本文是儿童保育专业的Essay作业范例，题目是“The Effect of Childhood Poverty on the Development of Canadian Children（儿童贫困对加拿大儿童教育发展的影响）”，在这个研究中，我的主题是“研究儿童贫困对加拿大儿童发展的影响，包括发育迟缓和非发育迟缓”。在这篇文章中，我讨论了一些问题，说明儿童贫困如何影响儿童的发展以及如何影响儿童的健康和机会。生活在贫困线以下的儿童通常学术知识水平较低，因为他们无法上学，在那里他们可以得到良好的关注和知识(Chartier M. J.， Brownell, m.d.， 2017)。这些孩子最终会导致低收入。生活在贫困中的儿童的教育缺陷更严重。贫困是由家庭成员的数量占联邦贫困水平的百分比来衡量的。如果孩子从小就很穷，那么他在现在和未来的生活中会面临很多问题(Chartier M. J.， Brownell, m.d .，2017)。生活在贫困中的孩子学习不好，这些也会影响他们成为一个成熟的人。如果我们将生活在贫困中的孩子的智商与生活在更好的房子里的孩子的智商进行比较，生活在更好的房子里的孩子的智商比生活在贫困以下的孩子的智商高出一段时间(Hackman, da .， Gallop, R, 2015)。关于非人类生物的研究表明，儿童时期周围的环境、父母的关爱和压力都会影响儿童的身心功能。这些早期经历的风格与贫困有关(Hackman, da .， Gallop, R .， 2015)。当我们比较生活在贫困中的孩子时，我们可以说生活在贫困中的孩子享受的父母照顾更少。他们的房子里住着更多的人，而且通常提供的认知刺激要少得多。
In this research my topic is “Research the effect of childhood poverty on the development of Canadian Children both with the developmental delay and without”. In this I had discussed points which shows how poverty in children affects the developmental of children and how it affects their health and opportunity. Children who live below poverty line generally have lower academic knowledge because they cannot able to attend school where they can get good attention and knowledge (Chartier M. J., Brownell, M. D., 2017). These children can ultimately contribute to low income and wages. The instructional deficits are more in children who live under poverty. Poverty is measured by the number of members in the family as a percentage of the federal poverty level. If the child is poor from its early age, then he would face many problems in his life in present and in the future (Chartier M. J., Brownell, M. D.,2017). Children living in poverty have poor academics and these also affects them when they become a mature person. If we compare the IQ of a child living in poverty with the child who is living in better houses, the IQ of child living in better houses is time more then the IQ of child living below poverty (Hackman, D.A., Gallop, R, 2015). Research regarding non-human creatures demonstrates that the surrounding environment, care from parents and pressure in childhood can affect the mind and body function of child. These styles of early experiences are related to the poverty (Hackman, D.A., Gallop, R, 2015). When we compared the children living not in poverty, we can say that children who lives in poverty enjoy less parental care. Their houses have more people and regularly provide much less cognitive stimulation.
We have taken into consideration various hypotheses, including the discovered structural variations inside the brains of kids growing in poverty which had been explained by differences in Premature health or Parental schooling (Hackman, D.A., Gallop, R, 2015). In this Study, participants which are chosen are limited to strict eligibility standards, along with family medical, prenatal, start, and perinatal histories. Using the built indices, we examined the influence of Socio-Economic Status (SES), specially developing up in or near poverty, on development within focal regions of the brain. Family’s financial resources have been used as an indicator of Socio-Economic Status. SES described the status of a family by using both binary and express income measures and we moreover taken into consideration the sensitivity of estimates to the choice of profits thresholds (Lawson, G. M., Hook, C. J., & Farah, M. J. (2018)). The questions which connects the deficits in gaining knowledge and academics with poverty is not fully answered. If we compared today’s data, we can say that youngsters who are from family who earns very low are mostly living below poverty. This shows that child from family having low income are more affected by poverty. (Hackman, D.A., Gallop, R, 2015).
