Chapter One Introduction
1.1 Research Background
Grammar,as an indispensable component of English learning,plays an essentialrole in English learning.English curriculum standards for compulsory education(2022)clearly states that students should achieve the following goals through thecourse study:(1)to develop the language ability;(2)to foster culture awareness;(3)to improve the thinking capacity;(4)to improve the learning ability.Also,it pointsthat students ought to realize basically that grammar is a unity of form,meaning anduse,that is,they are not only able to grasp grammar form and meaning in written andspoken texts but also use grammar knowledge in the context.
Numerous scholars put forward their views and some problems of grammarteaching.Zhou(2016)argued most of the current grammar teaching still followed thetraditional grammar teaching model and grammar teaching was placed in adisadvantage.Cui(2013)believed the problems in English grammar teaching lied inthe disconnection between grammar teaching and the practical use of language.Xiao&Li(2007)proposed that grammar teaching was based on the idea of communicationand combined teaching of language form and language function flexibly.Cheng(2013)believed grammar teaching should take grammar form,grammar meaning andgrammar function into account and help students understand,internalize and producegrammar in context to promote development of their grammar competence.Therefore,grammar teaching should not only combine the form,meaning,and use together forteaching but also promote the development of grammar ability.
1.2 Research Purposes
Teachers hold a great variety of views on junior high school English grammarteaching.Some try their best to instruct and analyze grammar rules while othersignore grammar teaching completely.Both contradict the proposals of Englishcurriculum standards for compulsory education(2022).
From what is discussed above,this research attempts to apply PACE model tojunior high school English grammar teaching and carries out two rounds of actionresearch in order to assist students to improve their grasp of the form-meaning-useintegration of grammar,and also hopes to provide a new teaching perspective forjunior high school English grammar teaching.PACE model is based on inputhypothesis theory,input enhancement,constructivist learning theory and outputhypothesis.Moreover,the data collection is from two perspectives,the qualitativeaspect--interviews,teaching journals and the quantitative aspect--tests.
Therefore,the researcher tries to explore the effects that junior high schoolEnglish grammar teaching based PACE model has on junior high school students’grammar ability and the effective way to apply PACE model to junior high schoolEnglish grammar teaching.
Chapter Two Literature Review
2.1 PACE Model
PACE model was proposed by American linguists Adair-Hauck,B.and Donato,R.in 1994 on the basis of the deductive method and the inductive method.It is ateaching model that emphasizes the combination of form,meaning and use ofgrammar in grammar teaching.
PACE is an abbreviation of presentation,attention,co-construction andextension.P is presentation of linguistic form in a meaningful context.A refers to thespecial processing of target grammar to attract students’attention,such as shadingand bold facing.C refers to the joint construction of target grammar rules.E is theextensive exercise.After students have mastered the rules of the target grammar,theycan creatively use the target grammar in a meaningful context.
In short,the key features of PACE are that students are immersed in themeaningful context to learn grammar structures.Besides,teachers and studentsco-construct grammar rules through negotiation and communication,conducive to thedevelopment of their individual ability.
2.2 Grammar and Grammar Teaching
Sentences can’t be produced without words.Any correct sentences can’t becreated without grammar.It is obvious that the role of grammar in second languagelearning can not be overlooked and the distinct cognition of grammar will also bringabout the differences in grammar teaching.
2.2.1 The definition of grammar
There is no consistent definition of grammar.Two types of views on grammarcome out.
The first is to view grammar as static language rules with emphasis on thefunction of language form and structure.For this view,numerous scholars put forwardtheir definition.
Young(1984)pointed out that grammar is a system of language rules andlanguage constitutes a set of words and grammar rules.Ur(2009)argued thatgrammar can be defined as a way to combine words into longer meaningful semanticunits.One definition of Merriam Websters Collegiate Dictionary written by Webster(2003)is that grammar is a system of rules to define the syntactic structure oflanguage.Chomsky(1965)proposed the concept of grammar as a system of rules todetermine the formation,use and understanding of sentences.
Chapter Three Theoretical Foundation ............................. 21
3.1 Input Hypothesis ............................... 21
3.1.1 Basic views of the input hypothesis ........................................... 21
3.1.2 Application of noticing hypothesis to the present study ............ 22
Chapter Four Research Methodology ............................... 29
4.1 Research Questions ........................................ 29
4.2 Research Participants ............................ 29
4.3 Instruments ..................................... 30
Chapter Five Results and Discussion ............................... 53
5.1 Results of Tests ..................................... 53
5.1.1 Results of pre-test before action research .......................... 53
5.1.2 Results of post-test after action research ........................... 55
Chapter Five Results and Discussion
5.1 Results of Tests
The analysis of the tests includes the analysis of pretest and post test.The formeris to identify whether the control class and experiment class are at the same level andto provide reference for the identification of the problems.The latter is to investigatethe effects of grammar teaching based on PACE model on students’ability.
5.1.1 Results of pre-test before action research
The pre-test was carried out to investigate whether CC and EC were at the samelevel.It provided a strong basis for the effects of grammar teaching based on PACEmodel.It is of necessity to adopt Independent Samples T-test to ensure whether thereare significant distinctions between CC and EC before the whole action research.What follows is the result.
Chapter Six Conclusion
6.1 Major Findings
The research was carried out for 12 weeks,two rounds of action research,toaddress two research questions:(1).What effects does grammar teaching based onPACE model have on junior high school students’grammar ability?(2).How canjunior high school grammar teaching based on PACE model be applied effectively?
Tests,interviews and teaching journals are employed as researching tools,amongwhich tests are employed to explore the effects of grammar teaching based on PACEmodel on students’ability.Interviews and teaching journals are used as thesupplement tools to explore the effective ways of applying PACE model to junior highschool grammar teaching.Some major findings have been yielded in the research withthe help of SPSS.26.
To begin with,in regard to the first research question,grammar teaching basedon PACE model exerted positive effects on student’s grammar ability and its threegrammar dimensions.Also,students’grammar ability has improved significantly aftertwo rounds of action research.As discussed in the previous chapter,EC adoptinggrammar teaching based on PACE model improved significantly in their grammarability and three dimensions.Students’ability to understand grammar form andmeaning made much progress and their ability to use grammar made much moreprogress compared with the other two dimensions.Grammar teaching based on PACEmodel is effective in improving students’ability to understand grammar form andmeaning and much more effective in improving students’ability to use grammar,namely,it proves an effective way of applying PACE model to junior Englishgrammar teaching.The reasons why grammar teaching based on PACE model was more effective on grammar use may be as follows: