermined national cultures and identity – creating what is moving towards a single identity for all global citizens (Smith, 2007 & Held, McGrew & Perraton, 1999). Effectively, globalisation has been guided by “economic forces” (Sideri, 1997. Pg.38) with the actions and growth of Multinational Corporations (MNC’s) furthering globalisation (Buckley & Ghauri, 2004).
全球化是产品、人员、信息和金钱的跨国引进和增长,对国家身份和关系的形成有重要影响。阿内特认为,全球化不仅是一个历史过程,也是世界各地公民心态的变化,并对国家身份和文化进行了积极的、有时是消极的重新定义。实际上,全球化定义了我们生活的世界,并改变了公民自我认同的方式。然而,一些研究人员认为,在这一过程中,全球化破坏了民族文化和身份认同——为所有全球公民创造了走向单一身份的东西。实际上,全球化是由“经济力量”引导的,跨国公司(MNC)的行动和增长推动了全球化。
With MNC’s comes the need for the retention and transfer of knowledge between operating units and countries (Elenkov & Manev, 2009). Expatriates (Expats) are used by MNC’s for three main reasons; to fill positions where no suitable candidate exists in the host country, as an opportunity to develop the expatriate’s skills, and most importantly; to transfer important knowledge and corporate culture from home to host countries (Collings et al, 2007). Within MNC’s expats will work with people of many different nationalities, and globalisation is only expediting the mobility required of expatriates, therefore, the number of cultures in which expatriates are working in and becoming accustomed to is increasing (Lee, 2014). Lee (2014) argues that this is exposure to new cultures has increased the number of people which identify as learned bi-culturals, and who feel accustomed to 2 or more cultures after experiencing the identity negotiation process. The knowledge and understanding of different cultures that being bi-cultural brings allows these individuals to adapt quickly and become more adept to different situations (Hong et al, 2000 & Lee, 2014).
随着跨国公司的出现,运营单位和国家之间需要保留和转移知识。跨国公司使用外派人员有三个主要原因;填补东道国没有合适人选的职位,作为发展外籍人员技能的机会,最重要的是;将重要知识和企业文化从本国转移到东道国。在跨国公司内部,外籍人士将与许多不同国籍的人一起工作,全球化只会加快外籍人士所需的流动性,因此,外籍人士在其中工作并逐渐习惯的文化数量正在增加。Lee认为,这是因为接触新文化增加了认同为习得的双文化的人数,以及在经历身份协商过程后感到习惯于两种或两种以上文化的人数。双文化带来的对不同文化的知识和理解,使这些人能够快速适应,并变得更加适应不同的情况。
While individuals will generally undergo an identity negotiation process when entering employment with a new organisation, international experience adds to this further (Lee, 2014). Sanchez et al (2000) explain that during the adjustment process to working within a different culture, an individual may become more attached to their home unit, or alternatively, become more attached to their host unit. This acculturation is essentially a process leading to cultural changes within the individual after interacting with members of different cultures (Lee, 2014), and can be portrayed in a number of strategies by the individual when operating in different cultures. This impacts their identification and adaptation with their home and host country and can lead to positive outcomes – however, two of the outcomes of acculturation can be marginalisation or separation, where an individual does not identify with the host country (Lee, 2014 & Berry, 2005). Another theory of culture acquisition is the identity negotiation process, where when individuals encounter a new culture question their values and beliefs leading to a renegotiation of their own identity through experimentation and reflection (Lee, 2014).
虽然个人在进入新组织工作时通常会经历身份协商过程,但国际经验进一步增加了这一点。Sanchez等人解释说,在适应不同文化的过程中,个人可能会更依附于自己的家庭单位,或者,也可能会更依附于自己的寄宿单位。这种文化适应本质上是一个在与不同文化的成员互动后导致个人内部文化变化的过程,在不同文化中运作时,个人可以在许多策略中进行描述。这会影响他们对母国和东道国的认同和适应,并可能导致积极的结果——然而,文化适应的两个结果可能是边缘化或分离,即个人不认同东道国。文化习得的另一个理论是身份协商过程,当个人遇到新的文化时,他们会质疑自己的价值观和信仰,从而通过实验和反思重新协商自己的身份。
While expats seem to have the most experience with operating within different cultures, globalisation has meant that even individuals working within their home country can experience different cultures too (Lee, 2014). Lee (2014) argues that individuals working in organisations undergoing international mergers and acquisitions, as well as those with international subsidiaries can develop an understanding of different cultures. Experience of work within different international contexts may lead individuals to develop a greater understanding of their own as well as different ways of undertaking work (Lee, 2014). It is important to note however, that an individual who is globally mobile may not automatically expose themselves to the culture of the country in which they are working. As mentioned previously, outcomes of acculturation such as marginalisation or separation can mean that the expatriate exhibits low attachment to the society in which they are working.