我们考虑了各种假设，包括在贫困中成长的孩子大脑内部发现的结构变化，这些变化可以用过早健康或父母教育的差异来解释(Hackman, da .， Gallop, R, 2015)。在这项研究中，被选择的参与者被限制在严格的资格标准，以及家庭医疗、产前、开始和围产期的历史。利用建立的指数，我们检查了社会经济地位(SES)，特别是在贫困或接近贫困的情况下，对大脑重点区域内的发展的影响。家庭财政资源已被用作社会经济地位的指标。SES通过使用二元和表达的收入衡量方法来描述家庭的状况，而且我们还考虑了估计对利润阈值选择的敏感性(Lawson, g.m.， Hook, c.j， & Farah, m.j .(2018))。知识和学术的匮乏与贫困之间的联系尚未得到充分的回答。如果我们比较一下今天的数据，我们可以说，那些来自低收入家庭的年轻人大多生活在贫困之下。这表明低收入家庭的孩子更容易受到贫困的影响。(地方检察官、R . Gallop, 2015)。
By underlying the profit success gap, improvement and shape of mind is the mechanism is not very good to indicate SES. One thing which can connect the parental SES to child’s fulfilment widely operates through euro organic mechanism. (Hackman, D.A., Gallop, R, 2015). The results obtain from the study indicate that specific brain systems tied to tactics are critical for gaining knowledge and academic functioning (e.g., sustained interest, making plans, and cognitive flexibility) and are liable to the environmental situations of poverty, which include pressure, restrained stimulation, and vitamins. Hence, these instances are the reason for kids’ ability of instructional fulfillment to be reduced at younger age for a long time. Hence, if there is a development in those mind areas of any child who live in poverty then it appears to be sensitive to the child’s surroundings and nurturance and is good for the overall development of the child (Hackman, D.A., Gallop, R, 2015). From these observations, we can say that interventions which can improve child’s environment can connect the poverty in child.
The initial years of lifestyles are important for physical boom and broader cognitive, economic, and socioemotional improvement, but the way to get to these approaches remains unclear. Studies investigating the connection between bodily increase and infant development are continuing from a very long time (Lawson, G. M., Hook, C. J., & Farah, M. J. (2018)). Reviews of this literature so far have presented only qualitative ﬁndings. This recognition broadly speaks on cognitive outcomes and have normally discovered that confined linear growth is associated with reduced cognitive capability. This suggests that the contribution of unmeasured confounding above and beyond measures of socioeconomic status, popularity and age, that are covered in most of the analyses, may be small. Nevertheless, this cofounding additionally shows that integrating dietary, environmental, educational, and stimulation interventions can also produce large effects on toddler development (Hackman, D.A., Gallop, R, 2015). The interventions which combine both simulation and nutrition intervention are limited, hence it is hard to get the knowledge of every domain of child functioning. But these interventions can be used to find many ways to link child’s physical growth and socioemotional development.
最初几年的生活方式对身体发育和认知、经济和社会情绪的改善都很重要，但实现这些方法的途径仍不清楚。关于身体增长和婴儿发育之间关系的研究已经持续了很长一段时间(Lawson, g.m.， Hook, c.j， & Farah, m.j.(2018))。到目前为止，对这些文献的综述仅给出了定性的发现。这种认识广泛地谈到认知结果，通常发现受限线性增长与认知能力降低有关。这表明，在社会经济地位、流行程度和年龄等因素之外的未测量的混杂因素的贡献可能很小，而这些因素在大多数分析中都被覆盖。然而，这项共同研究还表明，综合饮食、环境、教育和刺激干预措施也可以对幼儿发育产生巨大影响(Hackman, da .， Gallop, R, 2015)。结合模拟和营养干预的干预是有限的，因此很难获得儿童功能的每一个领域的知识。但这些干预措施可以找到许多方法，将孩子的身体发育和社会情感发展联系起来。
This systematic evaluation and quantitative meta-analysis afford numerous vital blessings over past qualitative work. But we had been restricted via several elements that need to be addressed in future studies (Lawson, G. M., Hook, C. J., & Farah, M. J. (2018)). Also, the studies that had cone in the past does not have a solid proof that links child’s physical growth and socioemotional development. Therefore, we are unable to determine a causal way among underlying elements that lead to constrained linear increase and infant cognitive and motor development. Secondly, we also do not have any comparable evidence socioemotional area. Hence, due to this we do not get results about the nature of relationships between boom and social and emotional development at extraordinary ages during adolescence (Lawson, G. M., Hook, C. J., & Farah, M. J. (2018)). The signiﬁcantly smaller wide variety of studies inspecting socioemotional development compared with cognitive and motor domains illustrates that we need to understand in detail about this area and need to measure the complexity of social and emotional skills which was received by the children throughout the years globally in all cultures (Lawson, G. M., Hook, C. J., & Farah, M. J. (2018)).
