本文是美国留学生计算机专业作业代写范例，题目是“AWS Solution for American Airlines（美国航空AWS解决方案）”，美国航空公司是全球著名的航空公司之一。长期以来，航空公司一直面临技术和维护问题。该航空公司采用了IBM的云解决方案，但由于其遗留的系统和无法分析大量实时数据，并从竞争中得出有用的见解，因此仍然存在问题。AWS提供了广泛的解决方案和工具，不仅可以解决技术问题，还可以提高整体业务生产率和性能。
American Airlines are one of the famous airlines globally. Ever since a long time the airline is facing technical & maintenance issues. The airline adopted IBM cloud solution but is still in trouble due to its legacy system & incapability to analyse huge real time data and draw useful insights over the competitions. AWS provides wide range of solutions and tools not only to solve technical problems but also to improve overall business productivity and performance.
AWS provides services which are highly available, scalable, secure and at a low cost. Services like EC2, S3, RDS, Glacier, ELB, Route53 and more will provide better solutions to the problems currently experienced by AA. In this report we provide possible solutions to the problems, information about selection and justification of AWS technologies, cloud environment, VPC structure and few successful stories of existing airlines adopting AWS solution for similar problems.
American Airlines is a major US airline having their headquarters in Fort Worth, Texas. AMR Corporation, the parent company of American Airlines, merged AA with US Airways in the year 2013 to become the largest airlines globally in terms of revenue-which is over $40Bn as of 2018, destinations served-more than 350 destinations, fleet size-956 mainline flights and scheduled passenger-kilometres flown.
AA have 3 different strategic business units: Mainline passenger-operated by the airline’s main operating unit, Regional passenger-operated by regional airline’s operating unit and Cargo segments. Over 6700 flights are operated per day serving more than 350 destinations across 50+ countries. AA has a very large domestic presence which gives the company more than 60% of their revenues and the rest is by international flights and cargo. Passenger business constitutes to the 70% revenue and 87% of this revenue is in the form of airfare.
2.Existing Cloud Architecture现有的云架构
Earlier American Airlines were always on highlights for its system failures and malfunctions. They started gaining the reputation of not being so technically advance. Thus, American Airlines started assessing cloud providers and decided to move customer site and other applications to cloud.
According to Maya Leibman (Chief Information Officer at AA) said that, “The company aims to revamp portions of the aa.com website so that the customer service and booking site can take advantage of on-demand computing power offered by cloud infrastructure.”
In 2016 American Airline partnered with IBM and started using its VMware HCX solution to deploy legacy systems which include its customer-facing applications to the cloud mainly for booking system and customer service. Researches makes it evident that AA is still facing problems with its IT infrastructure, flight maintenance systems, glitches in reservation systems, website crash and many more applications impacting its reputation & revenue.
3.Challenges for American Airlines美国航空面临的挑战
One of the main reasons for flight cancellations/delays is problem with infrastructure which could be like lack of resources, security issues, performance, etc. On Thursday (14 June’18) PSA Airlines subsidiary of American Airlines faced huge flight cancellations due to failure in computer systems impacting crew scheduling & tracking systems. Total 700 flights got cancelled on Thursday & Friday. The issue didn’t disappear over weekend and PSA suffered about 1100 flights cancellation by Monday cumulatively. Technical glitches caused American Airlines share to fell <1 percent.
Crew Management Systems
In April 2015 when the flight was delayed due to an issue in the Jeppesen app. Jeppesen is a digital flight bag or an app used by pilots to observe the activities occurring on the runway. A duplicate airport runway chart occurred in the app which did not sync with the app’s version. Due to this, the app become unresponsive and the pilots could not see the runway which resulted in flight delays for almost 2 days.
One more incident took place in November 2016 with Sabre, the company which handles the airlines reservation system faced temporary outage in check-in systems. This affected not only American Airlines but also other regional carriers associated with it. The company had its backup systems in place, however these systems are connected to a single micro switch.
In February 2017 in Philadelphia, American Airlines had a planned maintenance power outage between 1 to 4 a.m. Even when the power came back on, the internet access remained down. Due to this the airlines were unable to print boarding passes.
Another issue recently faced by AA on July 2018 was when computer outage halted flight operations for about 30 minutes. The main reason behind this was OS failure and brief connectivity issue with one of its datacentres.
