1.1 Actuality of the theme
Justification of the choice of research topic. The annual increase in the pace of motorization is causing congestion, road accidents, the use of non-renewable resources and pollution of the atmosphere, which leads to a decline in quality of life and contrary to the concept of sustainable development. Mobility is one of the main needs of the population age 21 and the basis of economic and social development. For work, cultural, educational and household trips, it is often preferable to have a private car that is capable of providing door-to-door transportation. Therefore, it is essential to develop a set of measures for the development of passenger transport, which should become a competitive alternative to cars, providing high-level transport services.
The efficiency of passenger transport systems of modern cities is based on transfer nodes, which are a frame element of the route network. Their development makes it possible to improve the transport process, ensure the quality of service and support the mobility of the population. Today, the operation of most transfer nodes is characterized by significant passenger time costs during the changeover, as well as the accumulation of vehicles at stopping points, which increases the environmental burden and reduces the safety of transport operations. These problems indicate the imperfection of technical and technological forms of interaction of passenger transport.
To ensure the conditions of coordinated work of passenger transport at interchanges, the priority issue is the synchronization of schedules. This direction is promising and is in line with the European Transport Strategy for 2050 presented in the White Paper “Roadmap to a single European transport area -Towards a competitive and RESOURCE-EFFICIENT transport system”.
1.2 The purpose and objectives of the study
The purpose of the study is to improve the interaction of urban passenger transport entities with transfer nodes.
To achieve this goal, the following tasks are solved:
- analyze the current state and substantiate the directions of increasing the efficiency of transfer nodes functioning;
- to identify indicators for assessing the effectiveness of transfer nodes from the standpoint of alignment with the principles of sustainable development and formalize the performance criterion;
- to develop a simulation model of urban transfer nodes functioning and to implement its software implementation;
- to determine the laws of distribution of random values of the duration of technological operations and the parameters of the operation of transfer nodes;
- carry out experimental studies to determine the influence of urban passenger transport interaction timelines on transfer nodes performance;
- to develop a methodology for harmonizing the parameters of urban passenger transport interaction in transfer nodes;
2 The current state of transfer node functioning and directions of their development
2.1 Actual problems of improvement of functioning of transfer nodes
The importance of integrating and combining different types of passenger transport is recognized in many countries around the world. This fact explains the growing interest in the reorganization of the old and the formation of new transfer nodes. On the basis of them intermodal, multimodal transportations are carried out and passengers are transplanted within a certain mode of transport, as well as the introduction of a set of measures to increase their efficiency. Today, there is a tendency to expand the functions of modern transfer nodes: cultural and entertainment, trade, etc. are added to the main transport, and the efficiency of functioning should be considered taking into account economic, social and environmental aspects. There is no clear definition of the concept of “transfer nodes” yet, so the authors provide different options in their works. For example, the publication  uses the following definition: "Elements of the transport system in which the transport process begins, ends with one of the modes of transport or the interaction between main and urban modes of transport and redistribution of passenger flows". Other variants can be found in papers [18-20]. Mykola Pyshkin  formulated in his work the author's definition transfer nodes as follows: "The set of buildings, structures, devices, territory and transport infrastructure in a predetermined radius from a combination of two or more types of public passenger transport". In addition, along with the concept of “transfer nodes”, the following terms are found in the literature: transport and communication node, public and transport node, highly urbanized multifunctional node of urban structure. In each case, refers to an element of the transport infrastructure used by the public to perform relocate between different modes of transport within the network or one of them. The realities of nowadays show that, every day, thousands of passengers deal with the imperfection of public transport, which in many cities cannot be judged to be reliable and fast. Transit trips cause the greatest inconvenience for urban residents due to the presence of maintenance issues at the transfer nodes shown in Table. 2.1.
2.2 Analysis of modern approaches to synchronization of passenger traffic
Coordination of the interaction of modes of transport has certain reserves for improving the efficiency of functioning of passenger transport systems. The main task of synchronizing traffic in transfer nodes is to minimize the waiting time for passengers during a changeover, which in turn reduces their transport fatigue and costs. And the coordinated arrival of vehicles at stopping points will avoid the accumulation of rolling stock, improve safety and reduce pollutant emissions into the environment.
