Chapter One Literature Review
1.1 Research on Intercultural Communication Competence
1.1.1 Definition of ICC
With the development of globalization,“intercultural communication”hasattracted wide attention in the academic circles at home and abroad.Many scholarshave put forward different opinions on the definition of ICC.Chen Guoming(1996)defined it as“the ability to effectively and appropriately complete communicativebehaviors to obtain expected responses in a specific environment”.Lusting andKoester(1996)believe that successful intercultural communication is appropriate andeffective behavior in a certain situation,which requires rich knowledge,reasonablemotivation and skilled actions.Spitzberg(1997)proposed:“The determination of ICCis to determine whether a certain behavior is appropriate and effective in a particularenvironment.”He believed that the communicative environment was an importantfactor in determining ICC.Wiseman(2003)defines ICC as“the knowledge,motivation and skills required to communicate appropriately and effectively withmembers from other cultures”.UNESCO has put forward the conceptual andoperational framework of intercultural competence,which holds that interculturalcompetence includes the general and specific cultural knowledge to deal withproblems,the establishment of inclusive attitudes in intercultural communication,andthe communication skills needed to make use of knowledge and attitudes.(Dasli,2018(2):1-18)
It can be concluded that ICC includes three basic levels:knowledge,emotion and behavior.It is generally recognized that ICC refers to people with different culturalbackgrounds who show intercultural sensitivity,flexibility and adaptability in theprocess of intercultural communicative interaction according to the requirements ofthe communicative situation.It can be divided from the emotional,cognitive andbehavioral levels.Although different scholars and organizations have different viewson the elements of ICC,the common elements can be concluded from the elementslisted by them,namely cognition,emotion and behavior(Hu Wenzhong,2005(5):324-327).
1.2 Research on Intercultural Communication Competence Scales
Intercultural Communication Competence Scale is a series of descriptions ofpeople’s intercultural communication competence,as well as a measuring tool todiagnose people’s intercultural communication competence.The scale consists of aset of measurable ability results,which are used to measure the concerned constructs.The so-called construct is the definition of the ability to be measured for the purposeof assessment.The scale can be used by the subjects themselves to judge their ownbehavior performance level,but also can be used by the outside world to evaluate thelevel of the corresponding ability of the subjects.
1.2.1 Different ICC Scales
The study of intercultural communicative competence scale is an important aspect of the study of intercultural communicative competence,which emerged in the1970s.After about half a century of development,foreign scholars have developedmore than 100 assessment tools for intercultural communication competence,including different forms of scales.However,the quality of the scale is not uniform,itis difficult to classify.Many scales have weak theoretical foundations and do notprovide evidence of sufficient construct validity.(Dyne,2014)
Chapter Two Research Methods
2.1 Research Questions
Based on the previous researches on ICC scale construction，the thesis aims toconstruct a proper scale for a specific group:international volunteers.At beginning,the researcher put forward three questions:
1.Based on literature review and interview of international volunteers,how doesthis thesis construct an ICC scale for international volunteers?
2.Based on Classic Test Theory,what is the reliability and validity of the ICCscale with the feature of international volunteers?
3.Based on Item Response Theory,what is the reliability and validity of the ICCscale with the feature of international volunteers?
To answer these three questions,the thesis designs three studies to answer thequestion posed above.
2.2 Research Participants
The participants of this research are volunteers with international volunteeringexperience,intercultural communication experts and volunteer training instructors.
Here are the specific participants of each study:
The international volunteers interviewed in Study One are university studentswho participated in the G20 and the World Internet Conference,and they are all fromHangzhou Dianzi University.
The international volunteers tested by IVICCS are form three colleges inHangzhou.In Study two and Study Two,156 and 232 international volunteers arecome from Hangzhou Dianzi University,Zhejiang Vocational and Technical Collegeof Tourism and Zhejiang Construction Vocational and Technical College,which arepre-recruited volunteers of the Asian Games and had received the first stage ofvolunteer training for the Asian Games.Twenty-five participants had volunteer experience in serving the G20 and the World Internet Conference.
All intercultural communication experts in Study One are foreign languageteachers who have taught in universities for more than 10 years and have richtheoretical knowledge and practical experience in intercultural communication.Among them,2 teachers had experience in scale construction.
All international volunteer training instructors in Study Two have more than 5years of volunteer training experience and have undertaken volunteer training work inthe 19thAsian Games.
Chapter Three Research Findings...........................................33
3.1 Study One:Construction of Initial Scale.................................33
3.1.1 ICC Model Selection...................................33
3.1.2 Establishment of a Descriptor Pool..............................36
Chapter Four Conclusion........................................55
4.1 Research Results...............................................55
4.2 Research Limitations.......................................56
Chapter Three Research Findings
3.1 Study One:Construction of Initial Scale
Study One has three steps:ICC Model Selection,Establishment of a DescriptorPool and Expert Interview.
3.1.1 ICC Model Selection
To describe the ICC of international volunteers and construct the scale,it isnecessary to define the ICC of international volunteers first and limit it within anoperable range.By analyzing the core theoretical models of ICC at home and abroad,this section has found a suitable theoretical foundation for the thesis and makes itpossible to describe the ICC of international volunteers scientifically and objectively.
Combined with the literature review in the first chapter of the thesis,from theperspective of assessment of ICC,some of the above models have clear segmentationof elements and can be directly used as the construct basis of assessment tools.However,in some models,the relationship between elements and the developmentprocess of elements are complex,so it is difficult to make assessment tools based onthis structure.
Chapter Four Conclusion
4.1 Research Results
At present,there are few studies on ICC scale of international volunteers at homeand abroad,so the thesis has made an attempt,including three studies.Based on theintercultural communication theory of Chen and Starosta,IVICCS is constructed,andthe following findings are obtained.
Based on the literature review,the thesis concludes the method of constructingthe ICC scale with good reliability and validity.It mainly consists of two stages:theconstruction of the scale and the reliability and validity test of the scale.
For the first stage,this thesis designs
Study One.Study One consists of three steps to construct IVICCS:(1)The ICC Model ofChen and Starosta for IVICCS was selected through expert discussion to lay atheoretical foundation for the scale construction.(2)Collect,edit and classifydescriptors through literature method and interview method,and initially form adescriptor pool.(3)Invite experts to modify the initially formed descriptors andestablish the initial scale(IVICCS-47)with high content validity.It contains 17descriptors in intercultural awareness,14 descriptors in intercultural effectiveness and16 descriptors in intercultural sensitivity.
Study One’s results answer the research question one“Based on literature reviewand interview，how to construct an ICC scale for international volunteers?