Maintenance and Engineering System
Central Reservation System
Flight Operation System
Airport Management System
In order to overcome above challenges below solutions can be adopted by American Airlines:
Reliable Backup Systems
In order to provide more redundancy in case of hardware failures, we would require reliable backup systems which can be done using AWS Database services like Glacier, Simple Storage Service(S3). With AWS, we can replicate data across multiple Availability Zones & helps in fault isolation. The AZ’s are connected using high speed links.
Business Analytics Service
American Airline can move towards more data-driven solution. The sensors of aircraft have massive amount of data. This data can be used for advanced aircraft maintenance methods and improving decision making of operational systems.
With the use of Business Intelligence & data analytics we can not only predict about the condition of various aircraft parts but also it helps in making intelligent decisions about what needs to be done at any given time – such as, to repair or replace parts.
Amazon provides business analytics framework through its AmazonQuickSight service. Through this service we get business insights from data rapidly and it helps in performing advanced analytical functions. It also improves dashboards of airlines performance metrics using data visualization.
A disaster recover site is very necessary for any organization to keep the business activities running in case of any natural calamities, damage or cyber-attacks. Structuring a Disaster Recovery Plan (DRP) for on-premises infrastructures means creating a secondary physical site which is highly expensive. AWS has partnered with companies such as N2WS, Cloudberry lab, Commvault which deliver effective disaster recovery solutions. CPM also known as Cloud Protection manager which is sold as Amazon Machine Image in the AWS marketplace provides efficient backing up solution at much lower cost.
EBS stores incremental backups, so we only pay for the snapshots that have changed after your recent snapshot. Every snapshot contains the information required to restore the data to a new EBS volume.
Monthly Cost of CPM = Cost of storing EBS snapshots + cost of running service & CPM instance
Regular healthcheck of systems
Even with robust backup systems applications tend to fail every time. This can be avoided by practicing real-time analysis and monitoring of systems which provide an integrated view of the system’s performance. Services such as AWS CloudWatch can be used to examine and manage an organization’s applications.
4.Environment & Availability Zones环境和可用性区域
Availability Zones (AZ):
AZ’s are geographic regions where the AWS have their data centres. Each AZ has 2 or more data centres which are independent but are located close to each other. The main function of AZ is redundancy and data replication. American Airlines have a large customer base spread across the world. Even though their presence is worldwide, the frequency of flights operating in and around the US is more. North Virginia, Oregon, Ohio, Ireland and Singapore are the regions selected based on factors listed below.
Based on proximity to the customer or the user: AA airlines have a large domestic presence and their headquarters is in Texas, USA. It typically makes sense to have a greater number of regions in the US and few across other continents.
5.Virtual Private Cloud (VPC)虚拟私有云 (VPC)
It is a customer defined, logically isolated section of AWS where the AWS resources are launched on a virtual network. The customer has control over networking environments such as IP address range, creation of subnets and config of route table and network gateways.
It maximises the number of AZ’s to isolate the data centre outage. For disaster recovery and high availability up to 4 AZs are recommended.
There are two separate subnets for routing requirements:
Public subnets for External facing resources
Private subnets for Internal facing resources
Independent routing tables configuration for each subnet to control the flow of traffic within and outside VPC. Allocation of one routing table for all the public subnets is enough as they all use the same internet gateway.
Usageof highly available NAT gateways instead of NAT instances.
Spare capacity for additional subnets for scalability.
American Airlines mostly faced issues related to website crash, system outages and downtime which eventually led to flight delays, customer dissatisfaction, loss of revenue and negative impact on the reputation of the company. Similar kind of problems were faced by Porter airlines, which eventually adopted AWS cloud technologies. Today, the Porter Airlines has overcome a lot of major issues by migrating their Sales and Customer Service Engine on the cloud.
During peak times, which usually comprise of holidays and festivals, American Airlines experiences a huge amount of traffic on its website. At other times, traffic is moderate and is the lowest from August to October. With such fluctuating volumes of traffic, it is necessary to scale up the resources whenever required and shrink them as well during non-peak times. This can be done using Auto-Scaling.
Based upon above success stories of Airlines using AWS and Stephan Treacy’s lecture notes we have used technologies like EC2, S3, DynamoDB, EBS, ELB, RDS, Glacier, CloudWatch, SNS, Route53, Elastic Cache, IAM, Quick sight in developing environment for American Airline.
基于以上航空公司使用AWS的成功案例和Stephan Treacy的演讲笔记，我们在开发环境中使用了EC2、S3、DynamoDB、EBS、ELB、RDS、Glacier、CloudWatch、SNS、Route53、Elastic Cache、IAM、Quick sight等技术。