The researches of Ukrainian scientists are devoted to the question of synchronization of schedules of movement of passenger vehicles in transfer nodes during transportation. An example of such research is the article by Zhurba O.O. , the scientist used evolutionary modeling methods, in particular, a genetic algorithm to solve the problem of reconciling urban passenger transport schedules with rail. The author emphasizes that for the implementation of intermodal transportation of passengers on the basis of the concept of "single ticket" it is important to provide a variant of transfer within the regulatory deadlines. The disadvantage of the proposed model can be called the neglect of random variables. Article  proposes slot coordination to coordinate urban passenger traffic.
Most authors in their works only recommend creating consistent schedules of movement and do not offer specific algorithms for solving this problem. The paper clarifies the feasibility of introducing 5-routes to increase the efficiency of urban electricity use in the city of Kiev. Among the necessary organizational and technical tasks for the organization of work, the authors call adaptation of the schedule of urban passenger transport in order to synchronize the pickup / removal of passengers.
3 Theoretical bases of process modeling of the transfer nodes functioning of ground urban passenger transport ............................ 24
3.1 Composition and structure of the transfer nodes ....................... 24
3.2 Substantiation of the criterion for the efficiency of the urban transfer nodes functioning ................... 29
4 Experimental studies of urban passenger transport interaction in transfer nodes ......... 56
4.1 Definition of the distribution laws of random variables that characterize the technological process of transfer nodes functioning ................................. 56
4.2 Development of software implementation of the model and algorithm for optimizing the operation of transfer nodes ................................. 60
5 Results analysis of urban transfer nodes functioning research ....................... 77
5.1 Regression analysis of experimental results ............................... 77
5.2 Method of establishing a rational variant of the interaction parameters in the transfer node ........................... 87
5 Results analysis of urban transfer nodes functioning research
5.1 Regression analysis of experimental results
Automation of the experimental plan is implemented using the developed software, as a result of the calculations set values for the following indicators for each series during the simulation:、
- waiting time for urban passenger transport vehicles in the queue;
- number of urban passenger transport vehicles in the queue (average number of possible conflict situations between vehicles at the stopping point);
- total time spent by vehicles at stopping points in transfer nodes;
- waiting time for passengers;
- valuation of passenger time and urban passenger transport in transfer.
As a result of experimental research, an array of statistical data was obtained. Analyzing it, it is assumed to establish an approximate analytical functional relationship between the input factors and the response function, which allows regression analysis.
6 Conclusion and Outlook
（1) In the dissertation work the scientific and applied problem of efficiency increase of transfer nodes functioning at the expense of the technological process organization is solved. This is possible on the basis of taking into account the socio-economic parameters of interaction, taking into account the stochastic duration of technological operations.
(2) The analysis of scientific and practical approaches to improving the efficiency of transfers has allowed them to be grouped in several areas. These are the improvement of transport and planning decisions, the study of passenger and pedestrian flows, as well as the development of multimodal / intermodal passenger traffic, the organization of passenger transport interaction. Based on the study of theory and practice organization of the transfer nodes determined that it is appropriate to increase the efficiency of their operation by improving technological forms of interaction urban passenger transport, such as coordination of schedules. This direction has reserves for improving the quality of public services by reducing waiting times, as well as avoiding factors that reduce the level of safety of technological operations and increase greenhouse gas emissions.
(3) It is determined that measures to improve the efficiency of transfer operations should be formed on the basis of compliance with the principles of sustainable development. This involves consideration of economic, social, environmental components of their operation and meets the requirements of today. The proposed efficiency criterion includes an estimate of the time spent by passengers and urban passenger transport in transfers with environmental and social constraints. It also provides a comprehensive description of the functioning of transfer services and allows to find resource-efficient solutions in the organization of interaction of urban passenger transport entities.