Parents and family members of children having disabilities faces many demanding and challenging situations that differ from the parents and family members whose children are not disabled. When a child having one or more disabilities born in a family they suffered from various kind of emotions like shock, anger, grief, etc. These emotions are similar that we felt by hearing a very bad news like an accident of any family member or a sudden death of one of our cherished ones (Chartier M. J., Brownell, M. D.,2017). Parents suffering from such emotional reactions needs some time to become normal and between this it may happen that they don’t like their children, or they do not give enough care to their children. That time is very difficult for both parents and for children. Disabilities that can be present at the birth of a child are intellectual and developmental disabilities. These disabilities negatively affect the child physical, emotional and intellectual development. Before the age of eighteen years, intellectual disabilities can be seen in any child (Chartier M. J., Brownell, M. D.,2017). This disabily affects child learning and problem- solving skill. It also affects the child functioning, adaptive behaviour. The developmental disabilities is a disability that can be forever in the child and can be related to the child’s health, intellectual or can affect both the areas. The developmental disabilities can also be noted as developmental delay. IDEA notes that to define developmental delay, states are required. It is usually referred to the speed that is very low as compared to the normal rate in areas like physical, cognitive, communication, social and economic development (Chartier M. J., Brownell, M. D.,2017).
残疾儿童的父母和家庭成员面临着与非残疾儿童的父母和家庭成员不同的许多苛刻和具有挑战性的情况。当一个有一个或多个残疾的孩子出生在一个家庭时，他们会遭受各种各样的情绪，如震惊、愤怒、悲伤等。这些情绪类似于我们听到一个非常坏的消息时的感觉，比如任何家庭成员的意外或我们心爱的人突然死亡(Chartier M. J.， Brownell, m.d.，2017)。遭受这种情绪反应的父母需要一段时间来变得正常，在这之间可能会发生他们不喜欢他们的孩子，或者他们没有给予足够的照顾他们的孩子。这段时间对父母和孩子来说都很难熬。在孩子出生时可能出现的残疾是智力和发育残疾。这些残疾对儿童的身体、情感和智力发展产生负面影响。在18岁之前，任何儿童都可能出现智力残疾(Chartier M. J.， Brownell, m.d .，2017)。这严重影响了孩子的学习和解决问题的能力。它也会影响孩子的机能和适应行为。发育性残疾是一种可能永远存在于儿童身上的残疾，可能与儿童的健康、智力有关，也可能影响这两个领域。发育障碍也可称为发育迟缓。IDEA指出，要定义发育迟缓，需要各州的支持。它通常指的是在身体、认知、沟通、社会和经济发展等领域，与正常速度相比非常低的速度(Chartier M. J.， Brownell, m.d .，2017)。
Family systems applications comply with a systems technique in that they generally focus on awareness on parent’ internal variables, together with stress, depression, or coping, based on the belief that adjustments in the one of the variables will affect the satisfactory of parenting (Chartier M. J., Brownell, M. D.,2017). A large literature documents namely the effectiveness of programs designed to coach mother and father in imposing techniques that promote the skills (e.g., developmental, language, social, play) of their youngsters with disabilities. A child having clinical image of global developmental delay isn't always destined to be mentally retarded. Because of situations which include cerebral palsy, certain neuromuscular issues, and different situations together with early environmental deprivation, infants and youngsters might also have international developmental delay, yet they do not score in the mentally retarded variety when they are old enough to measure cognitive degree.
家庭系统应用程序遵循一种系统技术，因为它们通常关注父母的内部变量的意识，以及压力、抑郁或应对，基于对其中一个变量的调整将影响父母的满意度的信念(Chartier M. J.， Brownell, m.d.，2017)。大量的文献资料，即旨在指导父母强加技术以促进残疾儿童的技能(如发展、语言、社交、玩耍)的项目的有效性。临床表现为全面发育迟缓的儿童并不一定就是智力迟钝的。由于包括脑瘫、某些神经肌肉问题和早期环境剥夺的不同情况，婴儿和青少年也可能有国际发育迟缓，但当他们长大到足以测量认知程度时，他们在智力迟钝方面的得分并不高。
Poverty is also related to health of the child. In Canada, poverty of children is a very important concern and needs to look after seriously (American Academy of Pediatrics. (2016)). This is because if child is healthy and fit from his/her birth then he will be fit in the future and which helps him to lead a better life. The earnings of family play an important role when we talk about poverty. Children of family with good income can enjoy the lavish life and can have a great opportunity which is not possible for the children whose family earnings is very low (American Academy of Pediatrics. (2016)). Hence, when children become sick due to low income, they are not able to give proper treatment to the children hence, their diseases cannot be cured perfectly. The health of children is not only affected when they are young but also it affects when they get older (American Academy of Pediatrics. (2016)). Hence, it is an important responsibility of health sector to give proper treatment to affected children by working parallelly with other organizations effectively, so that poverty does not affects the health of any children.