虽然外籍人士似乎在不同文化背景下的运营经验最多,但全球化意味着,即使是在本国工作的个人也可以体验不同的文化。Lee(2014)认为,在正在进行国际并购的组织中工作的个人,以及那些拥有国际子公司的个人,可以发展对不同文化的理解。不同国际背景下的工作经验可能会使个人更好地理解自己以及不同的工作方式。然而,需要注意的是,全球流动的个人可能不会自动接触到他们工作所在国家的文化。如前所述,文化适应的结果,如边缘化或分离,可能意味着外籍人士对工作所在的社会的依恋程度较低。
It could therefore be argued that both expatriation and working within a culturally diverse and international organisation could develop an individual’s global identity. Gupta and Govindarajan (2002) explain that a global identity is the awareness of different cultures and the openness to the integration of these cultures to create a competitive advantage. Lee (2018) argues that this competence and adaptability is gained through 3 steps; the understanding of the individuals own culture and cultural lens, acquiring knowledge of other cultures, and improving one’s cultural intelligence. The exposure to different cultures through international assignments and working within a global organisation can assist with the gaining of knowledge of different norms and values (Crowne, 2008). This exposure to different cultures needn’t just be through work either, Crowne (2008) argues that globalisation has allowed for exposure to different cultures through travel, study, and media such as television and film. While some of these methods may have a greater impact, they are all important to the development of an understanding of different cultures.
因此,可以说,在一个文化多样的国际组织中工作和移居国外都可以发展个人的全球身份。Gupta和Govindarajan解释说,全球认同是对不同文化的认识,以及对这些文化融合的开放性,以创造竞争优势。Lee认为,这种能力和适应性是通过3个步骤获得的;了解个人自身的文化和文化镜头,获取其他文化的知识,提高自己的文化智商。通过国际任务和在全球组织内工作接触不同的文化有助于获得不同规范和价值观的知识。Crowne认为,这种对不同文化的接触也不一定仅仅是通过工作,全球化已经允许通过旅行、学习以及电视和电影等媒体接触不同的文化。虽然其中一些方法可能会产生更大的影响,但它们对理解不同文化都很重要。
Crowne (2008) argues that any exposure to different cultures is directly associated with an individual’s cultural intelligence, yet some methods of exposure such as expatriation, international education and travel have a greater impact. Cultural intelligence is defined as an individual’s ability to effectively adapt to new cultures and has been found to have a positive impact on integration into multicultural teams (Earley, 2002). Furthermore, employees with higher cultural intelligence are able to adjust more easily to new cultures and show greater performance within multicultural teams and tasks (Templer et al, 2006). Cultural intelligence is born through 4 main dimensions; Cognitive – gaining the knowledge of values and norms of different cultures, Motivational – the commitment to acquiring new knowledge and learn, Behavioural – the ability to adapt to new cultural situations, and Metacognitive – the ability to monitor one’s self, and to adjust based on new experiences (Lee, 2018 & Ang et al, 2007).
Crowne认为,任何不同文化的接触都与个人的文化智商直接相关,但一些接触方式,如外派、国际教育和旅行,影响更大。文化智商被定义为个人有效适应新文化的能力,并被发现对融入多文化团队有积极影响。此外,具有较高文化智商的员工能够更容易地适应新文化,并在多文化团队和任务中表现出更好的表现。文化智商是通过四个主要维度产生的;认知——获得不同文化价值观和规范的知识,动机——获得新知识和学习的承诺,行为——适应新文化环境的能力,元认知——监控自我的能力,以及根据新经验进行调整的能力。
The importance of cultural intelligence cannot be underestimated, as it assists individuals with seeing past the stereotypes and perhaps xenophobic views of other cultures (Lee, 2018). Furthermore, it stops an individual from casting judgement until all of the facts are known and available (Triandis, 2006 & Elenkov & Manev, 2009). Interestingly, cultural intelligence is directly linked to cross-cultural competence, which reduces the pressure that may be associated with handling difficult decisions in culturally different environments and can increases effectiveness (Elenkov & Manev, 2009). Of course, the cultural intelligence of the majority of individuals will increase through international assignments and working within a global organisation. Elenkov & Manev (2009) further this argument and explain that cultural intelligence is vital for managers within organisations. The GLOBE project found that the leadership styles favoured or expected from country to country vary depending on the cultural variables found in that context (Dorfman et al, 2002), and it can be seen that the cultural intelligence and adaptability of managers and individuals is vital to their performance and effectiveness in different cultures (Elenkov & Manev, 2009). It can therefore be argued that the greater the cultural intelligence of an individual, the more understanding, aware and open they should be to different cultures and therefore less prone to xenophobic attitudes (Lee, 2014).
文化智商的重要性不可低估,因为它有助于个体克服对其他文化的刻板印象和仇外观点。此外,它还阻止个人做出判断,直到所有事实都已知并可用为止)。有趣的是,文化智商与跨文化能力直接相关,跨文化能力可以降低在不同文化环境中处理困难决策的压力,并提高效率。当然,通过国际任务和在全球组织内工作,大多数人的文化智商都会提高。Elenkov&Manev进一步阐述了这一观点,并解释了文化智商对组织内的管理者至关重要。全球项目发现,各国青睐或期望的领导风格因在该背景下发现的文化变量而异,可以看出,管理者和个人的文化智慧和适应性对他们在不同文化中的表现和有效性至关重要。因此可以说,一个人的文化智商越高,他们对不同文化的理解、意识和开放程度就越高,因此就越不容易产生仇外态度。
The emerging concept of cosmopolitan global citizens is one still in debate. In its early conception, cosmopolitanism was seen to be an outlook which transcended national boundaries and complemented cultural intelligence (Woodward et al, 2008). The concept has now been developed to incorporate institutional, political, and cultural dimensions (Woodward et al, 2008). From a cultural perspective, most researchers have agreed that cosmopolitanism can be seen as an openness to different cultures as well as the values and beliefs that they may hold. Woodward et al (2008) argue that while an individual does not need to be globally mobile to hold cosmopolitan values, the cultural exposure that expatriates experience may assist them with gaining the attitudes and values associated with cosmopolitanism (Lee, 2014). Furthermore, cosmopolitan citizens are seen to be more engaged with others that identify as cosmopolitan citizens and hold similar worldviews (Lee, 2014). The concept therefore of a cosmopolitan is that of an individual who defines themselves less as part of a single national or cultural identity, and more as a global citizen – who should be less prone to xenophobic attitudes (Lee, 2014). This is supported by Ariely (2017) who showed that identifying as a cosmopolitan reduces xenophobic attitudes, a relationship which is moderated by the level of globalisation in the individuals home country, with those exhibiting higher levels of globalisation demonstrating a stronger negative relation between cosmopolitanism and xenophobic attitudes.
国际公民这一新兴概念仍在争论之中。在其早期概念中,世界主义被视为一种超越国界、补充文化智慧的观点。现在,这一概念已经发展到包括制度、政治和文化层面。从文化角度来看,大多数研究人员都同意,世界主义可以被视为对不同文化及其可能持有的价值观和信仰的开放。而伍德沃德等人则认为,在全球范围内,个人的价值观和世界观不需要联系在一起。此外,世界主义公民被视为与其他认同为世界主义公民并持有类似世界观的人更为接触。因此,世界主义者的概念是一个较少将自己定义为单一国家或文化身份的一部分,而更多地将自己定义为全球公民的个人——他们应该不那么容易产生仇外态度。这一点得到了Ariely的支持,他表明,将自己视为世界主义者会减少仇外态度,这种关系会受到个人母国全球化水平的调节,那些全球化程度较高的人表现出世界主义和仇外态度之间更强烈的负面关系。
The dictionary definition of xenophobia is the fear or hatred of strangers or foreigners, it is usually thought that the term overlaps with racism, however, xenophobic behaviour is based on the idea that an individual is different due to being a member of a different nation or social group (UNESCO, 2018). Ariely (2011) argues that the idea of xenophobia can be based on social identity theory which defines social identity as the differences between social groups – with members feeling more strongly associated to the group in which they belong. Xenophobic views are therefore the result of social groups – such as nations and culture, being different from one another (Ariely, 2011). Interestingly, the results of globalisation such as the development of cosmopolitan citizens, bi-culturals and individuals showing a strong cultural intelligence seems to show that globalisation is causing to move towards a more homogenous global citizen identity, instead of heterogeneous national identities (Ariely, 2011). Such “superordinate” identities could reduce or eliminate differences between national identities, and therefore reduce xenophobic views.