Early stage of childhood is very important stage in any child’s life, because in this stage there is development in child’s mind and biological organs which makes a very good impact on his personality in future and in his/her health. Child’s education outcomes, employment and his/her health and fitness depends on child’s birth weight and various bodily and intellectual health situations when a child is born. (Currie & Rossin-Slater, 2015). Development of a child in healthy environment depends upon nurturing, supportive, and stimulating environments as children need both enrichment and safety from excessive pressure. In order to keep child healthy, parents must play an important role to look after and to care their child and we must keep supporting such adults. (Shonkoff, 2016).
儿童早期阶段对任何孩子的一生都是非常重要的阶段，因为在这个阶段，孩子的心智和生物器官都有发展，这对他未来的性格和健康都有非常好的影响。儿童的教育成果、就业和健康状况取决于儿童出生时的体重以及儿童出生时的各种身体和智力健康状况。(Currie & Rossin-Slater, 2015)。在健康的环境中，儿童的发展取决于培养、支持和刺激的环境，因为儿童既需要充实，也需要免于过度压力的安全。为了保持孩子的健康，父母必须在照顾和照顾他们的孩子方面发挥重要作用，我们必须继续支持这些成年人。(人,2016年)。
Child poverty is not only a problem on political level and economical level, but it is a very important issue and needs to be taken care in a very serious manner. There are many consequences of poverty on child health. First and foremost is infant mortality (Daoud, A., Nosrati, E., 2017). It is a very basic outcome of poverty on childhood health. This not affects the levels of wealth but also its distribution. Children who born with lower weight have greater risk that they should die in 1st year of their born (Daoud, A., Nosrati, E., 2017). This is because they have greater chances to hospitalize again, get affected by any illness and because they do not have normal growth. They might also have problems like developmental and neurological. They also have common disease like Asthma because of their low weight and less utilization of health services. Overweight is also an important outcome related to health due to child poverty (Daoud, A., Nosrati, E., 2017). In Canada this problem among children and adults is increasing and needs to be take care of. Injuries also lead to sudden death of children. Because if a child living in family with low income hurts or get injured then he or she does not get proper treatment because they do not have enough funds to pay the bills of hospital (Daoud, A., Nosrati, E., 2017). Hence, they do not get enough treatment and that leads to their death. Poverty also affects the children in other ways like they cannot get grab good opportunities in life because they do not have enough knowledge to compete with the world. They do not get proper education, hence, they cannot able to read and write well and cannot able to speak or present themselves properly (Daoud, A., Nosrati, E., 2017). Poverty also affects the child’s mental and physical health and emotionally by giving them stress.
The maltreatment of children can have negative effects on child’s health and social life for short and long time. which may also include trouble in mental fitness, usage of drug and alcohol, unstable sexual behavior, weight problems, and crook behavior (National Academy of Sciences, (2018)). Socioeconomic popularity (SES) is used to know how effectively any family uses social and economic resources. This term may be estimated by measuring the earnings of family, the education of family and its family prestige. Sometimes researchers combine or use more such measures to estimate standard SES. However, some people have complained that addition of SES – which includes their own family income and education of their parents must be examined one at a time and not all of them at once (Leaf Group Ltd., (2018)). The researchers who These researchers who discovered this said that these resources have various levels of stability through various time period. Hence, it is good to use one of them at once and study the SES and EF relationship. To understand the relationship between SES and EF is very critical because of various reasons. The primary technology of human development involves knowledge the character to character differences in cognition and their association with developmental contexts (Currie & Rossin-Slater, 2015).
虐待儿童可对儿童的健康和社会生活产生短期和长期的负面影响。这可能还包括心理健康问题、使用药物和酒精、不稳定的性行为、体重问题和欺骗行为(国家科学院，(2018))。社会经济知名度(SES)用来了解任何家庭如何有效地使用社会和经济资源。这一术语可以通过衡量家庭的收入、家庭的教育和家庭的声望来估计。有时，研究人员结合或使用更多这样的措施来估计标准社会经济地位。然而，一些人抱怨，社会经济地位的增加——包括他们自己的家庭收入和父母的教育，必须一次检查一个，而不是一次全部(Leaf Group Ltd.，(2018))。发现这一点的研究人员说这些资源在不同时期有不同程度的稳定性。因此，最好同时使用其中的一种方法来研究社会经济地位和经济效益之间的关系。由于种种原因，理解经济地位与经济效益之间的关系至关重要。人类发展的主要技术包括知识、认知中的性格差异及其与发展语境的联系(Currie & Rossin-Slater, 2015)。
From the above discussion, we can say that child poverty is a very crucial problem and need to look after very seriously as children are the important resources and they play a very important role in designing the future of any country. Hence, for the development of any country it is very important to eradicate the poverty completely from it root. We must invest more in health sector so that we can look after and remove child poverty and helps in making the country developed.