词典对仇外心理的定义是对陌生人或外国人的恐惧或仇恨,通常认为该词与种族主义重叠,然而,仇外行为基于这样一种观念,即个人因属于不同的国家或社会群体而有所不同。Ariely认为,仇外心理的概念可以基于社会认同理论,该理论将社会认同定义为社会群体之间的差异——成员感觉与他们所属的群体有更强烈的联系。因此,仇外观点是社会群体——如国家和文化——相互不同的结果。有趣的是,全球化的结果,如国际公民、双文化人士和表现出强大文化智慧的个人的发展,似乎表明全球化正在导致全球公民身份朝着更同质的方向发展,而不是异质的国家身份。这种“上级”身份可以减少或消除国家身份之间的差异,从而减少仇外观点。
It is also important to recognise that some research has shown globalisation to have the opposite effect, heightening nationalistic identities and in turn perhaps causing xenophobic views against those seen with a different social or national identity (Ariely, 2011). Interestingly, Ariely (2011) found that in certain countries, while globalisation may decrease xenophobic attitudes in some people, it can increase them in others. While this study was actually based on xenophobic views against immigrants it paints an interesting picture that globalisation can have many different impacts on different people within the same country, and that context is incredibly important (Ariely, 2011). There are also negative aspects to consider such as the accelerated flows of terrorism, which have only promoted xenophobic attitudes due to the placing of blame on the lack of national borders – which globalisation has had a hand in reducing (Heine & Thakur, 2011).
同样重要的是要认识到,一些研究表明全球化产生了相反的效果,增强了民族主义身份,进而可能导致针对不同社会或民族身份的人的仇外观点。有趣的是,Ariely发现,在某些国家,全球化可能会减少某些人的仇外态度,但也会增加其他人的仇外态度。虽然这项研究实际上是基于对移民的仇外观点,但它描绘了一幅有趣的画面,即全球化可以对同一个国家内的不同人群产生许多不同的影响,而这一背景极其重要。也有一些消极的方面需要考虑,比如恐怖主义的加速流动。
This essay explored the impact which globalisation has had upon individuals around the world. Whether a cosmopolitan citizen, learned or born bi-cultural, or an individual that has developed a strong cultural intelligence, the ability to adapt and understand other cultures seems to reduce the ownership of xenophobic attitudes. The essay found that as individuals gain a greater cultural intelligence, or identify as cosmopolitan or global citizens, they tend to identify less with their national culture/identity and identify more with a global identity. Using social identity theory from Ariely (2011), it can therefore be argued that while xenophobia is usually based on the differences between social, cultural, or national groups – the fact that more people are identifying as global citizens is reducing the differences between these groups around the world, and therefore reducing xenophobic attitudes.

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这篇International Studies留学作业探讨了全球化对世界各地个人的影响。无论是世界主义公民、博学的或天生的双文化人士,还是拥有强大文化智商的个人,适应和理解其他文化的能力似乎都会减少对仇外态度的持有。这篇文章发现,随着个人获得更高的文化智商,或认同为世界主义者或全球公民,他们倾向于更少地认同自己的国家文化/身份,更多地认同全球身份。因此,利用Ariely的社会认同理论,可以认为,尽管仇外心理通常基于社会、文化或民族群体之间的差异,但更多人认同为全球公民的事实正在缩小世界各地这些群体之间的差异,从而减少仇外态度。

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